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Table 1 Common wetland edible plants, their habit, market prices and dietary uses from Manipur state, northeast India.

From: Dietary use and conservation concern of edible wetland plants at indo-burma hotspot: a case study from northeast India

Botanical name (Family) Local name Plant habit *Market price (Rs/kg) Dietary use and preparation# Voucher Number
Alocasia cuculata Schott. (Araceae) Singju-paan Rooted herb Corm (15-20) Corm cooked with fermented soybean and eaten or prepared traditional salad called as singju (a mixture with fermented fish, chilli and other plants). 0003 NEIST(M)
Alpinia galanga Willd. (Zingiberaceae) Kanghoo Rhizomatous herb Rhizome (15-20) Rhizome decoction smashed with fermented fish and chilli and eaten during both lunch and dinner. 0004 NEIST(M)
Alpinia nigra (Gaertn) Burtt
Pullei Rhizomatous
Rhizome (15-20) Rhizome boiled with potato and prepared chutney called as eronba-smashed with potato, fermented fish and chilli (also Used in religious ceremonies, symbolic of Manipuri New Year). 0005 NEIST(M)
Alternanthera philoxeroides Griseb. (Amaranthaceae) Kabo-napi Gregarious
HH Tender shoot cooked as a traditional food item called as ootti-cooked many vegetables together with a pinch of soda -Na2CO3. 0006 NEIST(M)
Amomum aromaticum Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) Namra Rhizomatous herb Rhizome (15-20) Rhizome as a constituent in the preparation of eronba. 0010 NEIST(M)
Cardamine hirsuta Linn. (Brassicaceae) Chantruk-maan Delicate herb HH Shoot cooked-eaten occasionally. 0013 NEIST(M)
Centella asiatica (Linn.)
Urban (Apiaceae)
Peruk Creeping
Aerial part (8-10) Whole plant is boiled, smashed with potato and fermented fish and eaten. 0014 NEIST(M)
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae) Paan Herb Corm (10-20) Corm and leaf cooked-eaten as ootti. 0021 NEIST(M)
Commelina bengalensis Linn. (Commelinaceae) Wangden-khoibi Straggling
HH Shoot cooked-eaten occasionally (also used as fodder). 0022 NEIST(M)
Dryopteris marginata (Wall.) Christ (Dryopteridaceae) Lai-changkhrang Straggling
Shoot (8 - 10) Tender shoot fried-eaten. 0110 NEIST(M)
Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk.
Uchi-sumban Prostrate herb HH Shoot cooked-eaten occasionally. 0029 NEIST(M)
Eleocharis dulcis Linn. (Cyperaceae) Kokthum Rooted herb Root (20-25) Root cooked with molasses & eaten as snacks. 0109 NEIST(M)
Enhydra fluctuans Lour. (Asteraceae) Komprek-tujombi Herb HH Shoot cooked-eaten or raw as singju. 0033NEIST(M)
Euryale ferox Salisb. (Nymphaeaceae) Thangjing Rooted herb Fruit (20-25) Fruit cooked-eaten or raw as eronba; leaf petiole is eaten as salad. 0034 NEIST(M)
Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. (Polygonaceae) Wakha-yendem Herb Shoot (5-8) Leaf and shoot cooked-eaten as vegetables (also used as fodder for goats). 0035 NEIST(M)
Gynura cusimbua (D. Don) Moore (Asteraceae) Tera-paibi Herb HH Shoot cooked-eaten occasionally. 0111 NEIST(M)
Hedychium coronarium Koenig. (Zingiberaceae) Lok-lei Tall herb Rhizome (25-30) Rhizome cooked and prepared eronba. 0036 NEIST(M)
Hedyotis auricularia Linn.
Langban-koukha Creeping
HH Tender shoot cooked as ootti. 0039 NEIST(M)
Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.
Kolamni Herb Shoot (5-6) Shoot cooked-eaten. 0044 NEIST(M)
Jussiaea repens Linn.
Ishing-kundo Floating herb HH Shoot cooked as ootti. 0112 NEIST(M)
Jussiaea suffruticosa Linn.
Tebo Straggling
HH Shoot cooked as ootti. 0113 NEIST(M)
Lemanea australis Atkins.
Nung-sam Submerged
minute herb
Whole plant
Dried and roasted filaments prepared chutney (the plant produce characteristic fishy smell when roasted in fire- used as fish substitute). 0047 NEIST(M)
Marsilea minuta Linn.
Ishing-yensang Slender herb HH Aerial plant parts cooked as ootti. 0051 NEIST(M)
Narenga porphyrocroma Bor.
Singhut-kambong Under shrub HH Infected (with fungus) inflorescence is roasted in the fire, smashed with molasses and rice and eaten. 0114 NEIST(M)
Nasturtium indicum Linn.
Uchi-hangam Delicate herb HH Cooked-eaten as vegetables. 0015NEIST(M)
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.
Thambal Rooted-hydrophyte Fruit, leaf, flower
Root (15-20)
Flower, tender shoot, leaf and roots eaten raw as salad; root cooked with molasses & eaten as snacks. 0053 NEIST(M)
Nephalium indicum Linn.
Phunil Slender
hispid herb
Shoot is prepared eronba. 0116 NEIST(M)
Neptunia oleracea Lour.
Ikaithabi Floating Shoot
Shoot cooked as eronba or eaten raw as singju. 0054 NEIST(M)
Nymphaea alba Linn.
Tharo-angouba Rooted
Flower: 20
Fruit, petiole: 10
Flower and petiole eaten as salad or singju (also used as religious offering). 0117 NEIST(M)
N. nouchali Burma f.
Tharo-angangba Rooted
Flower (15-20)
Fruit, petiole (10)
Flower and petiole eaten as salad or singju (also as religious offering). 0055 NEIST(M)
Nymphaea pubescens Willd.
Tharo-ashangba Rooted
Flower (18-20)
Fruit, petiole (10)
Flower and petiole eaten as salad or singju (also as religious offering). 0118NEIST(M)
Nymphaea stellata Willd.
'Thariktha' Rooted
Flower (20)
Fruit, petiole (10)
Flower and petiole eaten as salad or singju. 0056NEIST(M)
Nymphoides indicum (L.)
Kuntze (Gentianaceae)
Thariktha-macha Rooted
Petiole (10-14) Leaf petiole eaten as singju or as eronba. 0057 NEIST(M)
Oenanthe javanica (Blume)
DC (Apiaceae)
Komprek Swampy
slender herb
Shoot (15-20) Shoot & leaf is one of the best and preferred species used in the preparation of singju. 0060 NEIST(M)
Oxalis corniculata Linn.
Yensil Delicate herb HH Plant cooked with seeds of pea (Pisum sativum) and eaten during both lunch and dinner. 0062 NEIST(M)
Persicaria posumba (Buch-
Ham ex D. Don) H. Gross.
Kengoi Delicate herb Aerial part (15-
Plant cooked with dry fishes and eaten. 0119 NEIST(M)
Pistia stratiotes Linn.
Kang-jao Floating herb HH Leaf cooked as ootti or as eronba (also used as fodder and feed to poultry). 0120 NEIST(M)
Plantago erosa Wall.
Yempat Herb HH Leaf cooked-eaten occasionally. 0068 NEIST(M)
Polygonum barbatum Linn.
Yelang Silvery coloured
Shoot (15-20) Shoot cooked-eaten or raw as singju. 0069 NEIST(M)
Polygonum chinense Linn.
Angom-yensil Slender herb HH Shoot cooked along with peas. 0121 NEIST(M)
Polygonum molle D. Don.
Leibung-tharam Tall herb Shoot (6-7) Leaf and shoot cooked-eaten (also used as fodder plant). 0071 NEIST(M)
Polygonum plebejum R. Br. (Polygonaceae) Okthum Slender herb HH Shoot cooked-eaten occasionally. 0122 NEIST(M)
Rumex nepalensis Spreng
Torong-khongchak Herb HH Leaf and shoot cooked eaten (also used as poultry feed and animal fodder). 0083 NEIST(M)
Sagittaria sagittifolia Linn.
Koukha Slender erect
Root (22-28) Root cooked-eaten along with molasses, and also prepared eronba and traditional pokada (fried in oil). 0086 NEIST(M)
Schoenoplectus lacustris (L.)
Palla (Cyperaceae)
Kouna Tall spongy
(20-30 per 100
Tender shoot eaten raw occasionally by children with slightly bitter taste (also used in handicrafts & mats used in religious ceremonies and household needs). 0087 NEIST(M)
Spilanthes acmella Hook. f.
Chin-lengbi Straggling
Shoot (5-8) Shoot cooked-eaten. 0090 NEIST(M)
Stellaria media (L.) Vill.
Yerum-keirum Delicate herb Shoot (15-20) Shoot cooked-eaten as vegetable. 0091 NEIST(M)
Trapa natans Linn.
Heikak Rooted
Fruit (8-13) Fruits cooked-eaten or as raw; petiole eaten as eronba and singju. 0094 NEIST(M)
Viola pilosa Blume
Huikhong Small herb Shoot (12-18) Shoot cooked with dried fish and eaten. 0095 NEIST(M)
Zizania latifolia Turcz. ex
Stapf. (Poaceae)
Ishing-kambong Erect tall
Infected inflorescence roasted in fire and eaten along with molasses and rice (shoot of this plant is best fodder for brow-antlered deer - Cervus eldi eldi - a critically engendered species). 0099 NEIST(M)
  1. * HH = consumed at household level only and not traded in markets
  2. # text in parenthesis in 'Dietary use and preparation' column shows other utility of the species