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Table 2 Names, life forms, local uses, collection period and additional local uses of wild edible plants in five districts of central and western Nepal

From: Diversity of use and local knowledge of wild edible plant resources in Nepal

Latin name, Botanical family and Growth habit Vernacular name(s) Local use(s) (edible only) Collection period Additional local use(s)
Acacia rugata (Lam.) Voigt
Leguminosae, Climber
Sikakai (Np.); Aila (Mag.); Lashiur (Thr.) Young shoots used to make pickle or cooked as vegetable. June-August Fruits used as detergent.
Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa*
Rutaceae, Tree
Bel (Np.); Ber (Thr.) Pulp of ripe fruits eaten fresh and also taken as syrup. March-June Plant of ritual importance. Fruit juice used as fish poisoning. Unripe fruits taken to treat diarrhoea.
Antidesma acidum Retz.
Euphorbiaceae, Tree
Dakhi (Thr.) Fruits edible. Young leaves used to make pickle. September-May Leaves used as fodder.
Ardisia macrocarpa Wall.
Myrsinaceae, Tree
Paniphal (Np.); Damarai (Thr.) Ripe fruits edible. August-September -
Arisaema tortuosum (Wall) Schott
Araceae, Herb
Baanko (Np.) Aerial parts used as vegetable. April-July -
Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb.
Moraceae, Tree
Badahar (Np.) Ripe fruits eaten fresh. Young shoots cooked as vegetable. June-August Leaf juice used to make fermenting material locally called "Marcha". Leaves used as fodder.
Asparagus racemosus Willd*
Liliaceae, Herb
Kurilo, Jhirjhire kanda (Np.); Kurla (Thr.) Tender shoots eaten as vegetable or used to make pickle. June–July -
Bambusa arundinacea Willd*
Poaceae, Herb
Bans (Np.) Young shoots eaten as vegetable. June-August Leaf juice used to treat jaundice. Root juice used in otitis “Kan pakne”.
Bambusa nepalensis Stapleton*
Poaceae, Herb
Choya bans (Np.) Young shoots eaten as vegetable. June-August -
Bauhinia purpurea L
Leguminosae, Tree
Tanki (Np., Bk.) Flowers and young shoots eaten as vegetable. March-May Leaves used as fodder.
Bauhinia vahlii Wight & Arn.
Leguminosae, Climber
Bhorla (Np.); Malu, Namarain, Moharain (Thr.) Pods eaten as vegetable. Fruits edible. August-February Stem bark used to make ropes. Leaves used to make umbrella “Ghoom” and traditional plates “Duna” and “Tapari” for ritual functions. Bark juice used as fermenting material and to cure blood dysentery.
Bauhinia variegata L.* Leguminosae, Tree Koiralo (Np.); Koilar (Thr.) Young shoots and leaves eaten as vegetable. Flowers eaten as vegetable or used to make pickle. March-May -
Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn.*
Cucurbitaceae, Climber
Kubhindo (Np., Bk.) Fruits used to make pickle or vegetable. August-November -
Bombax ceiba L.
Bombacaceae, Tree
Simal (Np.); Samura, Semara (Thr.) Young flowers eaten as vegetable. December-March Seeds used to make yeast and to treat abdomen pain. Young flowers used as fodder.
Buchanania latifolia Roxb. M.R. Almeida*
Anacardiaceae, Tree
Piyar, Piyari (Thr.) Young shoots eaten raw. Fruits edible. May-June Leaves used as fodder.
Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston
Leguminosae, Shrub
Karauji, Kanja (Thr.) Fruits edible. April-September -
Capparis spinosa L.
Capparaceae, Shrub
Baganchuwa (Thr) Young shoots used to make pickle or vegetable. October-November -
Carissa carandas L.
Apocynaceae, Shrub
Chutro (Np.); Karaudi (Thr.) Fruits edible. June-July Root juice used in abortion.
Castanopsis indica (Roxb. ex Lindl.) A.DC.*
Fagaceae, Tree
Katus (Np.); Katwas, Jheru (Mag.) Fruits edible. Young shoots eaten as vegetable. September–November Leaves used as fodder.
Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T. Nees & Eberm.*
Lauraceae, Tree
Tejpat (Np.) Leaves and bark used as spices. October-December Leaves used as fodder.
Cissus javana DC.
Vitaceae, Climber
Jogi lahara (Np.) Leaves used to make pickle. September-November -
Cleome viscosa L.
Cleomaceae, Herb
Ban tori (Np.) Seeds used as spice. September-November -
Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt
Cucurbitaceae, Climber
Gol kakri, Ban kakri (Np.) Fruits edible. July-December -
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott*
Araceae, Herb
Karkalo (Np., Bk.), Gabda (Thr.) Tuber and leaves eaten as vegetable. Whole year -
Crateva unilocularis Buch.-Ham*
Capparaceae, Tree
Sipligan (Np.) Young shoots eaten as vegetable. January-March -
Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Nees & Arn. ex Munro*
Poaceae, Herb
Tamabans (Np.) Tender shoots eaten as vegetables. September-October Shoots used to make flute “Basuri”.
Dillenia pentagyna Roxb.
Dilleniaceae, Tree
Agaie (Thr.) Young shoots and flowers eaten as vegetable. March-April -
Dioscorea bulbifera L.*
Dioscoreaceae, Climber
Githa (Np.) Fruits eaten as vegetable. November-December -
Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. ex Griseb.*
Dioscoreaceae, Climber
Bhyakur (Np.) Tuberous roots eaten as vegetable. November-February -
Diospyros malabarica (Desr.) Kostel
Ebenaceae, Tree
Tendu, Tendak (Thr.) Fruits edible. April-May Leaves used to make cigarettes “Bidi”.
Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw.*
Woodsiaceae, Herb
Neuro (Np.); Kochiya (Thr.) Young shoots eaten as vegetable. April-June -
Diploknema butyracea (Roxb.) H.J. Lam*
Sapotaceae, Tree
Chiuri (Np.) Ripe fruits edible. April-July -
Ensete glaucum (Roxb.) Cheesman
Musaceae, Herb
Ban kera (Np.) Fruits edible. September-December -
Ficus auriculata Lour.
Moraceae, Tree
Nebaro (Np.) Ripe figs edible. June–July Leaves and twigs used as fodder.
Ficus benghalensis L.
Moraceae, Tree
Bar (Np.); Bargad (Thr.) Ripe figs edible. April-June Milky latex used in scabies. Plant used as fodder, fuel-wood, and in religious functions.
Ficus hispida L.f. Moraceae, Tree Thote, Khasreto (Np.) Fruits edible or used to make pickle. June-September Leaves and twigs used as fodder.
Ficus lacor Buch.-Ham.
Moraceae, Tree
Kabro (Np.); Pakadi (Thr.) Young shoots eaten as vegetable. March-May -
Ficus racemosa L.
Moraceae, Tree
Dumri (Np.); Daurai, Gullar (Thr.) Ripe figs edible. July-September Leaves and twigs used as fodder.
Ficus sarmentosa Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.
Moraceae, Tree
Bedulo (Np.) Ripe figs edible. July-September -
Ficus semicordata Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.
Moraceae, Tree
Khanneu, Khaniyo (Np.) Ripe figs edible. June–July Leaves and twigs used as fodder.
Grewia optiva J.R. Drumm. ex Burret
Tiliaceae, Tree
Phorsa, Phorshat (Thr.) Fruits edible. September-December -
Hydnum repandum L.
Hydnaceae, Fungi
Chyau (Np., Bk.) Whole plant eaten as vegetable or used to make pickle. March-July -
Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr.
Anacardiaceae, Tree
Dabdabe (Np.); Jangra (Thr.) Fruits edible. July-October Leaf juice used in cuts.
Madhuca longifolia (J. König ex L.) J.F. Macbr.
Sapotaceae, Tree
Mahuwa (Thr.) Succulent flowers eaten fresh. Fruits edible. March-July Seed cake used as fish poisoning. Flower used to make local liquor. Leaves used as plates.
Mangifera indica L.*
Anacardiaceae, Tree
Aamp (Np.); Sathak (Mag.) Fruits eaten raw or used to make pickle. June-July Bark juice used in pneumonia and stomach disorders.
Manihot esculenta Crantz*
Euphorbiaceae, Shrub
Simal tarul (Np., Bk.) Tuberous roots eaten as vegetable. December–February -
Melastoma malabathricum L.
Melastomataceae, Shrub
Angeri (Np.) Ripe fruits eaten fresh. July-December -
Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd.
Cucurbitaceae, Climber
Ban karela (Np.) Fruits eaten as vegetable. August-November -
Moringa oleifera Lam.
Moringaceae, Tree
Sital chini, Saijan (Np.) Pods used as vegetable. April-June -
Morus nigra L.*
Moraceae, Tree
Kimbu (Np.) Fruits edible. May-July -
Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.*
Rutaceae, Shrub
Karipatta, Boke (Np.); Binbinveria (Thr.) Leaves used as spices. Ripe fruits eaten fresh. June-August -
Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don*
Myricaceae, Tree
Kafal (Np.) Ripe fruits edible. March–June -
Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl
Davalliaceae, Herb
Pani amala (Np.) Tuberous roots eaten as fruit. August-September -
Ocimum gratissimum L.
Lamiaceae, Herb
Ban tulsi (Bk.) Seeds edible. October-December -
Ophioglossum reticulatum L.*
Ophioglossaceae, Herb
Jibre saag (Np.); Ek patiya (Thr.) Young leaves used as vegetable. March–April -
Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton
Lamiaceae, Herb
Silam (Np., Bk.) Roasted seeds used to make pickle. October-December -
Phoenix humilis Royle & Hook.f.
Palmae, Herb
Thakal (Np.); Khajuri (Thr.) Ripe fruits edible. Tuberous roots eaten as vegetable. February-May Leaves used as thatching material and as brooms. Fruits used in local liquor preparation.
Phyllanthus emblica L.*
Euphorbiaceae, Tree
Amala (Np.); Amar, Aura, Amalosa (Thr.) Fruits eaten fresh or used to make pickle. October-December Fruit paste used as fish poisoning. Fruits used in cough and cold.
Piper longum L.
Piperaceae, Herb
Pipla (Np.) Fruits edible. November-December Fruit powder used to treat cough and cold.
Remusatia vivipara (Roxb.) Schott
Araceae, Herb
Jaluko (Np., Thr.) Tender shoots eaten as vegetable. May-September -
Rhus javanica Miller
Anacardiaceae, Tree
Bhakmilo (Thr.) Fruits edible. November-March -
Rhus wallichii Hook.f Anacardaceae, Tree Kag bhalayo (Np.) Fruit pulp eaten. December-April -
Ricinus communis L.
Euphorbiaceae, Herb
Ander (Np.); Aril, Raine (Thr.); Renu (Mag.) Fruits used to make pickle. May-October Stem used in ear problems.
Rubus ellipticus Sm.*
Rosaceae, Shrub
Aiselu (Np.) Ripe fruits eaten fresh. May–July Root juice used to treat typhoid and measles.
Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Merr.
Sapindaceae, Tree
Kusum (Np.); Kosam (Thr.) Pulp of ripe fruits edible. June-August Twigs used as fodder. Leaves used as fertilizer.
Semecarpus anacardium L.f.
Anacardiaceae, Tree
Bhalayo (Np.); Bhella, Bheli (Thr.) Fruits edible. November-March Seeds used to cure cut and wounds.
Smilax aspera L.
Smilacaceae, Climber
Kukurdaino (Np.) Young shoots used as vegetable. Flowers used to make pickle. September-October -
Smilax ovalifolia Roxb. ex D. Don
Smilacaceae, Climber
Kukurdaino (Np.) Young shoots used as vegetable. September-October -
Spondias pinnata (L. f.) Kurz
Anacardiaceae, Tree
Amora (Np.); Amar (Thr.) Fruits edible and also used to make pickle. November-March -
Sterculia villosa Roxb.
Malvaceae, Tree
Odal (Np.) Fruits edible. June-August Bark fibre used to make ropes. Root power used as soda powder.
Symplocos pyrifolia Wall. ex G. Don
Symplocaceae, Tree
Kale kath (Np., Bk.) Fruits edible. July-August -
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels*
Myrtaceae, Tree
Jamun (Np.); Jamuni (Thr.) Ripe fruits eaten fresh. May-August Bark juice used in abdominal pain, diarrhoea and as fish poison.
Tamilnadia uliginosa (Retz.) Tirveng. & Sastre
Rubiaceae, Tree
Perra (Thr.) Fruits used as vegetable. May-September -
Tectaria coadunata (Wall. ex Hook. & Grev.) C. Chr.*
Dryopteridaceae, Herb
Kalo neuro (Np.); Dhakurok (Mag.) Young leafy parts used as vegetable. May-June Root juice used in blood dysentery and “Gano”.
Tectaria zeylanica (Houtt.) Sledge
Ophioglossaceae, Herb
Mayur kutea (Np.); Dhagrajawa (Thr.) Leaves eaten as vegetable. March-April -
Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.*
Combretaceae, Tree
Barro (Np.); Bahare (Thr.) Seed pulp edible. November-January Fruits used to prepare local wine. Fruit powder used in cough. Leaves used as plates.
Termitomyces eurhizus (Berk.) Heim.*
Tricholomataceae, Fungi
Chyau (Np., Bk.) Plant eaten as vegetable. June-September -
Tetrastigma serrulatum (Roxb.) Planch
Vitaceae, Climber
Pureni, Charchare jhar (Np.) Ripe fruits eaten fresh. November-February Root juice used to treat wounds. Plant juice used in eye troubles. Leaves used as fodder.
Urtica dioica L.
Urticaceae, Herb
Sisnu (Np.) Young shoots taken as vegetable. Whole year -
Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.*
Rhamnaceae, Shrub
Bayer (Np.) Fruits eaten raw or used to make pickle. October-March Bark juice and stem nodule used in dysentery. Roots used to make fermenting material. Fruit paste used as fish poisoning.
Zizyphus rugosa Lam.*
Rhamnaceae, Tree
Rukh bayer (Np.) Fruits edible. December-February Stem juice used to treat swelling legs. Fruit paste used as fish poisoning.
  1. *Species with commercial value.
  2. Np. Nepali name; Thr. Tharu name; Bk. Bankariya name