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Table 2 Summary of ethnopharmacological background and medicinal plants

From: Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview

Scientific name Family [voucher number] Vernacular name Principal medicinal indication/(Fidelity Level) Part used (condition) Mode of preparation Way of Administration
Allium sativum L.Liliaceae Ajo Intestinal parasites (23) ♣,*,§ Bulbs (fresh) Decoction or fresh Orally
   flu (12)    
   Cardiovascular diseases (4)    
Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. Liliaceae Sábila Flu (24) ♣,*,§ Internal part of the leaf (fresh) Liquefied with honey (syrup) or decoction Orally
   Phlegm (14)    
   Inflammation by burns (35) ♣,*   Fresh pulp Applied locally
Alpinia purpurata K. Schum Zingiberaceae [HUA 140922] Matandrea Headache (34), * Leaf (fresh) Macerated, cataplasm Applied locally
   Common cold (21) ♣,*   Decoction Bath
Ambrosia cumanensis Kunth. Asteracea [HUA 140954] Ajenjo Intestinal parasites (2) Leaf (fresh) Decoction Orally
Ambrosia peruviana Willd.Asteraceae [JBC 6090] Artemisa and altemisa Headache.§ (5) Leaf (fresh) Macerated (poultice) Applied locally
   Common cold (21) ♣,*   Decoction Bath
Anacardium occidentale L.Anacardiaceae Marañon Diabetes (17) Fruit Juice Orally
Annona muricata L.Annonaceae [JBC 1618] Guanabana Fever (25) ♣,* Leaf (dried or fresh) Decoction Orally
   Inflammation (22) ♣,* Leaf (fresh)   Bath
Annona purpurea Moc. & Sessé ex Dunal Annonaceae [JBC 5121] Matinbá Evil eye (25) ♣,*    
   Inflammation (4)    
   Body ache (8) Leaf (dried or fresh) Decoction Bath
Aristolochia anguicida Jacq.Aristolochiaceae [JBC 12473] Capitana and contracapitana Pruritic ailments (22) ♣,* Stem or lianas (dried) Macerated in rum for about 20 days Applied locally
   Snake bite (34)*    
Bauhinia aculeata L.Caesalpiniaceae [JBC 002643] Pata de vaca Diabetes (12) Leaf (dried or fresh) Decoction Orally
Chenopodium ambrosioides L.Chenopodiaceae [HUA 140924] Yerba santa Internal parasites (24) ♣,*,§ Aerial parts (fresh) Infusion Orally
Crescentia cujete L. Bignoniaceae [JBC 47413] Totumo Flu (29),* Internal part of the fruit Decoction Orally
Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Myrtaceae [JBC 005233] Eucalipto Flu (21) ♣,*,§ Leaf (dried or fresh) Decoction Orally
Euphorbia tithymaloides L.Euphorbiaceae [JBC 3325] Pitamorreal Earache (16) Leaf (fresh) Macerated Application Locally
   Inflammation (24)♣,*   Soasadas (poultice)  
   Common cold (7)   Decoction Bath
Gliricidia sepium Steud.Fabaceae [HUA 140962] Matarratón Fever (29) ♣,* Leaf (fresh) Decoction Bath
   Body ache (10)    
   Pruritic ailments (44) ♣,*    
Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.Malvaceae [JBC 4539] Guásimo Flu (8)*, § Leaf (dried) Decoction Orally
   Inflammation (21) ♣,* Latex Fresh Applied locally
   Constipation (12) Bark (dried) Decoction Orally
Heliotropium indicum L.Boraginaceae [JBC 3691] Rabo de alacrán and verbena Internal parasites (25) ,* Leaf (fresh) Decoction Orally
   Pruritic ailments (21) ♣,*    Applied locally
Justicia chaetocephala (Mildbr.) Leonard Acantaceae [JBC 3797] Chingamochila Inflammation (6) Leaf (fresh) Macerated Applied locally
   Urinary ailments (25) ♣,*   Decoction or infusion Orally
Luffa operculata (L.) Cogn.Cucurbitaceae [JBC 278] Estropajito pequeño Sinusitis (30)* Fruit (dried) Decoction Nose instillation
   Cogged nose (12)    
Malachra alceifolia Jacq.Malvaceae [JBC 3324] Malva Inflammation (21),* Leaf (fresh) Decoction Applied locally
   Fever (12)    Bath
Mangifera indica L.Anacardiaceae [HUA 140952] Mango Indigestion (25),* Leaf (fresh) Decoction Orally
   Inflammation (2) Bark (dried)   
Matricaria chamomilla L. Asteraceae Manzanilla Colic (44)♣, *, § Aerial parts (fresh) Infusion or decoction Orally
   Nervousness (22) ♣,*   Infusion Orally
   Conjunctivitis (22) ♣,*   Decoction Eyes instillation
Mentha sativa L.Labiatae Hierba Buena Nervousness (55),* Leaf (dried or fresh) Decoction Orally
Momordica charantia L. M. Nee.Cucurbitaceae [HUA 140953 Balsamina Intestinal parasites (21) ♣,* Aerial parts (fresh) Infusion Orally
   Fever (5)    
   Pruritic ailments (12) Leaf (fresh) Macerated Applied locally
Murraya exotica L.Rutaceae [JBC 098] Azahar de la India Toothache (35)* Leaf (fresh) Macerated Applied locally
   Fever (13) Aerial parts Decoction Bath
Ocimun basilicum L. Lamiaceae [JBC 000441] Albahaca Dry skin condition (25) ♣,* Leaf (dried or fresh) Decoction Bath
   Common cold (21) ♣,*    
Ocimum tenuiflorum L.Lamiaceae [JBC 000312] Toronjil Flatulence (21) ♣,* Aerial parts (fresh). Decoction or infusion. Orally.
   Nervousness (13)    
Origanum mejorana L. Lamiaceae Mejorana Flatulence (30) ,* Aerial parts (fresh) Macerated and decoction Orally
Origanum vulgare L. Labiatae [JBC 012] Orégano Earache (48) ♣,* Leaf Soasadas Instillation Application Locally
Petiveria alliacea L.Phytolaccaceae [HUA 140961] Anamú Fever (38) ♣,*,§    
   Asthma (21) ♣,* Leaf (dried or fresh) Decoction Decoction Orally Inhalation of vapor
Plantago major L. Plantaginaceae [HUA 140926] Llantén Kidney pain (31) Leaf (fresh) Decoction infusion Orally
   Abdominal pain (12)   Macerated/decoction  
   Eye injuries (25) ♣,*   Infusion Eye instillation
Psidium guajava L.Myrtaceae [HUA 140931] Guayaba Nervousness (18) Leaf (fresh) Decoction Orally
   Diarrhea (34), *    
Ricinus communis L.Euphorbiaceae [JBC 465] Higuereta Common cold (22), * Leaf (fresh) Decoction Bath
Russelia equisetiformis Schlecht. & Cham.Scrophulariaceae [JBC 000353] Cola de Caballo Kidney stones (25) ♣,* Entire plant (fresh). Decoction Orally
   Constipation (16) Aerial parts   
Sambucus nigra L.Caprifoliaceae [JBC 5] Salvia peluda Boils (45) ♣,* Leaf (fresh) Macerated Application Locally
   Flatulence (22) ♣,*   Decoction Orally
Solanum americanum Mill, W. D'Arcy Solanaceae [HUA 140962] Hierba mora Toothache (38) ♣,* Leaf (fresh) Macerated and decoction (poultice) Application Locally
   Skin affections (22) ♣,*    Bath
Tabebuia rosea DC.Bignoniaceae [JBC 3069] Apamate Skin affections (25) ♣,* Fever (7) Bark and stem (dried) Decoction Bath Orally
Terminalia catappa L., J. Espina.Combretácea [JBC 977] Almendro(a) Skin affections (21) ♣,* Leaf (fresh) Soasadas (poultice) Topic Application
Tithonia diversifolia A. Gray.Asteraceae [JBC 000038] Arnica Skin affections (10) Leaf (fresh) Macerated (poultice) Application Locally
  1. Indication with Fl > 20%, uses mentioned by ≥ 20% of the respondents that mentioned this illness
  2. Medicinal Plants Accepted in Colombia as Alternative Pharmacological Medicine [10]
  3. Previous to application, leaves can also be heated over fire
  4. § Significant traditional Tramil Uses [21]