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Table 1 Medicinal animals and its respective uses in popular medicine in Latin America

From: The faunal drugstore: Animal-based remedies used in traditional medicines in Latin America

Family/Species Conditions to which remedies are prescribed References
PORIFERA   
Spongiidae   
Spongia officinalis Linnaeus, 1759 Unspecified [124]
CNIDARIANS   
Mussidae   
Mussismilia harttii (Verril, 1868) Vaginal discharge, diarrhoea [11, 149]
Physaliidae   
Physalia physalia (Linnaeus, 1758) - Portuguese-man-of-war, jellyfish Asthma [79, 11, 31, 146]
MOLLUSCS   
Ampullariidae   
Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) - Snail, Clam Asthma, sprains, boils, ulcer [79, 11, 31, 97, 115, 146, 161, 169]
Megalobulimidae   
Megalobulimus oblongus (Mueller, 1774) -clam Asthma [11, 66]
Donacidae   
Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck, 1818) - giant coquina Teething [80, 146]
Loliginidae   
Loligo vulgaris Lamarck, 1798 Unspecified [80]
Cassidae   
Cassis tuberosa (Linnaeus, 1758) - Conch Asthma [99, 146]
Littorinidae   
Littorina angulifera (Lamarck, 1822) - Periwinkle snail Chesty cough, shortness of breath [79, 146]
Lucinidae   
Phacoides pectinatus (Gmelin, 1791) - Shellfish Sexual impotence [11, 146]
Melongenidae   
Pugilina morio (Linnaeus, 1758) - Conch Sexual impotence [11, 99, 146]
Mytilidae   
Mytella charruana (Orbigny, 1842) - Mussel, Shellfish Ophthalmological problems [11, 99, 146]
Mytella guyanensis Lamarck (1819) - Mussel, Shellfish Weakness [79, 146]
Ostreidae   
Crassostrea rhizophorae (Guilding, 1828) Mangrove oyster Osteoporosis, pneumonia, stomach ache, cancer, flu, weakness, pain relief in injuries caused by the dorsal fin spine of a species of catfish, anaemia, tuberculosis [79, 146]
Strombidae   
Aliger pugilis Linnaeus, 1758 - West Indian fighting conch Sexual impotence [11, 99, 146]
Teredinidae   
Neoteredo reynei (Bartsch, 1920) - Shipworm Anaemia, tuberculosis [69, 146]
Teredo pedicellata Quatrefages, 1849 Tuberculosis [99, 146]
Vasidae   
Turbinella laevigata (Anton, 1839) - Conch Sexual impotence [99, 146]
Veneridae   
Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791) - Clam, shellfish Asthma, flu, stomach ache [79, 146]
Octopodidae   
Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1799) - common octopus Unspecified [117]
ANNELIDA   
Lumbricidae   
Lumbricus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) Inflamatory process [87]
CHELICERATA   
Bothriuridae   
Bothriurus asper Pocock, 1893 - black scorpion Ethnoveterinary use [127, 178]
Buthidae   
Rhopalurus rochai (Borelli 1910) Scorpion bite, ethnoveterinary use [127, 151, 178]
CRUSTACEANS   
Calappidae   
Calappa ocellata Holthuis, 1958 - Ocellate box crab Asthma, osteoporosis [11, 36, 146]
Gecarcinidae   
Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1825 - Blue land crab Asthma, bronchitis, wounds, boils [11, 146]
Grapsidae   
Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1802) - Mangrove root crab Epilepsy, venereal disease [79, 11, 99]
Plagusia depressa (Fabricius, 1775) - Tidal spray crab Epilepsy [11, 99, 146]
Hippidae   
Emerita portoricensis Schmitt, 1935 - Puerto Rican sand crab Earache [11, 99, 146]
Ocypodidae   
Ocypode quadrata (JC Fabricius, 1787) - Ghost crab Asthma, haemorrhage in women, flu, to alleviate the symptoms of intoxication with poison of niquim (Pisces, Batrachoididae) [79, 119, 146]
Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763) - Swamp Land crab Haemorrhage in women, incontinence urinary, osteoporosis, cough, asthma, tuberculosis, womb disorders, arthrosis, bronchitis [79, 119, 146]
Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802) - Fiddler crab Asthma, whooping cough [79, 119, 146]
Palaemonidae   
Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758) - Bigclaw river shrimp, Painted river prawn Amnesia [11, 99, 146]
Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836) - Cinnamon river shrimp Irritation when milk teeth are erupting [79, 146]
Macrobrachium borellii (Nobili, 1896) - Freshwater shrimp Irritation when milk teeth are erupting [79, 146]
Penaeidae   
Xiphopenaeus schmitti (Burkenroad, 1936) - Southern white shrimp Irritation when milk teeth are erupting, skin spots [79, 146]
Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862) - Atlantic seabob Irritation when milk teeth are erupting, skin spots [79, 146]
Pseudosquillidae   
Cloridopsis dubia (H. M. Edwards, 1837) - Mantis shrimp Asthma [79, 146, 164]
Armadillidiidae   
Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille, 1804) - Pillbug Asthma [177]
Sesarmidae   
Aratus pisoni (H. Milne Edwards, 1837) - Mangrove crab Epilepsy, to alleviate the symptoms of intoxication with poison of Colomesus psittacus [7, 9, 11, 99, 146]
Mithracidae   
Mithrax hispidus (J. F. W. Herbst, 1790) - coral clinging crab Burns [151]
Portunidae   
Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 - Bocourt swimming crab Unspecified [80]
Callinectes exasperatus Gerstaecker, 1856 - rugose swimming crab Unspecified [80]
INSECTS   
Apidae   
Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1758) - Africanised honey bee Cough, flu, rheumatism, tuberculosis, bronchits, hoarseness, ulcer, diabetes, verminosis, headache, giddiness, backache, wounds, burns, mumps, varicose veins, arthrosis, cellulitis, amoebiasis, sore throat, asthma, anaemia, catarrh [79, 63, 97, 119, 146, 170]
Cephalotrigona capitata (Smith, 1854) - Bee Snake bite [11, 146]
Frieseomelitta silvestrii (Friese, 1902) - Stingless bee Flu [11, 146]
Frieseomelitta varia (Lepeletier, 1836) - Bee Gonorrhea [136]
Melipona compressipes (Fabricius, 1804) - Stingless bee Asthma, cough [79, 146]
Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 - Stingless bee Wounds [146, 170]
Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier, 1836 - Neotropical stingless bee Snake bite [146, 187]
Melipona scutellaris (Latreille, 1811) - Stingless bee Headache, migraine, stroke, verminosis, stomach ache, tuberculosis, haemorrhage, cataracts, mycosis in the mouth, flu, cancer, asthma, bronchits, intestinal disorders, cough, sexual impotence, ophthalmological problems, weakness, thrombosis, amoebiasis, snake bite, rabies, sinusitis, fatigue [7, 9, 98, 109, 110, 164]
Melipona subnitida (Ducke, 1910) - Honey bee Flu, sore throat [79, 11, 109, 110, 118]
Melipona fulva (Lepeletier, 1836) - bee Unspecified [86]
Melipona asilvai Moure, 1971 - bee Headache, flu [121]
Melipona marginata Lepeletier, 1836 - bee Cough [81]
Partamona Cupira (Smith, 1863) - Stingless bee Sore throat, swelling, headache, thrombosis, stroke, leucoma, "slightly clean", cuts, wounds, cough, catarrh, toaday, sinusitis, effusion [11, 99, 109, 110, 128, 164, 165, 187]
Partamona seridoensis Pedro & Camargo, 2003 - Cupira bee Ethnoveterinary uses [127, 178]
Plebeia cf. emerina Friese, 1900 - Mosquito Mycosis in the mouth area [11, 118, 166, 170, 177]
Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, 1811 - Bee Cataracts, sinusitis, cough, flu, ophthalmological problems, sore throat, leucoma [79, 71, 112, 170]
Trigona mosquito Lutz, 1931 - Stingless bee Cough [11, 71, 113]
Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793) - Stingless bee Asthma, cough, flu, bronchits, acne, diabetes, stroke, thrombosis, migraine, itching, sore throat, giddiness, weakness, scabies, nasal congestion, to induce abortion, whooping cough, irritation when milk teeth are erupting, earache, epilepsy, shortness of breath, late menstruation, fatigue, effusion [11, 97, 110, 115, 118, 161, 164, 170]
Lestrimelitta limao (Smith, 1863) - bee Dizziness [81]
Forficulidae   
Forficula auricularia Linnaeus, 1758 Earache, whooping cough [38]
Tenebrioninae   
Eleodes spinipes (Solier, 1848) To keep away from bad spirits [103]
Cerambycidae   
Macrodontia cervicornis (Linné, 1758) Unspecified [82]
Blattidae   
Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758) - American cockroach Heartburn, asthma, stomach ache, intestinal colic, earache, alcoholism, epilepsy, vomit, boil, haemorrhage, bronchits, diarrhoea, gonorrhea, panaris, cancer, stroke, burns, menstrual cramps, wounds, to suck a splinter out of skin or flesh, detoxification, avoiding pregnancy [7, 9, 11, 31, 71, 109, 112, 115, 128, 130, 170]
Eurycotis manni (Rehn, 1916) Unspecified [170]
Blaberidae   
Rhyparobia maderae (Fabricius, 1781) - Madeira cockroach Asthma [50]
Chrysomelidae   
Coraliomela brunnea Thumberg, 1821 - Fake cockroach Epilepsy [8, 11, 132, 146]
Pachymerus cf. nucleorum (Fabricius, 1792) - Caterpillar Earache, stroke, swelling, wounds, seborrheic dermatitis, inflammation, thrombosis [71, 112, 159, 170]
Curculionidae   
Rhynchophorus palmarum Linnaeus, 1758 - Pest of coconut palm Fever, headache, boils [149, 153]
Rhinostomus barbirostris Fabricius, 1775 - Pest of coconut palm Fever, headache, boils [149, 153]
Rhina barbirostris Champion, G.C., 1910 Fever, headache, boils [153]
Formicidae   
Atta cephalotes (Linnaeus, 1758) - Leaf-cutter ant Sore throat [79, 11, 66, 144]
Atta serdens (Linnaeus, 1758) - Leaf-cutting Stomach ache, heart diseases, chest palpations [11, 70, 71, 113]
Dinoponera quadriceps (Santschi, 1921) - Bullet ant Asthma [79, 11, 109, 170]
Acromyrmex landolti (Emery, 1980)- ant Asthma [66]
Solenopsis saevissima (Smith, 1855) - Ant Wart [102]
Gryllidae   
Acheta domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758) - House cricket Scabies, asthma, eczema, lithiasis, earache, oliguresis, rheumatism, urine retention, children that urinate in bed and speak with lateness, incontinence urinary, ophthalmological problems [11, 113]
Paragryllus temulentus Saussure 1878 - Cricket Rheumatism [69]
Gryllus assimilis (Fabricius, 1775) - cricket Warts [81]
Meloidae   
Palembus dermestoides (Fairmaire, 1893) - Peanut beeatle Sexual impotence, ophthalmological problems, rheumatism, weakness [11, 71, 113, 163]
Pseudomeloe andensis (Guérin Méneville 1992) Warts [189]
Muscidae   
Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758) - House fly Boil, baldness, eyesore, external sebaceus lamps, stye, spots in the face, ophthalmological problems, dermatosis, cysties, erysipelas [11, 115, 165]
Pediculidae   
Pediculus humanus Linnaeus, 1758 - Body louse, Head louse Tootache [159]
Psychidae   
Eurycotis manni Rehn, 1916 - Beetle Headache [11, 71, 115, 128, 146, 177]
Oiketicus kirbyi Guilding, 1827 - Case moth Asthma, earache, haemorrhage [11, 113]
Termitidae   
Microcerotermes exignus (Hagen, 1858), Termite Asthma, bronchits, flu, whopping cough [11, 70]
Nasutitermes macrocephalus (Silvestri, 1903) - Termite Asthma, catarrh, bronchitis, 'catarrh in the chest' coughs, influenza, sore throat, sinusitis, tonsillitis and hoarseness [128, 130, 144]
Nasutitermes corninger (Motschulsky, 1855) - termite Unspecified [172]
Vespidae   
Apoica pallens (Oliv. 1791) - Paper wasp Thrombosis, ashtma, giddiness, nasal haemorrhage, haemorrhage, stroke, disorders after parturition, ophthalmological problems, mumps, late menstruation [11, 71, 112, 118, 146, 166, 170]
Brachygastra lecheguana (Latreille, 1824) - Dark paper wasp Cough, asthma [11, 113]
Polistes canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758) - Wasp Cough, whooping cough [11, 116, 165]
Polybia sericea (Olivier, 1791) - Wasp Thrombosis [11, 118]
Protopolybia exigua (Saussure, 1854) - Wasp Evil eye, tobaccoism, ophthalmological problems [11, 118]
Synoeca surinama (Linnaeus, 1767) - Paper wasp Asthma, shortness of breath [11, 71, 118]
Protonectarina sylveirae (Saussure, 1854)- Mumps, hemorrhage, blooding and menstrual problems [66]
ECHINODERMS   
Echinasteridae   
Echinaster brasiliensis Müller & Troschel, 1842 - Starfish Asthma [11, 36, 63, 130]
Echinaster echinophorus Lamarck, 1816 - Starfish Asthma [71, 99, 130, 163]
Echinometridae   
Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus, 1758) - Rock boring urchin Asthma [11, 36, 99, 114, 119, 130, 146, 163, 228]
Luidiidae   
Luidia senegalensis Lamarck, 1916 - Starfish Asthma, cough, metrorrhagia [79, 11, 36, 99, 114, 119, 130, 146, 163, 228]
Mellitidae   
Mellita sexiesperforata (Leske, 1778) - Six holed keyhole urchin Asthma, cough [99]
Mellita quinquiesperforata (Leske, 1778) Asthma [11, 99, 130]
Oreasteridae   
Oreaster reticulatus (Linnaeus, 1758) - Starfish Asthma [79, 30, 31, 66, 109, 128, 146]
Toxopneustidae   
Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816) - Green sea urchin Snake bite [68, 146]
FISHES   
Auchenipteridae   
Trachelyopterus galeatus (Linnaeus, 1766) - Driftwood Cat Umbilical hernia, asthma, sexual impotence [71, 97, 161, 163, 228]
Anostomidae   
Leporinus friderici (Bloch, 1794) - Frederici's leporinus Earache [188]
Leporinus piau Fowler, 1941 Black piau Rheumatism [71]
Leporinus steindachneri Eigenmann, 1907 Problems with cholesterol [109]
Schizodon knerii (Steindachner, 1875) - White piau Leucoma, edema [97]
Ariidae   
Bagre bagre (Linnaeus, 1766) - Coco sea catfish pain relief in injuries caused by the dorsal fin spine of a species of catfish [114, 115, 163]
Genidens barbus (Lacepède, 1803) - White sea catfish pain relief in injuries caused by the dorsal fin spine of a species of catfish [8, 114, 162]
Genidens genidens (Cuvier, 1829) - catfish pain relief in injuries caused by the dorsal fin spine of a species of catfish [8, 126]
Sciadeichthys luniscutis (Valenciennes, 1837) - Catfish pain relief in injuries caused by the dorsal fin spine of a species of catfish [8, 114, 162]
Genidens barbus (Lacepède, 1803 - catfish Unspecified [111]
Cathorops spixii (Agassiz, 1829) - catfish Unspecified [80]
Aspredinidae   
Aspredo aspredo (Linnaeus, 1758) - Banjo, catfish Asthma [79]
Aspredinichthys tibicen (Valenciennes, 1840) - Tenbarbed banjo Asthma [79]
Balistidae   
Balistes capriscus Gronow, 1854 - Grey triggerfish Bronchits [85]
Balistes vetula (Linnaeus, 1758) - Queen triggerfish Stroke, asthma, thrombosis, earache, Injuries caused by fish species, haemorrhage, ascites, schistosomiasis, appendicitis, menstrual cramps, gastritis [79, 114, 162, 228]
Batrachoididae   
Thalassophryne nattereri (Steindachner, 1876) - Venomous toadfish Injuries caused by fish species [4, 79, 114, 115, 162]
Callichthyidae   
Callichthys callichthys (Linnaeus, 1758) - Armoured catfish Asthma, umbilical hérnia [4, 8, 97, 114, 115]
Carcharhinidae   
Carcharhinus limbatus (Müller & Henle, 1839) - Blackfin shark Osteoporosis [79]
Carcharhinus porosus (Ranzani, 1840) - Smalltail shark Asthma, rheumatism, wounds, inflammations, osteoporosis, anaemia [79, 69, 114]
Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes, 1839) - shark Unspecified [30]
Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur, 1822) - Tiger shark Osteoporosis [79]
Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Müller & Henle, 1839) - Brazilian sharpnose shark Rheumatism [79]
Rhizoprionodon porosus (Poey, 1861) - Sharpnose shark Rheumatism [79]
Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith, 1834) - Scalloped hammerhead Asthma, wounds, rheumatism, inflammation [8, 9, 114, 162, 228]
Salmonidae   
Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) - redband trout Rheumatism, bad smell of feet [148]
Centropomidae   
Centropomus parallelus Poey, 1860 - Smallscale fat snook Nephritis [149]
Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch, 1792) - Common snook Edema in the legs [79, 114, 162, 228]
Characidae   
Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758) - Twospot astyanax Alcoholism, leishmaniosis, skin burns, wounds, rheumatism [79, 114, 157, 162, 228]
Paracheirodon axelrodi (Schultz, 1956) - Cardinal tetra Ashtma [82]
Chalceus macrolepidotus Cuvier, 1818 Unspecified [82]
Brycon nattereri Günther, 1864 - Pirapitinga Flu [168]
Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818) - Black-finned colossoma Paralysis of arms and legs [8, 70]
Hydrolycus scomberoides (Cuvier, 1816) - Vampire characin Earache [8, 188]
Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816)- Jaw characin Unspecified [179]
Clupeidae   
Opisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818) - Atlantic thread herring Alcoholism [79]
Dasyatidae   
Dasyatis guttata (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) - Longnose stingray Asthma, Injuries caused by fish species, burns [79]
Dasyatis marianae (Gomes, Rosa & Gadig, 2000) - Brazilian large-eyed stingray Asthma, Injuries caused by fish species, burns [79])
Doradidae   
Franciscodoras marmoratus (Reinhardt, 1874) - Urutu Injuries caused by fish species [149]
Lithodoras dorsalis (Valenciennes, 1840) - Bacu Pedra Swelling [79]
Megalodoras uranoscopus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888) - Catfish Rheumatism [188]
Platydoras costatus (Linnaeus, 1758) - Catfish Rheumatism [188]
Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes, 1821) - Catfish Rheumatism [188]
Oxydoras niger (Valenciennes, 1821) - Catfish Rheumatism [82, 188]
Echeneidae   
Echeneis naucrates Linnaeus, 1758 - Live sharksucker Asthma, bronchits [8, 114, 162, 164]
Electrophoridae   
Electrophorus electricus (Linnaeus, 1766) - Electric eel Sprains, bruises, insect bites, snake bite, asthma, flu, pain in general, muscle strain, rheumatism, osteoporosis, deafness, pneumonia, itching, tuberculosis, earache, toothache [79, 31, 114, 162, 164, 188]
Erythrinidae   
Erythrinus erythrinus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) - Red (hi-fin) Wolf fish Asthma [97]
Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794) - Trahira Ophthalmological problems, rheumatism, cataracts, wounds, snake bite, conjunctivitis, stroke, thrombosis, asthma, toothache, fever, earache, diarrhoea, deafness, boils, bleedings, Alcoholism, tetanus, sore throat, itching, sprains, leucoma [79, 31, 63, 97, 114, 126, 162, 164, 188]
Hoplias lacerdae Miranda Ribeiro, 1908 Giant trahira Leucoma [71]
Gadidae   
Gadus morhua Linnaeus, 1758 - Atlantic cod Boils, backache and rheumatism [66, 228]
Ginglymostomatidae   
Ginglymostoma cirratum (Bonnaterre, 1788) - Nurse shark Rheumatism [79]
Heptapteridae   
Pimelodella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1876) - Mandim Injuries caused by that fish species [168]
Holocentridae   
Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck, 1765) - Squirrelfish Wounds [68]
Megalopidae   
Megalops atlanticus (Valenciennes, 1847) - Tarpon Stroke, headache, asthma, shortness of breath, thrombosis, chest pain, injuries caused by bang [79, 97, 114]
Monacanthidae   
Stephanolepis hispidus (Linnaeus, 1766) - Common filefish Unspecified [111]
Muraenidae   
Gymnothorax funebris Ranzani, 1840 - Green moray Bleeding [79]
Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier, 1829) - Spotted moray Bleeding [79]
Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau, 1855) - Purplemouth moray Bleeding [79]
Odontaspididae   
Eugomphodus taurus (Rafinesque 1810) - Cação-mangona Unspecified [111]
Engraulidae   
Anchoviella lepidentostole (Fowler, 1911) Unspecified [80]
Pristigasteridae   
Pellona flavipinnis Valenciennes, 1836 - Yellowfin river pellona Unspecified [80]
Scombridae   
Scomberomorus cavalla Cuvier, 1829 - Kingfish Unspecified [80]
Myliobatidae   
Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen, 1790) - Spotted eagle ray Asthma, injuries caused by fish species, burns, haemorrhage [79]
Narcinidae   
Narcine brasiliensis (Olfers, 1831) - Brazilian electric Ray Toothache [111, 114, 162]
Ogcocephalidae   
Ogcocephalus vespertilio (Linnaeus, 1758) - Batfish Asthma, bronchits [79, 68]
Ogcocephalus nasutus (Cuvier, 1829) - Batfish Asthma [79]
Loricariidae   
Hypostomus plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758) Asthma [79]
Carangidae   
Hemicaranx amblyrhynchus (Cuvier, 1833) To accelerate recovery after parturition [79]
Osteoglossidae   
Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822) - Giant arapaima Asthma, pneumonia [188]
Osteoglossum ferreirai (Kanazawa, 1966) - Aruanã Dermatogical problems [87]
Pimelodidae   
Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) - Redtail catfish Asthma, wounds, hernia, burns in the skin, rheumatism, flu, cough, pneumonia [87, 188]
Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix & Agassiz, 1829) - Spotted sorubim Flu [168]
Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Lunnaeus, 1776) - Tiger catfish Cold [188]
Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (Valenciennes, 1840) - Catfish Unspecified [179]
Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix & Agassiz, 1829) Leishmaniosis, tuberculosis [188]
Zungaro zungaro((Humboldt, 1821) - Black manguruyu Asthma, toothache, earache, wounds, athlete's foot, burns in the skin, rheumatism, flu [188]
Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) Tonic [177]
Potamotrygonidae   
Paratrygon aiereba (Müller & Henle, 1841) - Discus Ray Asthma, hernia, flu, pneumonia, cough, earache, burns [188]
Potamotrygon hystrix (Müller & Henle, 1834) - Porcupine river stingray Asthma, hernia, flu, pneumonia, cough, earache, burns [70, 188]
Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle, 1841) - Ocellate river stingray Asthma, hernia, flu, pneumonia, cough, earache, burns [188]
Potamotrygon orbignyi (Castelnau, 1855) Injuries caused by fish species [79]
Plesiotrygon iwamae Rosa, Castello & Thorson, 1987 Injuries caused by fish species, wounds, cracks in the sole of the feet [79]
Potamotrygon signata German, 1913 Unspecified [80]
Pristidae   
Pristis pectinata Latham, 1794 - Smalltooth sawfish Asthma, rheumatism, arthritis [79]
Pristis perotteti Müller & Henle, 1841 - Largetooth sawfish, espadarte Asthma, rheumatism and arthritis [79]
Prochilodontidae   
Prochilodus argenteus Spix & Agassiz, 1829 - To avoid swelling of the breast feeding, mycosis [168]
Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836) Unspecified [160]
Prochilodus nigricans Spix & Agassiz, 1829 - Black prochilodus Chilblain, skin burns, wounds, rheumatism, eye pains [157, 188]
Prochilodus marggravii (Walbaum, 1792) Unspecified [168]
Rajidae   
Atlantoraja cyclophora Regan, 1903 - Eyespot skate Haemorrhage after delivery [68]
Serrasalmidae   
Mylossoma duriventre (Cuvier, 1818) Venereal disease [188]
Serrasalmus brandtii (Lütken, 1875) - White piranha Inflammations, sexual impotence [71, 97, 126]
Serrasalmus rhombeus Linnaeus 1766 Unspecified [80, 82]
Sciaenidae   
Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède, 1801) - Acoupa weakfish Renal failure [79, 31]
Cynoscion leiarchus (Cuvier, 1830) - Smooth weakfish Renal failure [79, 31]
Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823) - Whitemouth croaker Injuries caused by fish species, cough, asthma, bronchits [8, 85, 114, 162]
Pachyurus francisci (Cuvier, 1830) - San Francisco croaker Asthma, urinary incontinence, backache [168]
Plagioscion surinamensis (Bleeker, 1873) - Bashaw Urinary disorders, haemorrhage, snake bites [188]
Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) - South american silver croaker Urinary disorders, haemorrhage, snake bites [188]
Sparidae   
Calamus penna (Valenciennes, 1830) - Sheepshead porgy Asthma [162]
Synbranchidae   
Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch, 1795 - Marbled swamp eel Bronchits [114, 162]
Syngnathidae   
Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810 - Horsefish Asthma [79, 31, 75]
Hippocampus reidi (Ginsburg, 1933) - Longsnout seahorse Asthma, edema, bronchits, haemorrhage, haemorrhage in women, disorders after parturition, gastritis, tuberculosis, to prevent abortion [79, 31, 63, 68, 85, 164]
Hippocampus ingens Girard, 1858 Unspecified [76]
Hippocampus spinosissimus Weber, 1913 Unspecified [76]
Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach, 1814 Unspecified [76]
Tetraodontidae   
Colomesus psittacus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) - Banded puffer Breast cancer, backache, warts [79, 31]
Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus, 1758) - Checkered puffer Rheumatism [63, 162]
Trichiuridae   
Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus, 1758 - Largehead hairtail Asthma [8]
Gymnotidae   
Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus, 1758 - Banded knifefish Unspecified [179]
Urolophidae   
Urotrygon microphthalmum (Delsman, 1941) - Smalleyed round stingray Asthma, Injuries caused by fish species, burns [79, 31]
AMPHIBIANS   
Bufonidae   
Rhinella schneideri (Werner, 1894) - Cururu toad Urinary incontinence, dental caries, cancer, wounds, boils, erysipelas acne, to induce abortion [97, 162]
Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) - toad Scorpion sting, erysipelas [87, 152, 158]
Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002)- toad Gastritis, cancer [81]
Rhinella icterica (Spix, 1824) Unspecified [80]
Bufo bocourti Brocchi, 1877 - toad Rabies, AIDS [38]
Bufo macrocristatus Firschein and Smith, 1957 - toad Unspecified [38]
Incilius valliceps (Wiegmann, 1833) Unspecified [125]
Leptodactylidae   
Leptodactylus labyrinthicus (Spix, 1824) - South american pepper frog Earache, rheumatism, joint pain, cancer, sore throat [97, 162]
Leptodactylus vastus Lutz, 1930-frog Sore throat [66]
Leptodactylus troglodytes (A. Lutz, 1926) - Jia Unspecified [4]
Eleutherodactylus laticeps (Duméril, 1853) Unspecified [38]
Eleutherodactylus glaucus Lynch, 1967 Unspecified [38]
Ranidae   
Rana maculata Brocchi, 1877 Rabies [38]
Rana berlandieri Baird, 1859   [38]
Lithobates montezumae (Baird, 1854) Unspecified [125]
Lithobates spectabilis (Hillis and Frost, 1985) Unspecified [125]
Hylidae   
Hyla chaneque Duellman, 1961 Unspecified [38]
Hyla venulosa (Laurenti, 1768)   [60]
Phyllomedusa bicolor (Boddaert, 1772) Rheumatism, diabetes [122]
Trachycephalus resinifictrix (Goeldi, 1907) Unspecified [82]
Phyllomedusa burmeisteri Boulenger, 1882 Unspecified [183]
Microhylidae   
Hypopachus barberi Schmidt, 1939 Unspecified [38]
Ceratophryidae   
Telmatobius culeus (Garman, 1876) Impotence [180]
REPTILES   
Liolaemidae   
Liolaemus pantherinus Pellegrin 1909 Fractures, wounds [65, 189]
Liolaemus alticolor Barbour 1909 Fractures, wounds [189]
Gekkonidae   
Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnes, 1818) - Afro-American house gecko Sore throat [79, 31, 164])
Gonatodes hasemani Griffin 1917 Unspecified [174]
Iguanidae   
Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758) - Common iguana Earache, erysipelas, asthma, rheumatism, edema, abscesses, joint pain, wounds, acne, athlete's foot, sore throat, swelling, burn, tumour, to suck a splinter out of skin or flesh, boil, injuries caused by the spines of the 'arraia' and others fishes, inflammation, hernia, body aches, corisa, womb disorders, menstrual cramps [79, 31, 97, 108, 164, 166])
Ctenosaura pectinata Wiegmann 183 Unspecified [94, 105]
Ctenosaura similis GRAY 1831 Unspecified [77]
Polychrotidae   
Polychrus acutirostris Spix 1825 Impotence [126]
Polychrus marmoratus Linnaeus 175 Impotence [126]
Norops fuscoauratus D'orbigny 1837 Unspecified [174]
Teiidae   
Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) - Lizard Inflammation, dermatitis, venereal diseases, snake bites [87, 97, 108, 174]
Kentropyx pelviceps Cope 1868 Unspecified [174]
Cnemidophorus gr. ocellifer (Spix, 1825) - Lizard Inflammation, dermatitis, venereal diseases, snake bites [97, 108]
Tupinambis merianae (Duméril & Bibron, 1839) - Lizard Earache, deafness, rheumatism, erysipelas, skin thorns and wounds, respiratory diseases, sore throat, snake bite, asthma, tumour, swelling, infection, bronchits, perforation, oftalmological problems [79, 31, 85, 97, 108, 111, 119, 162, 164, 166, 173, 190]
Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus 1758) - Lizard Sexual impotence, rheumatism, erysipelas, dermatitis, snake bites, asthma, tetanus, earache, thrombosis, wounds, panaris, swelling, herpes zoster, irritation when milk teeth are erupting, jaundice, inflammation, tumour, sore throat, infection, bronchits, injuries caused by the spines of the 'arraia', pain relief in injuries caused by snake bites, toothache, suck a splinter out of skin or fresh, headache, cough, stroke, coarse throat [79, 31, 68, 97, 108, 157, 161, 164, 166]
Tupinambis rufescens Günther 1871 - tegu Cuts, snake bites, cold [120]
Phrynosomatidae   
Sceloporus serrifer Cope 1866 Unspecified [38]
Sceloporus taeniocnemis Cope 1885 Unspecified [38]
Sceloporus acanthinus Bocourt 1873 Unspecified [91]
Sceloporus spinosus Wiegmann 1828 Unspecified [91]
Sceloporus grammicus Wiegmann 1828 Diarrhea [103]
Phrynosoma orbiculare (Duméril & Bocourt 1870) Unspecified [91]
Anguidae   
Abronia lythrochila Smith & Alvarez Del Toro 1963 Unspecified [38]
Mesaspis moreletii Bocourt 1871 Unspecified [38]
Tropiduridae   
Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825) - Lizard Alcoholism, dermatomycosis, warts, abscesses, boils, sore throat, erysipelas, healing of umbilical cord of newborn baby [79, 31]
Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825) - Lizard Measles, asthma, alcoholism, dermatomycosis, warts [8, 62, 97, 162]
Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820) - Lizard Chicken pox [79, 31, 62, 71, 97, 115, 162]
Uranoscodon superciliosus (Linnaeus, 1758) As a sedative [8, 62, 69, 131]
Boidae   
Boa constrictor (Linnaeus, 1758) - Boa Rheumatism, lung disease, thrombosis, boils, tuberculosis, stomach ache, edema, snake bite, cancer, pains, swelling, to prevent abort, pain in the body, inflammation, athlete's foot, calluses, tumours, cracks in the sole of the feets, goiter, sore throat, arthrosis, insect sting, dog bite, erysipelas, asthma, neck strain, strain muscle, backache, contusions and muscular pain [710, 29, 31, 62, 70, 97, 121, 186, 188]
Corallus caninus (Linnaeus, 1758) - American emerald tree boa Pain relief caused by sting of animals [8, 29, 62]
Corallus hortolanus (Linnaeus, 1758) - Snake To assist in removing spines or other sharp structures from the skin, rheumatism [8, 29, 62]
Eunectes murinus (Linnaeus, 1758) - Anaconda Wounds, skin problems, bruises, sprains, arthrosis, rheumatism, boils, sexual impotence, headache, sore throat, thrombosis, swelling, tumour, asthma, muscle strain, numbness, syphilis, to reduce pain, luxation [8, 29, 62, 71]
Eunectes notaeus (Cope, 1862)- Sucuri Unspecified [160]
Epicrates cenchria (Linnaeus, 1758) - Brazilian rainbow boa Rheumatism, pain in articulations, snake bite, sore throat [8, 29, 62, 71, 97]
Colubridae   
Leptophis ahetula (Linnaeus, 1758) - Parrot snake Pain relief caused by sting of animals [8, 29, 62]
Mastigodryas bifossatus (Raddi, 1820) - Rio tropical racer Snake bites [8, 29, 62, 108]
Pituophis lineaticollis Cope 1861 Post partum cold, pains corporeal [40]
Oxyrhopus trigeminus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 Rheumatism [8, 29, 62, 108]
Oxyrhopus formosus Wied 1820 Unspecified [174]
Oxyrhopus melanogenys Tschudi 1845 Unspecified [174]
Spilotes pullatus (Linnaeus, 1758) - Tiger snake Insects bite, snake bite [8, 29, 62, 108]
Tachymenis peruviana Wiegmann, 1835 Pain in the bones, pain in kidneys and to treat inflamations, tootache and scare, fractures [148, 189]
Drymobius margaritiferus Schlegel 1837 Mail aire, pain in bones, rheumatism [38, 148]
Chironius carinatus (Linnaeus, 1758) Infertility [151]
Chironius grandisquamis Peters 1869 Unspecified [174]
Lampropeltis triangulum Lacépède 1789 Unspecified [38, 148]
Imantodes cenchoa Linnaeus 1758 Unspecified [174]
Leptodeira annulata (Linnaeus, 1758) Unspecified [174]
Crotalidae   
Caudisona durissa (Linnaeus, 1758) - Neotropical rattlesnake Asthma, snake bite, thrombosis, wounds, luxation, rheumatism, pain in the legs, erysipelas, deafness, epilepsy, skin diseases, tuberculosis, hanseniasis, backache, tumour, boil, headache, earache, osteoporosis, sore throat, toothache, insects bite, irritation when milk teeth are erupting, cancer, to accelerate parturition, pain in the body, avoid pregnancy, mail aire, swellings, bone aches, gastritis, eczema [8, 29, 62, 63, 71, 97, 108, 139, 161, 164166]
Crotalus polystictus Cope 1865 Unspecified [125]
Crotalus transversus Taylor 1944 Unspecified [125]
Crotalus triseriatus Wagler 1830 Unspecified [125]
Crotalus durissus Linnaeus 1758 Wounds, disorders in parturition, lepra, cancer, acne [38, 105]
Crotalus atrox Baird & Girard 1853 Pneumonia, muscular pain, sight, sore throat, gangrene, varicose veins, ulcer [103]
Crotalus basiliscus COPE 1864 Unspecified [78]
Elapidae   
Micrurus spixii Wagler 1824 Unspecified [174]
Micrurus surinamensis Cuvier 1817 Unspecified [174]
Micrurus ibiboboca (Merrem, 1820) Rheumatism, snake bite [62, 108, 139]
Viperidae   
Bothrops leucurus Wagler, 1824 - Lance head Tumour, boils [62, 108, 139]
Bothrops asper Garman 1883 Unspecified [38, 148, 152]
Bothrops atrox Linnaeus 1758 Unspecified [80, 185]
Lachesis muta (Linnaeus, 1766) - Bushmaster Rheumatism, swelling, tumour, boil, insects bite, snake bite [8]
Cerrophidion tzotzilorum Campbell 1985 Rheumatism, mail aire [38, 148]
Atropoides nummifer Rüppell 1845 Unspecified [38, 148]
Dipsadidae   
Philodryas olfersii Lichenstein, 1823 Unspecified [80]
Thamnodynastes strigatus (Günther, 1858) Snake bite [151]
Chelidae   
Chelus fimbriatus (Schneider, 1783) - Matá-matá Impotence [82, 87, 153]
Phrynops geoffroanus (Schweigger, 1812) - Geoffroy's side-necked turtle Asthma, sore throat, swelling, earache, rheumatism, arthrosis, healing of umbilical cord of newborn baby, mumps, ingrown nail, eczema, articulation problems, wounds [79, 71]
Phrynops tuberosus Peters 187 Asthma, rheumatism and bruises [109]
Mesoclemmys tuberculata (Luederwaldt, 1926) - Tuberculate toadhead turtle Rheumatism, discharge, thrombosis, bronchits, diarrhoea, haemorrhag, asthma, sore throat, hoarseness [62, 97, 108, 161]
Mauremys leprosa Schweigger, 1812 Unspecified [80]
Cheloniidae   
Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758) - Loggerhead turtle Injuries caused by bang, toothache, diabetes, headache, backache, wounds, cough, bronchits, asthma, thrombosis, rheumatism, stroke, hoarseness, flu, backache, earache, sore throat, swelling [79, 62, 139, 142, 162]
Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758) - Green sea turtle Injuries caused by bang, toothache, diabetes, headache, backache, wounds, cough, bronchits, asthma, flu, thrombosis, rheumatism, stroke, hoarseness, earache, sore throat, swelling, whooping cough, arthritis, erysipelas, boil, arthrosis, inflammation [79, 62, 68, 139, 142]
Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus, 1766) - Atlantic hawksbill Injuries caused by bang, toothache, diabetes, headache, backache, wounds, cough, bronchits, asthma, thrombosis, stroke, hoarseness, flu, rheumatism, earache, sore throat, swelling [79, 62, 139, 142, 162]
Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829) Injuries caused by bang, toothache, diabetes, headache, backache, wounds, cough, flu, bronchitis, asthma, thrombosis, rheumatism, stroke, hoarseness [62, 114, 119, 162]
Dermochelyidae   
Dermochelys coriacea (Vandelli, 1761) - Leatherback turtle Rheumatism, earache, sore throat, swelling [79, 62, 139, 142]
Geoemydidae   
Rhinoclemmys punctularia (Daudin, 1802) - Spot-legged turtle Wounds, tumour, erysipelas, earache, rheumatism [79, 62, 139, 142]
Podocnemididae   
Podocnemis expansa (Schweiger,1812) - Amazon river turtle Inflammation, acne, tumour, boil, rheumatism, pterygium, skin spots, backache, earache, arthrosis, arthritis, swelling, wrinkle [79, 62, 139, 141]
Podocnemis unifilis (Troschel, 1848) - Yellow-spotted river turtle Wounds, tumour, erysipelas, earache, rheumatism [79, 62, 139, 188]
Podocnemis sextuberculata Cornalia, 1849 - Six-tubercled Amazon River turtle Blackhead, acne [62, 69]
Peltocephalus dumeriliana Schweigger 1812 Blackhead, acne [62, 69]
Testudinidae   
Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix, 1824) - Red-footed tortoise Catarrh, erysipelas, bronchitis, to stop the sensation to getting thirsty, asthma [8, 9, 31, 63, 115, 162, 164]
Chelonoidis denticulata (Linnaeus, 1766) - Yellowfooted tortoise Sore throat, rheumatism, hernia, wounds, leishmaniosis, varicocele, earache, part of woman's body, asthma, pains [8, 9, 31, 87, 157]
Gopherus flavomarginatus Legler 1959 Arthritis [103]
Kinosternidae   
Staurotypus triporcatus Wiegmann 1828 Unspecified [93]
Kinosternon scorpioides Linnaeus 1766 Hermaphroditism, malaria, tuberculosis [38, 62]
Kinosternon integrum Le Conte 1854 Smallpox [105]
Alligatoridae   
Caiman crocodilus (Linnaeus, 1758) - Common cayman Asthma, stroke, bronchitis, backache, earache, rheumatism, thrombosis, sexual impotence, snake bites, evil eye, irritation when milk teeth are erupting, discharge, swelling, scratch, athlete's foot, ophthalmological problems, sore throat, amulet used as a protection against snake bite, hernia, prostate problems, infection, inflammation, epilepsy [79, 30, 62, 63, 108, 139, 162164, 166, 188]
Caiman latirostris (Daudin, 1801) - Cayman Asthma, sore throat, amulet used as a protection against snake bite, rheumatism, irritation when milk teeth are erupting, hernia, prostate problems [79, 62, 139]
Caiman yacare Daudin 1802 Unspecified [180]
Melanosuchus niger (Spix, 1825) - Black cayman Thrombosis, infection, swelling, asthma, amulet used as a protection against snake bite, injuries caused by spines of the 'arraia', pain relief in injuries caused by snake bites [79, 62, 139]
Paleosuchus palpebrosus (Cuvier, 1807) - Cayman Snake bite, asthma, stroke, rheumatism, thrombosis, backache, sexual impotence, edema, mycosis, evil eye, irritation when milk teeth are erupting, discharge, sore throat, amulet used as a protection against snake bite, hernia, prostate problems [79, 62, 71, 139]
Paleosuchus trigonatus (Schneider, 1801) Rheumatism [62, 69]
Crocodylidae   
Crocodylus moreletii Duméril & Bibron 1851 Asthma, bronchial diseases [93]
Crocodylus acutus Cuvier 1807 Unspecified [152]
BIRDS   
Turdidae   
Turdus chiguanco Lafresnaye & d'Orbigny, 1837 Stomach ache [189]
Turdus grayi Bonaparte, 1838 Unspecified [152]
Troglodytes musculus Naumann, 1823 Epilepsy [72]
Cariamidae   
Cariama cristata (Linnaeus, 1766) Ethnoveterinary use [127, 178]
Accipitridae   
Geranoaetus melanoleucus (Vieillot, 1819) - Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle The feathers are used as inensing and to makemasks, wrinkles. [148]
Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758) Unspecified [179]
Buteogallus urubitinga (J. F. Gmelin, 1788) Backache, column pain and rheumatism [66]
Spizastur melanoleucus (Vieillot, 1816) Unspecified [152]
Parabuteo unicinctus (Temminck, 1824) Snake bite [152]
Anatidae   
Anser anser (Linnaeus, 1758) - Greylag goose Laryngitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis [97]
Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 - mallard General weaknesses, sexual weakness, nervous disturbances [66]
Netta erythrophthalma (Wied-Neuwied, 1833)- 'paturi' Male impotence and weakness [66]
Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758) Unspecified [111]
Lophodytes cucullatus (Linnaeus, 1758) Unspecified [96]
Tytonidae   
Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) Unspecified [152]
Anhimidae   
Anhima cornuta (Linnaeus, 1766) - Horned screamer, anuhma Intoxication from poisonous animals [151]
Scolopacidae   
Actitis macularius (Linnaeus, 1766) Dandruff (seborrhea) [96]
Ardeidae   
Ardea cocoi (Linnaeus, 1766) - White-necked Heron Swelling, inflammation, injuries caused by the spines of the 'arraia' and others fishes, asthma, boil, tumour, rheumatism, earache [79, 87]
Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758 Bronquithis and pneumonia [148]
Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758) Unspecified [96]
Apodidae   
Streptoprocne zonaris (Shaw, 1796) Unspecified [106]
Casmerodius albus (Gmelin, 1789) - Garça Bronquithis and pneumonia [71]
Ardeidae   
Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783) - socó, Rufescent Tiger-Heron Bronquithis and pneumonia [71]
Caprimulgidae   
Nyctidromus albicollis (Gmelin, 1789) - Pauraque Amulets, snake bite [69]
Caprimulgus vociferus A. Wilson, 1812 Unspecified [38]
Cathartidae   
Coragyps atratus (Bechstein, 1793) - Black vulture Deafness, bronchitis, anaemia, alcoholism, asthma, flu, earache, rheumatism, pain in the parturition, mal aire, swelling, epilepsy [79, 31, 42, 97]
Cathartes aura (Linnaeus, 1758) - Urubu, urubu-de-cabeça-vermelha Unspecified [4, 91, 103]
Cracidae   
Penelope jacucaca (Spix, 1825) - White-browed guan Insomnia [162]
Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815 Asthma [177]
Penelope purpurascens Wagler, 1830 Unspecified [152]
Penelope jacquacu Spix, 1825 Unspecified [179]
Crax globulosa Spix, 1825 - Wattled Curassow To cure rheumatism and to remove the "negative energy" from people [184]
Crax rubra Linnaeus, 1758 Unspecified [152]
Aburria pipile (Jacquin, 1784) Unspecified [179]
Pauxi tuberosa (Spix, 1825)- Razor-billed Curassow Pneumonia, bleeding, children's lack of appetite, indigestion, stroke, insect" and snake bites [74]
Mitu tuberosum (Spix, 1825) Unspecified [179]
Ortalis guttata (Spix, 1825) Unspecified [179]
Ortalis vetula (Wagler, 1830) Rheumatism [152]
Psophiidae   
Psophia leucoptera Spix, 1825 Unspecified [179]
Phoenicopteridae   
Phoenicopterus andinus Philippi, 1854 To alliviate labor pain, sprains and distend [148]
Phoenicopterus chilensis Molina, 1782 To alliviate labor pain, sprains and distend [148]
Phoenicopterus jamesi Sclater, 1886 To alliviate labor pain, sprains and distend [148]
Ciconiidae   
Vultur gryphus Linnaeus, 1758 Stomach ache, poor digestion, boils [189]
Ciconia maguari (Gmelin, 1789) - Maguari stork Injuries caused by the spines of the 'arraia' and others fishes, thrombosis [79, 82]
Jabiru mycteria (Lichtenstein, 1819) - Jabiru Unspecified [82]
Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758) - King Vulture Epilepsia, sifilis, ulcera [96]
Columbidae   
Leptotila rufaxilla (Richard & Bernard, 1792) - Gray-fronted dove Thrombosis, pterygium [66, 162]
Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789) - Rock pigeon Asthma, laryngitis, pharyngitis, tonsilitis [66, 97, 103]
Columba picazuro Temminck, 1813 - 'asa-branca Sore throat, tonsillitis, bronchitis and hoarseness [66]
Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1810) Unspecified [175]
Columbina passerina (Linnaeus, 1758) Unspecified [96]
Corvidae   
Cyanocorax cyanopogon (Wied, 1821) - White-naped jay Asthma, neurological problems [66, 81, 162]
Cotingidae   
Procnias nudicollis (Vieillot, 1817) - araponga, Bare-throated Bellbird Tuberculosis [4, 71]
Cotinga amabilis Gould, 1857 Unspecified [96]
Crotophaga ani Linnaeus, 1758 - Smooth-billed ani Bronchitis, thrombosis, asthma, whooping cough, rheumatism [79, 97]
Crotophaga sulcirostris Swainson, 1827 Cancer [105]
Piaya cayana (Linnaeus, 1766) Heart diseases [105]
Guira guira (Gmelin, 1788) - Guira cuckoo Asthma [97]
Geococcyx velox (Wagner, 1836) Unspecified [91]
Geococcyx californianus (Lesson, 1829) Cancer [103]
Charadriidae   
Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782) - Southern lapwing To stay awake [4, 115, 162]
Emberezidae   
Coereba flaveola (Linnaeus, 1758)- Banana quit Thrombosis [162]
Numididae   
Numida meleagris Linnaeus, 1758 - Helmeted Guineafowl, "Guiné" Whooping cough [4]
Falconidae   
Herpetotheres cachinnans (Linnaeus, 1758) - Laughing falcon Snake bite, sore throat, tonsillitis and hoarseness [66, 69]
Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777) - Southern caracara Snake bite [69]
Falco rufigularis Daudin, 1800 - Bat falcon Snake bite [69, 82]
Opisthocomidae   
Opisthocomus hoazin (Statius Muller, 1776) Unspecified [82]
Furnaridae   
Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788)- Rufous hornero Mumps [4, 114]
Meleagrididae   
Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus, 1758 - turkey Asthma [7, 9]
Odontophoridae   
Odontophorus capueira (Spix, 1825) Unspecified [111]
Callipepla squamata (Vigors, 1830) Unspecified [96]
Cyrtonyx montezumae (Vigors, 1830) Evil eye [103]
Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus, 1758) Dandruff, fever [96]
Phasianidae   
Gallus gallus (Linnaeus, 1758) - Domestic chicken Catarrh, fever, warts, haemorrhage, bronchitis, nasal congestion, flu, skin thorns and wounds, asthma, sore throat, tumour, poor digestion, healing of umbilical cord of newborn baby, swelling, cough, tuberculosis, earache, tonsillitis, rheumatism, diarrhoea, inflammation, pneumonia, Renal calculus, headache, sore throat, nasal congestion, fever, swelling [79, 31, 42, 63, 68, 81, 85, 97, 103, 109, 110, 115, 162, 164, 166]
Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 - Indian peafowl Thrombosis, epilepsy, fatigue [30, 126]
Coturnix coturnix (Linnaeus, 1758)-'codorna Male impotence, urinary infection and weakness [66]
Picidae   
Dryocopus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1766) - Lineated woodpecker Sexual impotence [69]
Colaptes rupicola Orbigny, 1840 Unspecified [189]
Melanerpes formicivorus (Swainson, 1827) Epilepsy [105]
Melanerpes aurifrons (Wagler, 1829) Headache [96]
Psittacidae   
Amazona aestiva (Linnaeus, 1758) Asthma [7, 9]
Ara ambiguus (Bechstein, 1811) Unspecified [152]
Amazona farinosa (Boddaert, 1783) Unspecified [152]
Amazona autumnalis (Linnaeus, 1758) Unspecified [152]
Amazona auropalliata (Lesson, 1842) Unspecified [152]
Amazona albifrons (Sparrman, 1788) Unspecified [152]
Pionus senilis (Spix, 1824) Unspecified [152]
Pionus menstruus (Linnaeus, 1766) Unspecified [152]
Pionopsitta haematotis (P. L. Sclater & Salvin, 1860) Unspecified [152]
Ara macao (Linnaeus, 1758) Mental problems [152]
Hirundinidae   
Petrochelidon andecola (D'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Epilepsy, heart diseases [189]
Stelgidopteryx ruficollis (Vieillot, 1817) Cyst [175]
Hirundo rustica Linnaeus, 1758 - Barn Swallow Dandruff, muscular pain, ophthalmological problems, Insomnia, [96]
Strigidae   
Glaucidium brasilianum (Gmelin, 1788) Rheumatism [152]
Alcedinidae   
Chloroceryle americana (Gmelin, 1788) Unspecified [152]
Cardinalidae   
Passerina versicolor (Bonaparte, 1838) Unspecified [96]
Rallidae   
Aramides cajanea (Statius Muller, 1776) - Grey-necked wood-rail Evil eye [162]
Struthionidae   
Struthio camelus Linnaeus, 1766 - Common Ostrich Osteoporosis [136]
Ramphastidae   
Ramphastos tucanus Linnaeus, 1758 - Red-billed Toucan Thrombosis, sexual impotence [31, 69]
Ramphastos vitellinus Lichtenstein, 1823 - Channel-billed toucan Sexual impotence [69]
Ramphastos sulfuratus Lesson, 1830 Unspecified [77]
Pteroglossus aracari (Linnaeus, 1758) - Black-necked aracari Sexual impotence [69]
Pteroglossus inscriptus - Swainson, 1822, Lettered aracari Sexual impotence [69]
Pteroglossus torquatus (Gmelin, 1788) Unspecified [152]
Pteroglossus frantzii Cabanis, 1861 Unspecified [152]
Selenidera spectabilis Cassin, 1858 Unspecified [152]
Rheidae   
Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758) - Greater rhea General aches, rheumatism, thrombosis, strokes [63, 115, 162, 164, 166]
Pterocnemia pennata (Orbigny, 1834) Unspecified [148]
Trogonidae   
Pharomachrus mocinno De la Llave, 1832 Unspecified [152]
Tinamidae   
Crypturellus noctivagus (Wied, 1820) - Yellow-legged tinamou Thrombosis, stroke, snake bites, tuberculosis, deafness [71, 115, 162]
Crypturellus variegatus (Gmelin, 1789) - Inambu-galinha Unspecified [87]
Nothura boraquira (Spix, 1825) - White-bellied nothura Thrombosis, stroke, tootache [115, 162]
Nothura maculosa cearensis Naumburg, 1932 - Spotted Nothura Effusion, snake bite [178]
Rhynchotus rufescens (Temminck, 1815) - Red-winged tinamou Snake bite, thrombosis, tuberculosis [119, 162]
Tinamus solitarius (Viellot 1819) - Macuco, macuca Unspecified [111]
Trochilidae   
Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788) - Swallow-tailed hummingbird Cardiopathies, asthma, flu, pains [97]
Lesbia nuna (Lesson, 1832) Evil eye [189]
Tyrannidae   
Fluvicola nengeta (Linnaeus, 1766) - Masked water-tyrant Boils, asthma [66]
Pitangus sulphuratus (Linnaeus, 1766) Earache [97]
Icteridae   
Quiscalus mexicanus (Gmelin, 1788) Unspecified [38]
Psarocolius wagleri (G. R. Gray, 1845) Unspecified [152]
Emberizidae   
Zonotrichia capensis (Statius Muller, 1776) Unspecified [189]
MAMMALS   
Molossidae   
Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766), Pallas' free-tailed bat (Bat) Asthma [66, 176]
Noctilionidae   
Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758) - greater bulldog bat Unspecified [152]
Phyllostomidae   
Artibeus jamaicensis Leach, 1821 - bat Cyst [175]
Agoutidae   
Agouti paca (Linnaeus, 1766) - Spotted paca Wound in the breast caused by suckling, ophthalmological problems, stomach disorders, pterygium, to suck a splinter out of skin or flesh, injuries caused by the spines of 'arraia', control cholesterol level, thrombosis, general body pain, leishmaniasis, snake bite, rheumatism, heart pain, pain in bones, liver pain, fever, child birth, ant bite [79, 31, 70, 85, 97, 162]
Balaenopteridae   
Megaptera novaeangliae Borowski, 1781 Unspecified [80, 171]
Balaenoptera acutorostrata Lacépède, 1804 - Minke whale Rheumatism, sore throat, wounds [79]
Bovidae   
Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 - Cow Thrombosis, evil eye, amulet used as a protection against snake bite, baldness, sexual impotence, measles, varicella, anaemia, whooping cough, Alcoholism, rheumatism, inflammation, asthma, cough, sore throat, wounds, cracks in the sole of the feet, bronchitis, dizziness, bladder problems, varicella, removal of thorns, paralisia facial, nervousness, earache, migraine, [79, 31, 36, 42, 63, 115, 162164, 166]
Bubalus bubalis (Linnaeus, 1758) - Water buffalo (feral) Rheumatism, osteoporosis, thrombosis [8]
Ovis aries (Linnaeus, 1758) - Sheep Edema, fractures, erysipelas, herpes zoster, backache, swelling, to assist children who take longer than usual to start walking, arthritis, arthrosis, rheumatism, muscle strain, inflammation, luxation, cracks in the sole of the feet, joint pain, removal of thorns [79, 31, 36, 42, 63, 91, 97, 115, 162164, 166]
Capra hircus Linnaeus, 1758 - Domestic goat Evil eye, snake bite, muscle strain [79, 31, 42, 91]
Geomyidae   
Orthogeomys hispidus (LeConte, 1852) Stomach ache, fever, susto and espanto, swelling, madness [38, 40]
Bradypodidae   
Bradypus variegatus Shinz, 1825 - Brown-throated three-toed sloth Thrombosis [8, 30, 97]
Bradypus tridactylus Linnaeus, 1758 - Pale-throated three-toed sloth Thrombosis, insects bite, scorpions bite [70]
Canidae   
Lycalopex culpaeus (Molina, 1782) Scare, susto'' (fright) [154]
Lycalopex gymnocercus (G. Fischer, 1814) Air loss, asthma, backache, disorders after parturition, pain in bones, rheumatism, scare, sprains, ulcer [100, 154]
Canis lupus (Linnaeus, 1758) - Domestic dog Chicken pox, mumps, smallpox, asthma, varicella, measles, menstrual cramps [79, 31, 97, 115, 162]
Canis latrans Say, 1823 Rheumatism [8, 11, 91, 103]
Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766) - Crab-eating fox Rheumatism, flu, haemorrhoids, disorders after parturition, diabetes, thrombosis, backache, osteoporosis, eczema, pain in articulations, sore throat, womb inflammation [79, 31, 42, 134]
Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815) - Maned wolf Epilepsy [133, 161, 162]
Dusicyon thous - Linnaeus, 1766 - Crab-eating fox Alcoholism, thrombosis, rheumatism, ophthalmological problems, diabetes, urinary infection [97, 133]
Speothos venaticus (Lund, 1842) - Bush dog Haemorrhoids [97, 133]
Caviidae   
Galea spixii Wagler, 1831 Unspecified [80]
Cavia aperea Erxleben, 1777 Inflammation, teething [97]
Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758) nervios encogidos. [182]
Kerodon rupestris (Wied-Neuwied, 1820) Constipation, tired sight, effusion [162]
Cebidae   
Alouatta belzebul (Linnaeus, 1766) - Red-handed howler monkey Whooping cough, sore throat, asthma [79, 137]
Alouatta nigerrima Lönnberg, 1941 - Amazon black howler Whooping cough, inflammation [69, 137, 181]
Alouatta seniculus (Linnaeus, 1766) - Red howler monkey Whooping cough, inflammation, to accelerate parturition [69, 87, 137]
Allouatta fusca (É. Geoffroy, 1812) - Bugio Used as aphrodisiac; used to treat any disease [101, 111]
Alouatta sara Elliot, 1910 Unspecified [83, 137]
Alouatta palliata (Gray 1849) General pains and inflammation [107, 137]
Ateles chamek (Humboldt, 1812) Fever, cough, cold shoulder pain, sleeping problems, leishmaniosis, spider bite, snake bites. [83, 137]
Ateles geoffroyi Kuhl, 1820 Rheumatism [137, 152]
Ateles paniscus (Linnaeus 1758) Rheumatism [137]
Aotus azarai (Humboldt, 1811) To cure dribbling in babies [137]
Aotus griseimembra Elliot 1912 Unspecified [137]
Cebus apella (Linnaeus, 1758) - Brow capuchin Insect sting, eye infection, Inflammatory processes, insect sting, used for osteomuscular problems, eye infection and male impotency [79, 42, 137]
Cebus albifrons (Humboldt 1812 Used as fortifier [95, 137, 152]
Cebus capucinus (Linnaeus 1758) Unspecified [137]
Lagothrix lagotricha (Humboldt 1812) Unspecified [95, 137]
Callitrichidae   
Saguinus fuscicollis (Spix, 1823) Impotence [83]
Saguinus mystax (Spix 1823) Impotence [83]
Cervidae   
Blastocerus dichotomus (Illiger, 1815) - Marsh deer Diarrhoea, vomit [151]
Mazama americana (Erxleben, 1777) - Red brocket Stroke, cold, burns [79, 30, 42, 115]
Mazama simplicicornis (Illinger, 1811) Diarrhoea, verminosis, evil eye [69]
Mazama cf. gouazoupira (G. Fischer, 1814) - Gray brocket Asthma, edema, rheumatism, snake bite, thrombosis, to assit children who take longer than usual to start walking, tootache, wounds, sprains [8, 63, 97, 162, 164]
Ozotocerus bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758) Diarrhoea, verminosis, evil eye [69])
Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780) heart diseases, oftalmological problems, Didelphis virginiana [91, 103]
Dasypodidae   
Dasypus novemcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) - Nine-banded armadillo Thrombosis, insects bite, scorpions bite, edema, asthma, deafness, earache, evil eye, diarrhoea, whooping cough, tuberculosis, to accelerate parturition [7, 8, 31, 42, 97, 162]
Dasypus kappleri Krauss, 1862 Earache [84]
Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) - Six-banded armadillo Wounds, earache, evil eye, asthma, sore throat, pneumonia, sinusitis, deafness, coarse throat [7, 8, 31, 42, 97, 162]
Tolypeutes tricinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) - Brazilian three-banded armadillo Thrombosis, rheumatism [151, 162]
Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) Embolism, ant bite, visions, skin diseases [148]
Chaetophractus vellerosus (Gray, 1865) General diseases [148]
Cabassous unicinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) - Tatu-rabo-de-couro Unspecified [88, 90]
Cabassous centralis (Miller, 1899) - Northern Naked-tailed Armadillo Stomach ache [104, 152]
Dasyproctidae   
Dasyprocta prymnolopha Wagler, 1831 - Black-rumped agouti Asthma, thrombosis [4, 162]
Dasyprocta variegata - Brown agouti Childbirth, Impotence, snake bite [148]
Delphinidae   
Sotalia fluviatilis Gervais & Deville, 1853) - Gray dolphin, gray river dolphin Asthma, headache, rheumatism, hernia, womb disorders, sore throat, injuries caused by the spines of the 'arraia', swelling, haemorrhoids inflammation, wounds, earache, erysipelas, athlete's foot, tumour, cancer [79, 31, 42, 143]
Sotalia guianensis (P. J. Van Bénéden, 1864) - Guianan river dolphin Asthma, headache, rheumatism, hernia, womb disorders, sore throat, injuries caused by the spines of the 'arraia', swelling, haemorrhoids inflammation, wounds, earache, erysipelas, athlete's foot, tumour, cancer [79, 31, 42, 143]
Didelphidae   
Didelphis albiventris (Lund, 1840) - Common opossum Boils, rheumatism [8]
Didelphis marsupialis (Linnaeus, 1758) - Southern opossum Acne, wounds, bronchitis, joint pain, stomach ache, rheumatism, diarrhoea, inflammation, erysipelas, pain in gestation, asthma, headache, oothache, earache, sore throat, flu, fever, body pain, fatigue, to accelerate parturition, mal aire, swelling [8, 9, 31, 42, 85]
Didelphis virginiana Kerr, 1792 Rheumatism, skin spots, acne, anaemia, to accelerate parturition, mal aire, swelling [91, 103]
Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied, 1826) - Saruê Unspecified [88, 90]
Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758) - Gray Four-eyed Opossum Unspecified [152]
Megalonychidae   
Choloepus hoffmanni Peters, 1858 Visions, hallucination, cramps [148]
Erethizontidae   
Coendou bicolor (Tschudi, 1844) Hallucination, fever, ant bite, flu, whooping cough, scare, varicose veins [30]
Coendou prehensilis (Linnaeus, 1758) - Brazilian porcupine Bronchitis, thrombosis, epilepsy, stroke, abscesses, conjunctivitis, asthma [79, 36, 42, 63, 73, 97, 115, 161, 162, 164]
Coendou villosus (Cuvier, 1822) - Ouriço-cacheiro Unspecified [111]
Sphiggurus mexicanus (Kerr, 1792) Acne, wart [91]
Sphiggurus insidiosus (Lichtenstein, 1818) - Luís-cacheiro Unspecified [89]
Chaetomys subspinosus(Olfers, 1818) - Luís-cacheiro Unspecified [89]
Equidae   
Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758 - Asino Snake bite, whooping cough, asthma, Avoid pregnancy [79, 42, 73, 91, 115, 162]
Equus caballus (Linnaeus, 1758) - Horse Cough, deep cuts, dermatosis, wounds [8]
Felidae   
Felis silvestris Schreber, 1775 - Domestic cat Asthma, snake bites [8]
Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) - Mountain lion Wounds, leishmaniosis, arthritis, pain in bones, rheumatism, distend, scare, stomach ache, evil eye, fever, avoid acne, contusions and muscular pain [8, 87, 157]
Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758) Wounds, leishmaniosis, Cough, fatigue, fever, pain in bones [8, 87, 157]
Panthera tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) - Tigre Unspecified [4]
Leopardus jacobitus (Cornalia, 1865) Self encorage [148]
Leopardus colocolo (Molina, 1782) Self encorage [148]
Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821) Unspecified [148]
Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) - Gato-maracajá Unspecified [30]
Octodontidae   
Ctenomys opimus Wagner, 1848 To make the child's teeth stronger [148]
Chinchillidae   
Lagidium viscacia (Molina, 1782) Bad memory [148]
Lagidium peruanum Meyen, 1833 Earache [182, 189]
Hydrochaeridae   
Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) - Capybara Thrombosis, conjunctivitis, venereal disease, rheumatism, earache, strengthen bones, liver pain, bronchitis, asthma, wounds, erysipelas, cough [79, 42, 73, 85, 97, 115, 155, 161, 162]
Heteromyidae   
Heteromys desmarestianus Gray, 1868 Unspecified [38, 148]
Iniidae   
Inia geoffrensis (Blainville, 1817) - Amazon river dolphin Asthma, headache, rheumatism, hernia, womb disorders, sore throat, injuries caused by the spines of the 'arraia', swelling, haemorrhoids inflammation, wounds, earache, erysipelas, athlete's foot, tumour, cancer [7, 8, 42, 73, 143]
Leporidae   
Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) - Forest rabbit, tapeti Thrombosis, conjunctivitis, boils, burns, ophthalmological problems, embolism, scare, fever, hallucination [7, 8, 42, 73, 97, 143, 162]
Sylvilagus floridanus (J. A. Allen, 1890) Unspecified [152]
Sylvilagus cunicularius (Waterhouse, 1848) To bring good luck [103]
Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758) - Coelho Unspecified [4]
Lepus alleni Mearns, 1890 Stomach ache [103]
Sciuridae   
Sciurus spadiceus Olfers, 1818 Unspecified [125]
Sciurus deppei Peters, 1863 Unspecified [125]
Sciurus aureogaster F. Cuvier, 1829 Unspecified [125]
Ammospermophilus interpres (Merriam, 1890 Inflammation [103]
Mephitidae   
Conepatus semistriatus (Boddaert, 1785) - Striped hog-nosed skunk Rheumatism, acne, scabies, blood problems, bronchial diseases, skin problems, asthma, nervous disturbances [79, 42, 73, 162]
Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782) - Gambá, Molina's Hog-nosed Skunk Thrombosis, rheumatism, general diseases  
Conepatus leuconotus leuconotus (Lichtenstein, 1832) Blood disorders, acne, stomach ache, mal aire, swelling, undescended testicles, rabies, whooping cough, bone pain Acné, dolor muscular [105]
Mephitis macroura Lichtenstein, 1832 Stomach ache, mal aire, swelling, undescended testicles, Rabies, whooping cough, pain in bone, asthma [8, 103, 125, 148]
Spilogale putorius (Linnaeus, 1758) Stomach ache, mal aire, swelling, undescended testicles, rabies, whooping cough, pain in bone [91]
Ambystomidae   
Ambystoma mexicanum (Shaw and Nodder, 1798) Bronchitis [103]
Mustelidae   
Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818) Thrombosis, ampollas [162]
Mustela frenata Lichtenstein, 1831 Unspecified [152]
Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) Unspecified [152]
Taxidea taxus (Schreber, 1777) Witchcraft [103]
Camelidae   
Lama glama (Linnaeus, 1758) Unspecified [148, 154]
Lama guanicoe (Müller, 1776) Asthma, scare [148, 154]
Vicugna vicugna (Molina, 1782) Unspecified [148, 154]
Cyclopedidae   
Cyclopes didactylus (Linnaeus, 1758) Rheumatism [152]
Myrmecophagidae   
Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758 - Giant anteater Thrombosis, stroke, general body pain, Snake bite, urinary problem, heart pain, ant bite [8, 115, 162]
Myrmecophaga tetradactyla (Linnaeus, 1758) - Collared anteater Edema, thrombosis, itching, ant bite, rheumatism [79, 42, 97]
Tamandua mexicana (Saussure, 1860) - Northern Tamandua Unspecified [152]
Procyonidae   
Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766) - South American coati Sexual impotence, wounds, skin burns, snake bites, backache, cold, cough, leg pain, wounded foot, earache, neck strain, to help become pregnant, whooping cough [79, 42, 63, 73, 111, 162, 164, 166]
Nasua narica (Linnaeus, 1766) White-nosed Coati English Male impotence [152]
Procyon cancrivorus (G. [Baron] Cuvier, 1798) - Crab-eating raccoon Rheumatism, epilepsy, thrombosis, snake bite [79, 42, 73, 97, 115]
Procyon lotor (Linnaeus, 1758) Unspecified [152]
Potos flavus (Schreber, 1774) - Kinkajou Earache, snake bite, ant bite [152]
Physeteridae   
Physeter catodon Linnaeus, 1758 - Sperm whale, cachelot Asthma, backache, rheumatism, sore throat, wounds [79, 42, 119]
Muridae   
Neotoma mexicana Baird, 1855 Unspecified [38]
Peromyscus mexicanus (Saussure, 1860) Abdominal distension [40]
Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 Pertussis [175]
Suidae   
Sus scrofa (Linnaeus, 1758) - Wild boar Acne, boils, tumours, asthma, athlete's foot, warble, wounds, [79, 42, 73, 91]
Tapiridae   
Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) - Brazilian tapir Rheumatism, arthrosis, osteoporosis, bursite, muscular pain, asthma, tonsillitis, cough, general body pain [8]
Tapirus bairdii (Gill, 1865) Unspecified [152]
Tayassuidae   
Pecari tajacu Linnaeus 1758 - Collared peccary Thrombosis, bronchitis, stroke [8, 85, 115, 162]
Tayassu pecari (Link, 1795) - White-lipped peccary Thrombosis, stroke, cold, wounds [8, 9, 115, 162]
Trichechidae   
Trichechus inunguis (Natterer, 1883) - Amazonian manatee Sprains, vaginal discharge, injuries caused by bang, burns, asthma, menstrual cramps, rheumatism, sore throat, wounds, muscle strain, suck a splinter out of skin or fresh, tumour, backache, hernia, arthrosis, luxation, insects bite [79, 31, 42, 155]
Trichechus manatus (Linnaeus, 1758) - Manatee Arthrosis, luxation, menstrual cramps, insects bites, sprains, vaginal discharge, injuries caused by bang, burns, asthma, rheumatism, sore throat, wounds, muscle strain [79, 31, 42, 155]