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Table 4 Inventory of edible Hymenoptera

From: Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India)

Scientific name Family English name Vernacular name (G = Galo; N = Nyishi) Seasonal availability Mode of intake Remark
Vespa sp. Vespidae Wasps Rego (G) Pacha yadam (N) Nov-Jan Adult forms are preferred. Fried, fresh one is chewed, wings are discarded. Though larvae pupae are also consumed Fresh insects are chewed and chitinous discarded material is collected and used for metallurgical processing. Not consumed or used by Nyishi.
Polistes sp. Vespidae Potter wasp Bere (G) Hupu hum yalang (red) (N) Nov-Feb Adult forms are preferred. Fried, fresh is chewed, wings are discarded, but larvae and pupae are also consumed. Used in metallurgical processing.
Polistes sp. Vespidae Paper wasp Oye nigona (G) Hupu hum yalang (N) Nov-Feb Larvae are collected along with bee hive and then smoked. Adult and larvae both are preferable, in case of adult wings are discarded. --
Unidentified Vespidae wasp Iddum (G) Tee (N) Nov-Jan Adult forms are preferred. Roasted, boiled, smoked or paste is made, wings are discarded. --
Unidentified Vespidae wasp Iddum ago (G) Hoie (baby of tee) (N) Nov-Dec Both adult and larval form are consumed though larval form is preferred a lot Fried or boiled, wings are discarded. Larval stage is preferred.
Unidentified Vespidae wasp Iddum tupte (G) Tatang (N) Oct-Dec Adult stage is consumed. Boiled with bamboo shoot, wings are to be discarded. Adults are preferred
Unidentified Ichneumonidae Ichneumonid wasp Bere (G) Gacha ganga hoie (young) (N) Oct-Dec Adult stage is consumed. Fried and paste is made, wings and terminal end of appendages are discarded. Esteemed by all age groups.
Eumenes sp. Vespidae (Eumenidae) Potter wasp Ite paglum (G) Gacha ganga hoie (mother) (N) Nov-Dec Larvae are eaten directly. Pupae stage is boiled or paste is made. Larval form is highly preferred.
Unidentified Vespidae Wasp Rele botu (G) Taga (N) Dec-Feb Egg, larvae, pupae, and adult stages are consumed. Egg/larvae are dried and boiled or turned into a paste; adults have wings discarded before consumption. Egg/larvae most preferred.
Vespa orientalis Vespidae Wasp Gapu (G) Gunya (N) Nov-Feb Larvae are collected along with nest and smoked; wings are to be discarded in case of adult insect consumption. Larval stage is highly esteemed.
Apis cerana Apidae Honey bee Tangik, (G) Tungu (N) Nov-Jan Adult and larval stages are consumed roasted and in form of a paste. Wings and antennae are discarded. Preferred by all age groups.
Apis sp. Apidae Honey bee Bere rusup (G) Nov-Jan Adult stage is consumed. After frying a paste is made and consumed with food; wings are discarded. Not consumed by Nyishi.
Xylocopa sp. Xylocopidae Carpenter bee Itum galum (G) Nov-Mar Adult and larval stages are consumed in boiled form; wings are to be removed in case of adult. Not consumed by Nyishi.
Oecophylla smaragdina Formicidae Weaver ant Tonge/Babuk (G) Babuk(N) All year round Adult and larval forms, both are consumed raw.