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Table 1 Traditional food and medicinal uses of wild plants and mushrooms in Mundimitar/Montemitro

From: Traditional food and herbal uses of wild plants in the ancient South-Slavic diaspora of Mundimitar/Montemitro (Southern Italy)

Botanical taxon and family Local name(s) in Mundimitar English name Part(s) used Folk use(s) in Mundimitar Frequency of citation
Allium sativum L. (Amaryllidaceae) (CULTIVATED) Luk Garlic Flowering shoots Boiled, then preserved in olive oil or vinegar; in tomato sauces +++
Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae) Pjedruš Amaranth Leaves Raw in salads, or boiled +++
Apium nodiflorum (L.) Lag. (Apiaceae) Kanijola Fool's water-cress Aerial parts Raw in salads or between two slices of bread +++
Armillaria mellea (Vahl) P. Kumm and related species (Marasmiaceae) Rekkie mušil Honey fungus Fruiting body Blanched, then fried +
Asparagus acutifolius L. (Asparagaceae) Sparuga Wild asparagus Shoots Boiled, then fried in omelets +++
Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang.
Blitva Wild beet Leaves Boiled, then fried +++
Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae) Bureina Borage Young leale Boiled. +++
Coated with bread crumbs, then deep fried
Bunias erucago L. (Brassicaceae) (?) Rapanača Crested warty cabbage Whorls Boiled and fried +
Calendula arvensis L. (Asteraceae) Kalendula Marigold Flowers In salads +
Cantharellus cibarius Fr. (Cantharellaceae) Galuč Chanterelle Fruiting body Blanched, then fried +
Centaurium erythraea Rafn. (Gentianaceae) Džencjanela Centaury Aerial parts Decoction as a panacea +
Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae) Čikoria Wild cichory Whorls Boiled, then fried in olive oil with garlic ++
Clavaria sp. (Clavariaceae) Picele Coral fungus Fruiting body Boiled, then fried +
Clematis vitalba L. (Ranunculaceae) Škrabut Traveller’s joy Shoots Boiled, then fried or in sauces; digestive aid +++
Stems are directly applied on the tooth to treat toothache
Cornus mas L. (Cornaceae) Kurnja Cornel cherry tree Fruits (Kurnjal) Consumed raw, or dried/smoked; liqueurs +++
Crataegus. monogyna Jacq. and C. oxyacantha L. (Rosaceae) Glog Hawthorn Fruits (Glogbili) Consumed raw as snack. +++
The thorny stems were used to insert into figs for drying.
Cydonia oblonga Mill. (Rosaceae) Kutunja Quince Fruits Boiled with wine, for treating sore throats. +++
Cynara cardunculus L. (Asteraceae) Ošnak Wild artichocke or wild cardoon Stems Boiled, then fried with eggs +++
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. (Poaceae) Gramača Bermuda grass Whole plant Decoction as a diuretic ++
Diplotaxis erucoides (L.) DC. (Brassicaceae) Marijun White wall-rocket Leaves Raw in salads, more often fried in the pan +++
Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich. (Cucurbitaceae) Tikvica divlja Squirting cucumber Fruit juice Instilled in the nose for treating malaria or spread on women breast for weaning babies ++
Eruca sativa Miller
Rucola Rocket Leaves Raw in salads +++
Eryngium campestre L. (Apiaceae) (?) Sikavac Field eryngo Leaves Decoction for treating eye inflammations +
Ficus carica L. (Moraceae) Smokva Fig tree Pseudofruits Eaten fresh or dried +++
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. piperitum (Ucria) Cout. (Apiaceae) Finoč Wild fennel Fruits Seasoning for home-made sausages; decoctions as diuretic or for treating gastric reflux +++
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae) Gurgulica Licorice Root Consumed raw as snack. +++
The aerial parts used as insect repellent.
Humulus lupulus L. (Cannabaceae) Lupare Wild hop Shoots Boiled, then fried in omelet ++
Hydnum repandum L.: Fr. (Hydnaceae) Lengaove Wood hedgehog Fruiting body Blanched, then fried ++
Lupinus albus L. spp. (Fabaceae) (CULTIVATED) Lupino Lupin Flower shoots
Aerial parts
Boiled, then fried. +
The decoction of the whole aerial parts is used in external washes for treating pig erysipelas
Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae) Slis Mallow Leaves and flowers Decoction for treating digestive troubles, bronchitis, or as a laxative for children +++
Matricaria chamomilla L. (Asteraceae) Kamomilla Chamomile Flowering tops or stems Decoction, as a mild tranquillizer ++
Mercurialis annua L. (Euphorbiaceae) Merkulela Mercurya Leaves Boiled in soups (mixed with other herbs), or in purgative decoctions ++
Olea europaea L. var. sylvestris Brot. (Oleaceae) Maslina Wild olive tree Branches Used for drying figs ++
Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) Pljei Wild oregano Flowering tops Seasoning +++
Papaver rhoeas L. (Papaveraceae) Mak Corn poppy Young aerial parts Raw in salads, or cooked +++
Parietaria judaica L. (Urticaceae) Kolana Pellitory Aerial parts Decoction in external use for treating hemorrhoids (affected parts exposed to vapors). ++
Necklaces for children
Picris echioides L. and P. hieracioides L. (Asteraceae) Tustača Oxtongue Whorls and shoots Shoots eaten raw as snack. ++
Whorls boiled and fried.
Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae) Prkatj Purslane Aerial parts Raw in salads ++
Prunus spinosa L. (Rosaceae) Ndrnjela Sloe Fruits Gathered an consumed after the frost; liqueurs ++
Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) Šipak Pomegranate Fruits Consumed raw in winter ++
Pyrus pyraster Burgsd.
Trnovača Wild pear tree Fruits Gathered and consumed after the frost ++
Quercus virgiliana (Ten.) Ten. (Fagaceae) (?) Sladul Oak Kernel Consumed raw +
Rosa canina L. (Rosaceae) Skorčavata Dog rose Pseudofruits Decoction for treating sore throat (sometimes together wild dried figs, apple slices, and barley) +++
Ruscus aculeatus L. (Asparagaceae) Leprencia Butcher’s Broom Shoots Boiled, then fried. ++
Dried branches were used to clean the fireplace
Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) Ruta Rue Aerial parts Aromatizing grappa. +++
Kept under the pillow for treating worms in children.
A few leaves eaten raw by pregnant women to prevent miscarriage (in the past)
Salvia verbenaca L. (Lamiaceae) Prsenica Meadow sage Leaves Applied externally with pork fat as a suppurative or for treating insect stings +
Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae) Baz Elderbery tree Aerial parts and fruits Decoction, then in external washes for treating erysipelas in pigs. +++
Fruits juice used as ink in the past.
Sinapis alba L and S. arvensis L. (Brassicaceae) Sinapa Wild mustard Young aerial parts Raw in salads, more often cooked in the pan ++
Sonchus arvensis L. and S. oleraceus L. (Asteraceae) Kostriš/
Sow thistle Young aerial parts Boiled, then fried in the pan or cooked in tomato sauce +++
Sorbus domestica L. (Rosaceae) Oskoruša Service tree Fruits Consumed after natural fermentation ++
Stellaria media (L.) Vill.
Mišakina Chickweed Aerial parts Fodder for hens ++
Tamus communis L. (Dioscoreaceae) Gljuštre Black bryony Shoots Boiled, then fried in the pan with eggs or tomato sauce (sometimes served on noodles) +++
Teucrium chamaedrys L. (Lamiaceae) Kametr Wall germander Aerial parts Decoction for treating malaria (in the past) and hypertension ++
Umbilicus rupestris (Salisb.) Dandy (Crassulaceae) Kopič Navelwort Leaves Crushed and mixed with pork fat and soot for treating furuncles ++
Urtica dioica L (Urticaceae) Kopriva Nettle Leaves and shoots Boiled, then mixed with ricotta cheese, in filled pasta. +++
Decoction in external washes for strengthening the hair
Ziziphus jujuba Miller
Džurdžula Jujube Fruits Eaten after natural fermentation +
  1. (?) Identification was only postulated on the basis of linguistic data and plant description; +++: quoted by 7 informants or more; ++: quoted by 2 to 6 informants; +: quoted by 1 or 2 informants only.