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Figure 2 | Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine

Figure 2

From: Traditional knowledge among Zapotecs of Sierra Madre Del Sur, Oaxaca. Does it represent a base for plant resources management and conservation?

Figure 2

Relationship among different vegetation units, based on physical factors, plant composition, and disturbance degree. This figure indicates the way Zapotecs of San Agustín Loxicha perceive their environment. Zapotecs use the term (wán) to vegetation, but they also use concepts like izyo bixhs’, izyo nayee, which means dry earth and green earth, respectively. They also recognize that vegetation distribution varies depending on temperature and humidity, and these differences are indicated with concepts like izyo nasú o nacee or izyo nal for plants that grow in dry and hot places, and others in cold and wet places, respectively. The term wán designs all plant components and based on physiognomy and disturbance level, they are grouped in three Zapotec categories: wán nosa, includes cloudy mountain, evergreen, subdeciduous and deciduous forest, characterized by a complex mixture of plants. In contrast, vegetation conformed by template elements is named wán idio, which comprises the next vegetation units: wán len yer, which corresponds to pine forest, where P douglasiana,P. maximinoi y P. oocarpa are the dominant species; oak forest, wán len you or wán ya you where Quercus candicans, Q. crassifolia. Q. elliptica, Q. nixoniana, Q. obtusata, Q. ocoteifolia Q. peduncularis, Q. polymorpha, Q. subspathulata y Q. uxoris; spp. are the dominant elements, and wán len yeryou, where Pinus and Quercus are codominant species. The term Won wán is applied to secondary vegetation, derived from wán gosh that has been subject to human manipulation and then left to rest. Different stages can be recognized: wán rod, corresponds to small shoots; wán bixhs or wán lu, small herbs; wán lat, small shrubs and trees; wán goxh, tall and thick trees, which is also applied to natural vegetation areas. If lianas with spines grow in the area, they use the term wán do’o. If plant cover has been modified by introduction of coffee plants, it is named wán lo ya’a café.

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