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Table 1 Medicinal plants (53 spp.) used in the Canhane village (2007- 2008)

From: Ethnobotanical survey in Canhane village, district of Massingir, Mozambique: medicinal plants and traditional knowledge

Scientific name* Local and Common name Habit Part used Main Diseases Administration Route Method of preparation
Acanthaceae       
Blepharis diversispina (Nees) C.B. Clarke Nchachacha wa mananga Velvet bushwillow Sub-shrub or Herb Fruits Hemorrhoids Topic Burning and grinding
     Cough Oral Grinding and maceration
    Roots Hemorrhoids Topic Burning and grinding
    Seeds Wounds Topic Burning and grinding
     Fontanel hardening Topic Burning and grinding
Aloaceae       
Aloe marlothii A. Berger Mhanga Flat-flowered aloe, Mountain aloe Herb Leaves (sap) Biliary disorder; Malaria Oral Direct
     Wounds Topic Direct
    Roots; Leaves Toothache Oral Direct; Decoction
     Liver disorder Oral Decoction
Aloe zebrina Baker Ximhangani Small maculate aloe Herb Leaves (sap) Eye treatments Eyewash Direct; Maceration
     Wounds Topic Direct
    Roots Liver disorder Oral Decoction
Amaryllidaceae       
Crinum stuhlmannii Baker Khonwua Candy-striped crinum Herb Stem Swellings Topic Decoction
Anacardiaceae       
Lannea schweinfurthii (Engl.) Engl. Xivombo nkanyi, xihumbunkany, munganikomo False marula Tree Bark Anemia; Diarrhea; Stomach disorders Oral Decoction
    Stem Malaria Oral Decoction
Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. Nkanyi Marula Tree Bark Anemia Oral Infusion
     Diarrhea; Stomach disorders Oral Scraping and decoction
     Hemorrhoids Topic Decoction and vapors; Scraping
    Stem Anemia Oral Maceration
Apocynaceae       
Sarcostemma viminale (L.) R. Br. Neta, netha Caustic vine Herb (succulent) Root Stomach ache Oral Decoction
    Sap Eye treatments Eyewash Direct
Secamone parvifolia (Oliv.) Bullock Nyokani, nyoka ya yitsongo Milimili Shrub Roots Deworming; Rheumatism Oral Decoction
     Epilepsy Oral Decoction; Heating; Grinding and water
     Stomach ache Oral Crushing and water; Decoction
    Stem; Roots Varicose veins Topic Decoction
Asparagaceae       
Asparagus africanus Lam. Kwangwa la tilo Bush asparagus Shrub Roots Stomach disorders Oral Decoction
    Whole plant Stomach disorders Oral Grinding and maceration
Balanitaceae       
Balanites maughamii Sprague Nulu, nulo Green thorn, Y-thorned Tree Roots Malaria Oral Scraping and infusion
Bombacaceae       
Adansonia digitata L. Ximuwa, ximuhu, ximuvo Baobab Tree Bark Debility Bath Maceration
    Roots Diarrhea Oral Maceration
Capparaceae       
Boscia albitrunca (Burch.) Gilg & Gilg-Ben. Nxunkutso, xikutse, xikutso, xikutsu, xukutsi Shepherd's tree Shrub or tree Leaves Diarrhea; Hemorrhoids Topic Crushing and infusion
Boscia foetida Schinz subsp. filipes (Gilg) Lötter Xicutso Bushveld shepherds tree, sandveld shepherds, tree smelly shepherds tree Shrub Roots Stomach and kidney purification Oral Infusion
Maerua edulis (Gilg & Gilg-Ben. ) De Wolf Xikolwa, xikolwe Blue-leaved bush cherry Suffrutex or Shrub Roots Women fertility, Oral Decoction; Infusion
     Stomach ache Oral Decoction
Maerua parvifolia Pax Nongonoko Dwarf bush-cherry, small-leaved maerua Shrub Roots Diarrhea; Stomach ache and purification Oral Decoction
Celastraceae       
Loeseneriella crenata (Klotzsch) Wilczek ex N.Hallé Lorho, nhlohlo Valley paddle-pod Climbing shrub Roots Epilepsy; Stomach ache Oral Decoction
     Malnutrition Oral; Vaccine Burning and decoction; Grinding; Scraping and burning
    Stem Antialergic Necklace Direct
Gymnosporia heterophylla (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Loes. Xivambulani, xichangwa, libatzondze Angular-stemmed spikethorn, common spikethorn Shrub or Small tree Leaves Swellings Oral Decoction
    Roots Internal clots Oral Decoction
     Stabbing heart Oral; Topic Burning and grinding; Decoction; Scraping
Combretaceae       
Combretum imberbe Wawra Mondzo Leadwood Shrub or tree Bark Toothache Oral Decoction
    NA Stomach ache Oral Burning and watering
Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC. Nsunsu, nkonola, kondla, mogonono Silver cluster-leaf, silver terminalia Tree Branches (bark) Burns; Wounds Topic Drying and grinding
    Leaves Stomach ache Oral Decoction
    Roots Diarrhea Oral Decoction
     Burns; Wounds Topic Drying and grinding; Scraping
Cucurbitaceae       
Cucumis metuliferus E.Mey. ex Naudin Dema Herb Roots Appendicitis; Stomach ache Oral Decoction
Cucumis zeyheri Sond. Xiyakayani, xihakahani, chihacaiane Wild cucumber Herb Fruits Stomach disorders Oral Drying and grinding
     Laxative Enema Decanting and filtration; Grinding; Maceration
    Leaves Dysentery; Laxative Oral Decoction; Maceration
Dracaenaceae       
Sansevieria hyacinthoides (L.) Druce Xikwenga xa kwhati Mother-in-law tongue Herb Leaves Contusions; Hemorrhoids; Rheumatism; Swellings; Topic Decoction and vapors; Heating
    Roots Women fertility Oral Crushing and water
     Epilepsy Oral Decoction
Ebenaceae       
Euclea racemosa Murr. Mulala, nhlangulo Bush guarri, glossy guarri river guarri Shrub Roots Caries; Toothache Oral Direct (chewing)
     Wounds Topic Peeling and grinding
    Stem Wounds Bath Cutting and water
Euphorbiaceae       
Acalypha indica L. Ntlambissana Copperleaf, indian nettle Herb Leaves Hemorrhoids Oral; Topic Crushing; Decoction
     Intestinal lavage Enema Grinding and decoction; Maceration
     Laxative Oral; Topic Crushing; Infusion
    Roots Laxative Oral Decoction; Infusion
    Stem Hemorrhoids Oral Decoction
Androstachys johnsonii Prain Cimbiri Lebombo-ironwood, simbi tree Tree NA NA NA Kept in secret by Hitch doctors
Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Voigt Nsangasi, sangasi Snowberry tree, whiteberry bush Shrub Branches Abcesses Topic Heating (with castor oil on top)
Spirostachys africana Sond. Xilangamahlo, dzanvori African Sandal, tamboti Tree Bark Debility (HIV-AIDS) Oral Decoction (in milk)
    Sap Ear and eye treatments Topic Direct
    Stem Burns, Wounds Topic Burning; Grinding; Scraping
Fabaceae       
Cassia abbreviata Oliv. Lumanyama Longtail cassia, sjambok pod Tree Fruits Eye treatments Eyewash Heating and grinding
    Leaves, roots and stems (mix) Stomach ache Oral Infusion
    Roots (bark) Diarrhea Oral Decoction
    Stem Malaria; Stomach ache Oral Decoction
Colophospermum mopane (Benth.) Léonard Gungwa, nxanati, nxanatsi, mesanya Mopane Shrub or Tree Bark Bleeding; Dysentery; Stomach ache Oral Decoction
    Leaves Stomach ache Oral Crushing; Direct (chewing); Infusion
     Dysentery Oral Grinding and water
    Roots Stomach ache Oral Decoction
    Stem; Stem and leaves (mix) Stomach ache; Diarrhea Oral Decoction; Infusion
Dalbergia melanoxylon Guill. & Perr. Xipaladze, xiphalanzi African blackwood Shrub or Tree Roots Toothache Oral Decoction
Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn Ndzenga, ntsenga, ndzhenga Small-leaved sickle bush Shrub or Small tree Roots Skeletal disorders Topic; Vaccine Burning and grinding; Scraping
    Roots (sap) Laxative Oral Direct
Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Skeels Xivurayi Dwarf elephant's root Shrub or Sub-shrub Roots Anemia Oral Cutting and maceration; Decoction and grinding
     Pain killer, Fever Oral Decoction
Guibourtia conjugata (Bolle) J. Léonard Ntsotso Small copalwood, small false mopane Tree Leaves Stomach disorders Oral Crushing and water
    Roots Intense cough Oral Decoction
Malvaceae       
Gossypium herbaceum L. Thonji ra khwati, thondji la khwati, nuba Wild cotton Sub-shrub Fruits Ear treatment Topic Direct
    Roots Vomits control Oral Decoction
     Tonic Oral Decoction
Hibiscus meyeri Harv. Muxaxayevu, kongowa, kloklonya, muchachanyevo Dainty white wild hibiscus, lebombo hibiscus Herb Roots Tonic, Stabbing heart Oral Decoction
Meliaceae       
Trichilia emetica Vahl subsp. emetica Nkuhlu Natal-mahogany Tree Branches (sap) Stomach ache Oral Direct (chewing)
    Roots Contraceptive Oral Infusion
Menispermaceae       
Tinospora caffra (Miers) Troupin Nyokani ya yikulo, nyoka ya yikulu Orange grape creeper Creeper Leaves Paralysis and Children diseases Oral Decoction
    Roots Epilepsy; Pain killer;; Paralysis and Children diseases; Stomach ache Oral Decoction; Infusion
    Stem Epilepsy Oral Decoction
Moraceae       
Ficus sycomorus L. Nkuwa Common cluster fig, sycamore fig Tree Sap Ringworm Topic Direct
Olacaceae       
Olax dissitiflora Oliv. Nkondzomhuntana, ximanimurhi, nondzomuntana Small sourplum, small-fruit olax Shrub or Tree Leaves Wounds Topic Grinding
Ximenia americana L. Ntsengele, matsengele, tsingela Blue sourplum, small sourplum Shrub or Tree Roots Antiabortifacients, HIV-AIDS, Menstrual cycle, Stabbing heart, Stomach ache, Women fertility, Oral Decoction
     Wounds Topic Drying and grinding
Orchidaceae       
Ansellia africana Lindl. Phakama Leopard orchid, monkey sugarcane, mopane orchid, tree orchid Herb (Epiphyte) Fruits Cough, Rheumatism Necklace, Bath Direct; Heating and grinding
    Fruits and stem (mix) Cough Oral Decoction
Poaceae       
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Rintlhangi, nulangi-rithangi Bermuda grass Herb Leaves Antiabortifacients Oral Grinding and water
Ptaeroxylaceae       
Ptaeroxylon obliquum Radlk. Ndzharhi Sneezewood Shrub or Tree Sap Stomach ache Oral Direct
Rubiaceae       
Gardenia volkensii K. Schum. Xitsalala Bushveld, savanna or woodland gardenia, transvaal gardenia Shrub or Tree Leaves Stomach ache Oral Grinding and water
Rutaceae       
Zanthoxylum humile (E.A. Bruce) P. G. Waterman Manungwani, manongwane, manungwame Hairy knobwood Shrub Roots Mouth anesthetic; Toothache Oral; Topic Decoction; Peeling, grinding, drying. and grinding
     Wounds and Burns Topic Peeling, grinding, drying. and grinding
    Stem Pain killer Vaccine Burning
Sapotaceae       
Manilkara mochisia (Baker) Dubard N'whamba, wambo, n'wambu Lowveld milkberry Shrub or tree Roots Toothache Oral; Topic Decoction; Maceration and scrapping
     Ear treatments Topic Direct
Strychnaceae       
Strychnos madagascariensis Spreng. ex Baker Nkwankwa Black monkey-orange, hairy-leaved monkey-orange Shrub or Tree Roots Fever Oral Peeling and decoction
Sterculiaceae       
Hermannia micropetala Harv. & Sond. Sindzambita, xisindzambita Cactus wine, wild grape Shrub or Sub-shrub Fruits Laxative Topic Juice
    Leaves Laxative Topic Juice
    Roots Fontanel hardening Topic Burning and oil
Tiliaceae       
Grewia flavescens Juss. var. flavescens Nsihana, nsiphane, dzuwa wa mananga Donkeyberry, Sandpaper raisin, Rough-leaved raisin Climbing shrub Leaves Stomach disorders NA NA
Grewia hexamita Burret Nsihana, nsihani, nsihane, nsiphane Giant grewia, Giant raisin Shrub or Tree Roots Menstrual cycle, Women Fertility Oral Infusion
    Sap Post-delivery cleaning Oral Direct
Grewia monticola Sond. Nsihana, nsihani, nsiphane Grey grewia, Grey raisin, Silver raisin Shrub or Tree Fruits Ear treatments Topic Heating and grinding
    Fruits; Seeds Wounds Topic Heating and grinding
    Roots Diarrhea Oral Decoction
    Stem Swellings Topic Heating
Vitaceae       
Cissus cornifolia (Bak.) Planch. Mphesani, mphensana Ivy-grape Shrub or Tree Roots Burns; Wounds Topic Crushing
Cissus quadrangularis L. Covoloti, Covoluti Cactus vine, wild grape Creeper (succulent) Roots Ear treatments Topic Warming and squeezing
    Sap Ear treatments; Wounds Topic Direct
    Seeds Antidote; Wounds Topic Grinding
    Stem Sprains; Swellings Topic Heating
     Cough Oral Cutting and decoction
     Antidote; Wounds Topic Crushing and water
  1. Family, scientific, local and common names, growth habit, parts used, main diseases, administration route and method of preparation.
  2. *Scientific names are according to [2228]
  3. NA = Not Available