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Table 1 Medicinal plants (53 spp.) used in the Canhane village (2007- 2008)

From: Ethnobotanical survey in Canhane village, district of Massingir, Mozambique: medicinal plants and traditional knowledge

Scientific name* Local and Common name Habit Part used Main Diseases Administration Route Method of preparation
Acanthaceae       
Blepharis diversispina (Nees) C.B. Clarke Nchachacha wa mananga
Velvet bushwillow
Sub-shrub or Herb Fruits Hemorrhoids Topic Burning and grinding
     Cough Oral Grinding and maceration
    Roots Hemorrhoids Topic Burning and grinding
    Seeds Wounds Topic Burning and grinding
     Fontanel hardening Topic Burning and grinding
Aloaceae       
Aloe marlothii A. Berger Mhanga
Flat-flowered aloe, Mountain aloe
Herb Leaves (sap) Biliary disorder; Malaria Oral Direct
     Wounds Topic Direct
    Roots; Leaves Toothache Oral Direct; Decoction
     Liver disorder Oral Decoction
Aloe zebrina Baker Ximhangani
Small maculate aloe
Herb Leaves (sap) Eye treatments Eyewash Direct; Maceration
     Wounds Topic Direct
    Roots Liver disorder Oral Decoction
Amaryllidaceae       
Crinum stuhlmannii Baker Khonwua
Candy-striped crinum
Herb Stem Swellings Topic Decoction
Anacardiaceae       
Lannea schweinfurthii (Engl.) Engl. Xivombo nkanyi, xihumbunkany, munganikomo
False marula
Tree Bark Anemia; Diarrhea; Stomach disorders Oral Decoction
    Stem Malaria Oral Decoction
Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. Nkanyi
Marula
Tree Bark Anemia Oral Infusion
     Diarrhea; Stomach disorders Oral Scraping and decoction
     Hemorrhoids Topic Decoction and vapors; Scraping
    Stem Anemia Oral Maceration
Apocynaceae       
Sarcostemma viminale (L.) R. Br. Neta, netha
Caustic vine
Herb (succulent) Root Stomach ache Oral Decoction
    Sap Eye treatments Eyewash Direct
Secamone parvifolia (Oliv.) Bullock Nyokani, nyoka ya yitsongo
Milimili
Shrub Roots Deworming; Rheumatism Oral Decoction
     Epilepsy Oral Decoction; Heating; Grinding and water
     Stomach ache Oral Crushing and water; Decoction
    Stem; Roots Varicose veins Topic Decoction
Asparagaceae       
Asparagus africanus Lam. Kwangwa la tilo
Bush asparagus
Shrub Roots Stomach disorders Oral Decoction
    Whole plant Stomach disorders Oral Grinding and maceration
Balanitaceae       
Balanites maughamii Sprague Nulu, nulo
Green thorn, Y-thorned
Tree Roots Malaria Oral Scraping and infusion
Bombacaceae       
Adansonia digitata L. Ximuwa, ximuhu, ximuvo
Baobab
Tree Bark Debility Bath Maceration
    Roots Diarrhea Oral Maceration
Capparaceae       
Boscia albitrunca (Burch.) Gilg & Gilg-Ben. Nxunkutso, xikutse, xikutso, xikutsu, xukutsi
Shepherd's tree
Shrub or tree Leaves Diarrhea; Hemorrhoids Topic Crushing and infusion
Boscia foetida Schinz subsp. filipes (Gilg) Lötter Xicutso
Bushveld shepherds tree, sandveld shepherds, tree smelly shepherds tree
Shrub Roots Stomach and kidney purification Oral Infusion
Maerua edulis (Gilg & Gilg-Ben. ) De Wolf Xikolwa, xikolwe
Blue-leaved bush cherry
Suffrutex or Shrub Roots Women fertility, Oral Decoction; Infusion
     Stomach ache Oral Decoction
Maerua parvifolia Pax Nongonoko
Dwarf bush-cherry, small-leaved maerua
Shrub Roots Diarrhea; Stomach ache and purification Oral Decoction
Celastraceae       
Loeseneriella crenata (Klotzsch) Wilczek ex N.Hallé Lorho, nhlohlo
Valley paddle-pod
Climbing shrub Roots Epilepsy; Stomach ache Oral Decoction
     Malnutrition Oral; Vaccine Burning and decoction; Grinding; Scraping and burning
    Stem Antialergic Necklace Direct
Gymnosporia heterophylla (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Loes. Xivambulani, xichangwa, libatzondze
Angular-stemmed spikethorn, common spikethorn
Shrub or Small tree Leaves Swellings Oral Decoction
    Roots Internal clots Oral Decoction
     Stabbing heart Oral; Topic Burning and grinding; Decoction; Scraping
Combretaceae       
Combretum imberbe Wawra Mondzo
Leadwood
Shrub or tree Bark Toothache Oral Decoction
    NA Stomach ache Oral Burning and watering
Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC. Nsunsu, nkonola, kondla, mogonono
Silver cluster-leaf, silver terminalia
Tree Branches (bark) Burns; Wounds Topic Drying and grinding
    Leaves Stomach ache Oral Decoction
    Roots Diarrhea Oral Decoction
     Burns; Wounds Topic Drying and grinding; Scraping
Cucurbitaceae       
Cucumis metuliferus E.Mey. ex Naudin Dema Herb Roots Appendicitis; Stomach ache Oral Decoction
Cucumis zeyheri Sond. Xiyakayani, xihakahani, chihacaiane
Wild cucumber
Herb Fruits Stomach disorders Oral Drying and grinding
     Laxative Enema Decanting and filtration; Grinding; Maceration
    Leaves Dysentery; Laxative Oral Decoction; Maceration
Dracaenaceae       
Sansevieria hyacinthoides (L.) Druce Xikwenga xa kwhati
Mother-in-law tongue
Herb Leaves Contusions; Hemorrhoids; Rheumatism; Swellings; Topic Decoction and vapors; Heating
    Roots Women fertility Oral Crushing and water
     Epilepsy Oral Decoction
Ebenaceae       
Euclea racemosa Murr. Mulala, nhlangulo
Bush guarri, glossy guarri river guarri
Shrub Roots Caries; Toothache Oral Direct (chewing)
     Wounds Topic Peeling and grinding
    Stem Wounds Bath Cutting and water
Euphorbiaceae       
Acalypha indica L. Ntlambissana
Copperleaf, indian nettle
Herb Leaves Hemorrhoids Oral; Topic Crushing; Decoction
     Intestinal lavage Enema Grinding and decoction; Maceration
     Laxative Oral; Topic Crushing; Infusion
    Roots Laxative Oral Decoction; Infusion
    Stem Hemorrhoids Oral Decoction
Androstachys johnsonii Prain Cimbiri
Lebombo-ironwood, simbi tree
Tree NA NA NA Kept in secret by Hitch doctors
Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Voigt Nsangasi, sangasi
Snowberry tree, whiteberry bush
Shrub Branches Abcesses Topic Heating (with castor oil on top)
Spirostachys africana Sond. Xilangamahlo, dzanvori
African Sandal, tamboti
Tree Bark Debility (HIV-AIDS) Oral Decoction (in milk)
    Sap Ear and eye treatments Topic Direct
    Stem Burns, Wounds Topic Burning; Grinding; Scraping
Fabaceae       
Cassia abbreviata Oliv. Lumanyama
Longtail cassia, sjambok pod
Tree Fruits Eye treatments Eyewash Heating and grinding
    Leaves, roots and stems (mix) Stomach ache Oral Infusion
    Roots (bark) Diarrhea Oral Decoction
    Stem Malaria; Stomach ache Oral Decoction
Colophospermum mopane (Benth.) Léonard Gungwa, nxanati, nxanatsi, mesanya
Mopane
Shrub or Tree Bark Bleeding; Dysentery; Stomach ache Oral Decoction
    Leaves Stomach ache Oral Crushing; Direct (chewing); Infusion
     Dysentery Oral Grinding and water
    Roots Stomach ache Oral Decoction
    Stem; Stem and leaves (mix) Stomach ache; Diarrhea Oral Decoction; Infusion
Dalbergia melanoxylon Guill. & Perr. Xipaladze, xiphalanzi
African blackwood
Shrub or Tree Roots Toothache Oral Decoction
Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn Ndzenga, ntsenga, ndzhenga
Small-leaved sickle bush
Shrub or Small tree Roots Skeletal disorders Topic; Vaccine Burning and grinding; Scraping
    Roots (sap) Laxative Oral Direct
Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Skeels Xivurayi
Dwarf elephant's root
Shrub or Sub-shrub Roots Anemia Oral Cutting and maceration; Decoction and grinding
     Pain killer, Fever Oral Decoction
Guibourtia conjugata (Bolle) J. Léonard Ntsotso
Small copalwood, small false mopane
Tree Leaves Stomach disorders Oral Crushing and water
    Roots Intense cough Oral Decoction
Malvaceae       
Gossypium herbaceum L. Thonji ra khwati, thondji la khwati, nuba
Wild cotton
Sub-shrub Fruits Ear treatment Topic Direct
    Roots Vomits control Oral Decoction
     Tonic Oral Decoction
Hibiscus meyeri Harv. Muxaxayevu, kongowa, kloklonya, muchachanyevo
Dainty white wild hibiscus, lebombo hibiscus
Herb Roots Tonic, Stabbing heart Oral Decoction
Meliaceae       
Trichilia emetica Vahl subsp. emetica Nkuhlu
Natal-mahogany
Tree Branches (sap) Stomach ache Oral Direct (chewing)
    Roots Contraceptive Oral Infusion
Menispermaceae       
Tinospora caffra (Miers) Troupin Nyokani ya yikulo, nyoka ya yikulu
Orange grape creeper
Creeper Leaves Paralysis and Children diseases Oral Decoction
    Roots Epilepsy; Pain killer;; Paralysis and Children diseases; Stomach ache Oral Decoction; Infusion
    Stem Epilepsy Oral Decoction
Moraceae       
Ficus sycomorus L. Nkuwa
Common cluster fig, sycamore fig
Tree Sap Ringworm Topic Direct
Olacaceae       
Olax dissitiflora Oliv. Nkondzomhuntana, ximanimurhi, nondzomuntana
Small sourplum, small-fruit olax
Shrub or Tree Leaves Wounds Topic Grinding
Ximenia americana L. Ntsengele, matsengele, tsingela
Blue sourplum, small sourplum
Shrub or Tree Roots Antiabortifacients, HIV-AIDS, Menstrual cycle, Stabbing heart, Stomach ache, Women fertility, Oral Decoction
     Wounds Topic Drying and grinding
Orchidaceae       
Ansellia africana Lindl. Phakama
Leopard orchid, monkey sugarcane, mopane orchid, tree orchid
Herb (Epiphyte) Fruits Cough, Rheumatism Necklace, Bath Direct; Heating and grinding
    Fruits and stem (mix) Cough Oral Decoction
Poaceae       
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Rintlhangi, nulangi-rithangi
Bermuda grass
Herb Leaves Antiabortifacients Oral Grinding and water
Ptaeroxylaceae       
Ptaeroxylon obliquum Radlk. Ndzharhi
Sneezewood
Shrub or Tree Sap Stomach ache Oral Direct
Rubiaceae       
Gardenia volkensii K. Schum. Xitsalala
Bushveld, savanna or woodland gardenia, transvaal gardenia
Shrub or Tree Leaves Stomach ache Oral Grinding and water
Rutaceae       
Zanthoxylum humile (E.A. Bruce) P. G. Waterman Manungwani, manongwane, manungwame
Hairy knobwood
Shrub Roots Mouth anesthetic; Toothache Oral; Topic Decoction; Peeling, grinding, drying. and grinding
     Wounds and Burns Topic Peeling, grinding, drying. and grinding
    Stem Pain killer Vaccine Burning
Sapotaceae       
Manilkara mochisia (Baker) Dubard N'whamba, wambo, n'wambu
Lowveld milkberry
Shrub or tree Roots Toothache Oral; Topic Decoction; Maceration and scrapping
     Ear treatments Topic Direct
Strychnaceae       
Strychnos madagascariensis Spreng. ex Baker Nkwankwa
Black monkey-orange, hairy-leaved monkey-orange
Shrub or Tree Roots Fever Oral Peeling and decoction
Sterculiaceae       
Hermannia micropetala Harv. & Sond. Sindzambita, xisindzambita
Cactus wine, wild grape
Shrub or Sub-shrub Fruits Laxative Topic Juice
    Leaves Laxative Topic Juice
    Roots Fontanel hardening Topic Burning and oil
Tiliaceae       
Grewia flavescens Juss. var. flavescens Nsihana, nsiphane, dzuwa wa mananga
Donkeyberry, Sandpaper raisin, Rough-leaved raisin
Climbing shrub Leaves Stomach disorders NA NA
Grewia hexamita Burret Nsihana, nsihani, nsihane, nsiphane
Giant grewia, Giant raisin
Shrub or Tree Roots Menstrual cycle, Women Fertility Oral Infusion
    Sap Post-delivery cleaning Oral Direct
Grewia monticola Sond. Nsihana, nsihani, nsiphane
Grey grewia, Grey raisin, Silver raisin
Shrub or Tree Fruits Ear treatments Topic Heating and grinding
    Fruits; Seeds Wounds Topic Heating and grinding
    Roots Diarrhea Oral Decoction
    Stem Swellings Topic Heating
Vitaceae       
Cissus cornifolia (Bak.) Planch. Mphesani, mphensana
Ivy-grape
Shrub or Tree Roots Burns; Wounds Topic Crushing
Cissus quadrangularis L. Covoloti, Covoluti
Cactus vine, wild grape
Creeper (succulent) Roots Ear treatments Topic Warming and squeezing
    Sap Ear treatments; Wounds Topic Direct
    Seeds Antidote; Wounds Topic Grinding
    Stem Sprains; Swellings Topic Heating
     Cough Oral Cutting and decoction
     Antidote; Wounds Topic Crushing and water
  1. Family, scientific, local and common names, growth habit, parts used, main diseases, administration route and method of preparation.
  2. *Scientific names are according to [2228]
  3. NA = Not Available