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Table 1 Zootherapeutics resources used in Ethnoveterinary medicine of Cariri microregion, Paraiba State, Brazil

From: Medicinal animals used in ethnoveterinary practices of the 'Cariri Paraibano', NE Brazil

Family/Species/
Local name
Local of citation Number of times mentioned Use-value (VU) Part used and way of administration Disease (or illness) Animal(s) treated
INSECTA       
Apidae       
Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1758) - Italian honey bee, "abelha italiana" MO, SU 3 0.04 Honey (1) Eye problems, especially blindness and inflammations ca, eq, go, sh
     Honey (2) Colds in cattle ca
Melipona subnitida (Ducke, 1910) - jandaíra bee, "Abelha Jandaíra" MO, SU 3 0.04 Honey (1) Eye problems, especially blindness and inflammations Domestic animals in general
     Honey (2) Colds in cattle ca
Partamona seridoensis Pedro & Camargo, 2003 - "abelha cupira", cupira bee MO, SU 35 0.52 Honey (1) Eye problems, especially blindness and inflammations; swellings, dermal inflammations, 'estrepes' (suck a splinter out of skin), wounds, furunculosis, lesions Domestic animals in general, mainly ca, go, sh, eq.
     Honey (2) Colds in cattle ca
     Honey (2) Chickens' gogo (infectious coryza, a type of cold) ch
     'Saburá' (3) 'Mother's body' (uterine prolapse) ma, co, go, sh
Scaptotrigona sp. - "abelha canudo" SU 1 0.01 Honey (1) Eye problems, especially blindness and inflammations Domestic animals in general
Bothriuridae       
Bothriurus asper Pocock, 1893 - black scorpion MO 6 0.09 Sting (4) Dermal nodules and furunculosis ca, go, sh
Buthidae       
Rhopalurus rochai (Borelli, 1910) - "Escorpião amarelo do sertão" MO 7 0.10 Sting (4) Dermal nodules and furunculosis ca, go, sh
Termitidae       
Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855) - termite black MO 6 0.09 Whole animal (2) Chickens' gogo (infectious coryza, a type of cold) ch, hg
FISHES       
Electrophoridae       
Electrophorus electricus (Linnaeus, 1766) - electric eel MO, SU 2 0.03 Fat (1) Wounds ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
Erythrinidae       
Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794) - Trahira, "traíra" MO 4 0.06 Fat (1) Lesions in eyes and hooves of cattle ca
AMPHIBIANS       
Bufonidae       
Rhinella schneideri (Werner, 1894) - Cururu toad, "sapo cururu" LC SU 11 0.16 Viscera (1) 'Esponja de cavalo' (Dermal wounds brought about by infestation of larvae of Habronema muscae) eq
     Fat (1) Wounds, 'estrepes' (suck a splinter out of skin), lesions Domestic animals in general
REPTILES       
Alligatoridae       
Caiman latirostris (Daudin, 1801) - Cayman, "jacaré-do-papo-amarelo" LC MO 1 0.01 Leather (5), fat (1) Wounds, 'estrepes' (suck a splinter out of skin) ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
"Black alligator" -Unidentified species MO 1 0.01 Leather (5), fat (1) Wounds, 'estrepes' (suck a splinter out of skin) ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
Chelidae       
Phrynops geoffroanus (Schweigger, 1812) - Geoffroy's side-necked turtle, "cágado" MO, SU 30 0.45 Fat (1) Wounds, 'estrepes' (suck a splinter out of skin), ear problems, inflammations, dermal nodules, furunculosis, burns Some animal, mainly ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
     Fat (3) 'Mother's body' (uterine prolapse) Some livestock, mainly cattle
Iguanidae       
Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758) - Common Green Iguana, "Camaleão MO, SU 9 0.13 Fat (2) Throat problems ca
     Fat (1) Wounds, 'estrepes', eye problems ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
Teiidae       
Tupinambis merianae (Duméril & Bibron, 1839) - Lizard teju, "tegu", "tejuaçú MO, SU 48 0.72 Fat (1) Burns, inflammations, wounds, 'estrepes', lesions, ear problems, throat problems, swellings, dermal nodules, furunculosis, snake bite, cracks in hooves of cattle, Eye problems, especially blindness ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
     Fat (2) Sore throat ct, do, cv
     Fat (2) Intestinal infections, snake bite ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
Order Testudines       
"Sea turtle" - Espécie não identificada MO 1 0.01 Fat (1) Wounds Domestic animals in general
Testudinidae       
Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix, 1824) - Red-footed tortoise, "jabuti" MO 1 0.01 Fat (1) 'Estrepes' (suck a splinter out of skin) Domestic animals in general
Viperidae       
Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758 - South American rattlesnake, "Cascavel" MO, SU 44 0.66 Fat (1) Wounds, 'estrepes', lesions, dermal nodules, furunculosis, snake bite; Eye problems, especially blindness and inflammations ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
     Fat (6) Rheumatism ca, eq
     Fat (2) Fever, throat problems cv
     'Maracá' (rattle) (7) Protect the cattle against snake bites ca
BIRDS       
Cariamidae       
Cariama cristata (Linnaeus, 1766) - "sariema" LC MO 1 0.01 Fat (1) Swellings Domestic animals in general
Cathartidae       
Coragyps atratus (Bechstein, 1793) - Black vulture, "urubu", "urubu-preto" LC MO 1 0.01 Feather (8) Tick fever ca
Corvidae       
Cyanocorax cyanopogon (Wied-Neuwied, 1821) - White-naped Jay, "Pássaro cancão" LC MO, SU 2 0.03 Feather (8) Tick fever ca
     Whole animal (9) To protect livestock against 'evil eyes' ca, eq, go, pi
Meleagrididae       
Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus, 1758 - turkey, "peru" MO, SU 8 0.12 Fat (1) 'Estrepes', lesions, wounds ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
Phasianidae       
Gallus gallus domesticus Linnaeus, 1758) - Domestic chicken, "Galinha" MO, SU 8 0.12 Fat (1) Inflammations, dermal nodules, 'estrepes', furunculosis, lesions, mastitis ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
     Fat (2) Throat problems cv
     Fat (10) "Oca" (Bovine gangrenous coryza) ca
     Fat (6) Rheumatism ca, eq
     Eggs (1) Weakness cv
Rheidae       
Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758) - Greater rhea, "ema" NT MO, SU 5 0.07 Fat (1) 'Estrepes' (suck a splinter out of skin), wounds, lesions, furunculosis ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
Tinamidae       
Nothura maculosa cearensis Naumburg, 1932 - Spotted Nothura, "Codorniz" LC MO, SU 22 0.33 Feather (11, 12) Snake bites Domestic animals in general
MAMMALS       
Agoutidae       
Agouti paca (Linnaeus, 1766) - Spotted paca, "paca" LC MO 1 0.01 Bile (2) Snake bites Domestic animals in general
Bovidae       
Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 - Domestic cattle, "Vaca" MO, SU 16 0.24 Milk (13) To treat intestinal worms (anthelmintic) ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
     Milk (1) Mastitis co, go, sh
     Homemade butter (1) Dermal nodules, burns, 'estrepes', inflammations, mastitis ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
     Homemade butter (2) Throat problems cv
     Horn or skull (14) To protect animals against 'evil eyes' ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
Capra hircus Linnaeus, 1758 - "bode" MO, SU 6 0.24 Fat (1) Wounds ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
     Homemade butter (1) Dermal inflammation ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
     Leather (7) To protect animals against snake bites ca, ho, go, sh
Ovis aries Linnaeus, 1758 - Ram, sheep, "Carneiro" MO, SU 60 0.90 Fat/Castrated ram suet (1) Wounds, 'estrepes', lesions, bone fractures, 'junta dura' (rheumatism), dermal nodules, inflammations, swellings ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
     Castrated ram suet (10) 'Oca' (Bovine gangrenous coryza) ca
     Castrated ram suet (6) Rheumatism ca, ho, ma
     Fat/Castrated ram suet (15) 'Caruara de bezerro' (omphaloarteritis) cv
     Horn or skull (14) To protect animals against 'evil eyes' ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
     Leather (7) To protect animals against snake bites ca, go, ho, sh
Canidae       
Canis lupus familiaris Linnaeus, 1758 - Domestic dog, "cachorro" MO 1 0.01 Head (1) Retained placenta co
Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766) - Crab-eating fox, "raposa" LC MO, SU 47 0.70 Fat (1) Wounds, 'estrepes', inflammations, lesions Domestic animals in general
     Fat (2) Throat problems cv
     Tail (16), Leather (16) 'To protect animals against attacks by bats' ca, go, sh, eq and mainly chickens
     Fat (17) Respiratory problems ca
     Suet (6) 'Junta dura' (rheumatism) ca, ho, ma
     Fat (3) 'Mother's body' (uterine prolapse) co
Caviidae       
Cavia aperea Erxleben, 1777 - "Preá" LC MO 1 0.01 Fat (1) Furunculosis ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
Kerodon rupestris (Wied-Neuwied, 1820) - Rock cavy, "Mocó" LC SU 3 0.04 Fat (1) Spine problems ca
     Meat (2) Weakness in dogs and cats ct, do
Order Cetacea       
"Baleia" - unidentified species SU 1 0.01 Fat (1) Wounds, 'estrepes' ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
Cervidae       
Mazama gouazoupira (G. Fischer, 1814) - Gray brocket, "veado catingueiro" MO 3 0.04 Horn (14) To protect animals against 'evil eyes' ca, eq, go, sh
     Fat (6) 'Junta dura' (rheumatism) ca, eq, go, sh
     Fat (1) Lesions ca, eq, go, sh
Dasypodidae       
Dasypus novemcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) - Nine-banded armadillo, "tatu galinha" LC MO 1 0.01 Fat (1) Wounds Domestic animals in general
Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) - Six-banded armadillo "tatu peba" LC MO 1 0.01 Fat (1) Wounds Domestic animals in general
Felidae       
Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) - Little Tiger Cat, "gato-pintado" VU MO, SU 11 0.16 Fat (2) Intestinal disorders ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
     Fat (1) 'Estrepes' (suck a splinter out of skin) ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
     Tail (16), Leather (16) 'To protect animals against attacks by bats' ca, ct, do, go, sh, eq and mainly chickens
     Leather (5) Swellings Domestic animals in general
Puma yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1803) - jaguarundi, "gato-do-mato vermelho", "gato-do-mato azul" VU MO, SU 14 0.21 Fat (2) Intestinal disorders ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
     Fat (1) 'Estrepes' (suck a splinter out of
skin)
ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
     Tail (16), Leather (16) 'To protect animals against attacks by bats' ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
     Leather (5) Swellings Domestic animals in general
Hominidae       
Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 - human MO 2 0.03 Urine (2) To tame angry animals ca, eq, go, sh
Mustelidae       
Conepatus semistriatus (Boddaert, 1785) - Striped hog-nosed skunk, "cangambá", "gambambá", tacaca LC MO, SU 2 0.03 Meat (2) Weakness in dogs and cats ct, do
     Bones (18) 'Junta dura' (rheumatism) ca, ho, go
Myrmecophagidae       
Tamandua tetradactyla (Linnaeus, 1758) - Collared Anteater SU 8 0.12 Leather (16) 'To protect animals against attacks by bats' ca, ct, do, go, sh, eq and mainly chickens
Procyonidae       
Procyon cancrivorus (G. [Baron] Cuvier, 1798) - Crab-eating raccoon, "guaxinim" LC SU 3 0.04 Tail (16), Leather (16) 'To protect animals against attacks by bats' ca, ct, do, go, sh, eq and mainly chickens
Suidae       
Sus scrofa domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 - domestic pig MO, SU 3 0.04 Fat (1) Wounds, bone fractures, mastitis ca, ct, do, go, ho, sh, eq
  1. Study sites: MO - Monteiro, SU - Sumé. Animals treated: ca - cattle, ch - chickens, co - cow, ct - cats, cv -calves, do - dogs, eq - equines, go - goats, hg - the helmeted guineafowl, ho - horses, ma - mares, pi - pigs, sh - sheeps. IUCN Red List status: LC - Least Concern, NT - Near Threatned, VU - Vulnerable. Ways of administering the animal-based remedies: (1) topical application, (2) oral application, (3) specialized technique where the uterus, after externalize, it is moistened and 'washed' with fat or other substance considered locally as healing and then carefully set back into the animal, (4) the sting of these animals are used on dermal pits in order to have a fast inflammation, followed by a quickly heal, (5) used as plaster, (6) applied on the joints of the members, (7) the rattlesnake's maracá or a piece of leather 'blessed' by a healer is hung on the neck of the livestock, (8) used as smoker, (9) Magical use, the animal must be bred to protect against evil eye, (10) local residents usually saw the cattle horny and fill in with fats/suet or other substances considered therapeutic, (11) Toast and triturate it and the resulting powder is applied on the affected area, (12) tea of the toasted powder, (13) mixed with american wormseed (mastruz) Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and taken as drink, (14) It should be placed in the corral to protect livestock against evil eye, (15) applied on the navel of the animal, (16) Magical-religious use, the leather or animal's tail is hanging on the neck or placed in the chicken pen entrance in order to protect the animals from bats attack, (17) used as expectorant, applied on the animal snout, (18) toast and triturate it and the resulting powder is ingested with food. Note: Diseases or conditions in bold are treated the same way in humans and animals.