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Table 1 Mollusks used in Candomble temples, including uses, symbolism, and liturgy.

From: Mollusks of Candomblé: symbolic and ritualistic importance

Family/Species Name(s) Geographic range Uses Number of mentions
     CG CA
Achatinidae      
Achatina fulica (Ferussac, 1821) Ibi, Igbin, Boi-de-Oxalá Native to East Africa, introduced into other countries, including Brazil Sacrificial offerings to Oxalá -- 6
Cassidae      
Cassis tuberosa (Linnaeus, 1758) --- North Carolina, Caribbean and Brazil Used ornamentally on the shell game table used by the temple priest during consultation; ornamental use for Oxumarê's altar -- 2
Cerithiidae   -    
Cerithium eburneum Bruguière, 1792 --- Southeastern Florida and West Indies to Brazil Present on the divination table of a Yoruba nation babalorixá -- 1
Cypraeidae      
Monetaria annulus (Linnaeus, 1758) Búzio Indo-Pacific Used in shell game; ornaments used in altars and liturgical objects 2 8
Erosaria caputserpentis (Linnaeus, 1758) Búzio-africano Indo-Pacific Used in shell game; ornaments used in altars and liturgical objects 1 8
Monetaria moneta Linnaeus, 1758 Búzio Indo-Pacific Used in shell game; ornaments used in altars and liturgical objects 2 8
Cypraea tigris Linnaeus, 1758 --- Indo-Pacific Symbolizes the "odus"(sacred oral text) for a Yoruba nation temple priest -- 1
Macrocypraea zebra (Linnaeus, 1758) --- North Carolina to Yucatan, West Indies to Brazil Present on the divination table of a Yoruba nation temple priest -- 1
Luria cinerea (Gmelin, 1791 --- North Carolina to Yucatan, West Indies to Brazil Present on the divination table of a Yoruba nation temple priest -- 1
Muricidae      
Stramonita rustica (Lamarck, 1822) --- Florida to Brazil Present on the divination table of a Yoruba nation temple priest -- 1
Neritidae      
Nerita fulgurans --- Southeastern United States to Brazil Present on the divination table of a Yoruba nation temple priest -- 1
Ostreidae      
Crassostrea rhizophorae (Guilding, 1828) Ostra Caribbean to Brazil Offering to Iemanjá 1 ---
Pectinidae      
Euvola ziczac (Linnaeus, 1758) --- North Carolina to Brazil Ornament for an Oxum liturgical object -- 1
Ranellidae      
Cymatium raderi D'Attilio & Myers, 1984 --- Honduras, Tobago Is., and Brazil Ornament for Oxumarê's altar -- 1
Charonia variegata (Lamarck, 1816) --- North Carolina to Brazil, Cape Verde, Ascension and Sta. Helena Island Table ornament where a temple priest consults using the shell game -- 1
Spondylidae      
Spondylus americanus Hermann, 1781 --- North Carolina to Brazil Altar ornament for Yemanjá -- 1
Strombidae      
Eustrombus goliath (Schröter, 1805) --- Northeastern and Southeastern Brazil Table ornament where a temple priest consults using the shell game; altar ornament for Yemanjá -- 1
Turbinidae      
Lithopoma tectum (Lightfoot, 1786) --- Campeche to Brazil Present on the divination table of a Yoruba nation temple priest -- 1
Veneridae      
Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791) --- West Indies to Brazil Present on the divination table of a Yoruba nation temple priest -- 1