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Table 1 Enumeration of documented plants and plant products traditionally used in health management of livestock by the Ameru of Buuri district, Meru County, Kenya (n = 48)

From: A survey of plants and plant products traditionally used in livestock health management in Buuri district, Meru County, Kenya

Botanical name [Family] Local name Part(s) of plant used Disease/ill-health condition treated and (the target type of livestock) [local name] Method(s) of preparation Herbarium voucher plant specimens’ number References in literature supporting the claimed uses
Acacia drepanolobium Harms ex sjostedt [Fabaceae] Muruai Bark Retained placenta (c) [Kuremera thigiri] Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/015 [9, 28, 29]
Acacia mearnsii De Wild. [Fabaceae] Muthanduku Leaves Coughing (c, g, s, p, pg, r) [Gukolora] Infusion K/M/B/12-2011/004 [30, 31]
Acacia xanthophloea Benth. [Fabaceae] Murera Bark Foot and Mouth disease (r, p, c) [Ikunguri] Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/029 -
Ajuga remota Benth. [Lamiaceae] Kirurite Leaves Whole plant East Coast fever (c) [Itaa/Ng’arang’ari], Newcastle disease (p) [Kuthinka] and Helminthiasis (c, p, g, s, pg) [Njoka] Infusion Cold infusion Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/016 [29, 30, 32]
Ajuga remota Benth. [Lamiaceae] Kirurite leaves Lung diseases (c, g, s, p) [Mauri] Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/016 -
Allium cepa L. [Liliaceae] Gitunguru Bulb Bloat (c) [Kuuna] Concoction K/M/B/12-2011/034 [9, 3336]
Aloe latifolia Haw. [Aloaceae] Cukurui Leaves Helminthiasis (c, p, g, s, pg) [Njoka], Diarrhoea/dysentery (c, p, g, s, pg) [Kuarwa] and Sores/Chronic wounds (c, g, s, p, pg ) [Ironda] Decoction Decoction Leaf gel K/M/B/12-2011/036 [7, 37, 38]
Azadirachta indica A. Juss [Meliaceae] Mwarubaine Leaves Roots Helminthiasis (c, p, g, s, pg) [Njoka] and General weakness/dullness (c, g, s, p, pg) [Kuaga inya] Decoction Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/006 [7, 9, 33, 35, 36, 3941]
Cannabis sativa L.
[Cannabaceae]
Bangi Leaves Diarrhoea/dysentery (c, p, g, s, pg) [Kuarwa], Pneumonia (p) [Mpio], and Newcastle (p) [Kuthinka] Cold Infusion K/M/B/12-2011/037 [4244]
Capsicum annuum L. [Solanaceae] Nchini Fruits Diarrhoea/dysentery (c, p, g, s, pg) [Kuarwa] and dullness (p) [Kuaga inya] Newcastle disease (p) [Kuthinka] and General weakness/dullness (c, g, s, p, pg) [Kuaga inya] Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/022 [7, 9, 33, 38, 41, 43, 45]
Capsicum frutescens L. [Solanaceae] Nchini Fruits Diarrhoea/dysentery (c, p, g, s, pg) [Kuarwa] and General weakness/dullness (c, g, s, p, pg) [Kuaga inya] Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/038 [7, 33]
Carissa spinarum L [Apocynaceae] Mukawa Roots Roots Infertility (s, g) [Kuthata] Poor milk let down (c) [Kuitha iria] Mastitis (c) [Kuimba riere] and Miscarriage (c) [Guta Njau] Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/043 [9, 34, 46]
Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium Vis. [Asteraceae] Mbeniko Flowers General ectoparasites (c, p) [Ngumba] Specifically Mites, lice and fleas infestation (c, p) [Nthuuga] and Ticks’ infestation (as an aetiologic agent) (c, p, g, s, pg) [Igumba*] Concoction K/M/B/12-2011/002 [7, 4751]
Commiphora eminii (Engl.) J.B. Gillett [Burseraceae] Mutunguu Leaves Bark Coughing (c, g, s, p, pg, r) [Gukora], Anaplasmosis (c, r) [Ntigana*], Helminthiasis (c, p, g, s, pg) [Njoka] and Diarrhoea/dysentery (c, p, g, s, pg) [Kuarwa] Infusion Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/035 [39]
Cordia africana Lam [Boraginaceae] Muringa Leaves Bark Eyes diseases(c) [Meetho*] and General weakness (c, g, s, pg) [Kuaga inya] Leaves are crushed to extract juice K/M/B/12-2011/019 [3841]
Crotalaria laburnifolia L. [Fabaceae] Mucugucugu Roots Helminthiasis (c, p, g, s, pg) [Njoka] Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/021 -
Croton megalocarpus Hutch. [Euphorbiaceae] Mukinduri Bark Diarrhoea/dysentery (c, p, g, s, pg) [Kuarwa] Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/009 [7, 29, 37, 40]
Cucumis aculeatus Cogn. [Cucurbitaceae] Kamungu Fruits Anaplasmosis (c, r) [Ntigana*] Helminthiasis (c, p, g, s, pg) [Njoka] and Loss of feathers (p) [Guta mbui] Concoction Fruits are crushed to extract juice K/M/B/12-2011/040 [9, 30, 52]
Datura stramonium L. [Solanaceae] Sikisiki Leaves General ectoparasites (c, p) [Ngumba] Specifically Mites, lice and fleas infestation (c, p) [Nthuuga], Ticks’ infestation (aetiologic agent) (c, p, g, s, pg) [Igumba*] Newcastle (p) [Kuthinka] and Foot rot (c, g, s, r, pg) [Maronda maguru] Concoction K/M/B/12-2011/030 [9, 40, 41, 53]
Dodonaea angustifolia L.f. [Sapindaceae] Murema ngigi Roots East Coast fever (c) [Itaa/Ng’arang’ari] Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/024 [30, 46, 54]
Dovyalis caffra Warb. [Salicaceae] Kariaba Fruits Coughing (c, g, s, p, pg, r) [Gukora] Ripe fruits are crushed to extract the juice K/M/B/12-2011/010 -
Ehretia cymosa Thonn. [Boraginaceae] Murembu Roots Anaplasmosis (c, r) [Ntigana*] and Diarrhoea/dysentery (c, p, g, s, pg) [Kuarwa] Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/041 [39, 55]
Erythrina abyssinica Lam. ex DC. [Fabaceae] Muuti Bark and roots Anaplasmosis (c, r) [Ntigana*] and Helminthiasis (c, p, g, s, pg) [Njoka] Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/020 [7, 39, 42]
Euclea divinorum Hiern. [Ebenaceae] Mukirinyei Fruits Roots Anaplasmosis (c, r) [Ntigana*] and Constipation (c, g, s) [Ntigana*] Decoction Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/044 [7, 29, 30, 55]
Euphorbia candelabrum Kotschy [Euphorbiaceae] Kibubungi Bark/ Latex East Coast fever (c) [Itaa/Ng’arang’ari]   K/M/B/12-2011/001 [7, 9, 29, 30, 40, 52, 55]
Ficus thonningii Bl. [Moraceae] Mugumo Bark Diarrhoea/dysentery (c, p, g, s, pg) [Kuarwa] Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/039 [7, 30, 40, 55]
Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. [Bignoniaceae] Murantina Bark Helminthiasis (c, p, g, s, pg) [Njoka] and Dystochia (an abnormal or difficult childbirth or labour) (c) [Kuremera njau] Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/023 [9, 32, 34, 37, 39, 55]
Lantana camara L. [Verbenaceae] Muchomoro Leaves Pneumonia (c, s) [Mpio] and Coughing (c, g, s, p, pg, r) [Gukora] Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/042 [7, 39, 40, 4951]
Nicotiana tabacum L. [Solanaceae] Mbaki Leaves General ectoparasites (c, p) [Ngumba] and Specifically Mites, lice and fleas infestation (c, p) [Nthuuga] Concoction Fumigation K/M/B/12-2011/025 [7, 9, 29, 42, 55]
Olea europaea L. [Oleaceae] Mutero Bark Helminthiasis (c, p, g, s, pg) [Njoka] Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/032 [7, 9, 30, 33, 46]
Plectranthus barbatus Andr. [Lamiaceae] Kijara Roots Leaves Pneumonia (c) [Mpio] and Fresh wounds (c, g, s, pg) [Gutemwa] Decoction Leaves are crushed and juice squeezed. K/M/B/12-2011/028 [7, 30, 32, 37, 52]
Plumeria alba L. [Apocynaceae] Mubono Leaves Fresh wounds (c, g ,s) [Gutemwa] Leaves are crushed and juice squeezed. K/M/B/12-2011/045 [39]
Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman [Rosaceae] Mueria Bark Coughing (c, g, s, p, pg, r) [Gukora] Concoction (boiled and mixed with honey) K/M/B/12-2011/048 [7, 46, 53, 55]
Ricinus communis L. [Euphorbiaceae] Muariki Leaves and Seeds East Coast fever [Itaa/Ng’arang’ari] and Bloat (c) [Kuuna] Concoction. Seeds are crushed to extract oil K/M/B/12-2011/026 [7, 30, 39, 42, 45]
Rumex abyssinicus Jacq. [Polygonaceae] Muraiguna Leaves Eye diseases (Conjuctivitis (c, p, g, s, pg) [Meetho*] Juice is squeezed into the eyes K/M/B/12-2011/003 [39]
Senna didymobotrya (Fresen.) Irwin & Barneby [Fabaceae] Kirao Leaves Roots Anaplasmosis (c) [Ntigana*] and Helminthiasis (c, p, g, s, pg) [Njoka] Decoction Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/005 [7, 30, 35, 39, 52, 55]
Senna septemtrionalis (Viv.) H. Irwin & Barneby [Fabaceae] Kirao Roots Anaplasmosis (c) [Ntigana*] and Helminthiasis (c, p, g, s, pg) [Njoka] Infusion K/M/B/12-2011/011 [35, 39, 56]
Solanecio mannii (Hook.f.) C. Jeffrey [Asteraceae] Mutoromboro Leaves Anaplasmosis (c) [Ntigana*] and Typanosomiasis (c, g) [Mutombo] Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/017 [7, 30, 55]
Solanum indicum L. [Solanaceae] Ntongu Fruits Skin rashes (p) [Weere] and Loss of feather (p) [Guta mbui]   K/M/B/12-2011/046 [57, 58]
Solanum incanum L. [Solanaceae] Mutongu Roots Fruits Helminthiasis (c, p, g, s, pg) [Njoka], Lumpy Skin Disease (c) [Ngoci] and Foot rot(c, g, s, r, pg) [Maronda maguru] Decoction Fruit extract Concoction K/M/B/12-2011/031 [9, 29, 33, 40, 59]
Stephania abyssinica (Dill. & A. Rich.) Walp. [Menispermaceae] Gatamba nathi Roots Diarrhoea/dysentery (c, p, g, s, pg) [Kuarwa] Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/007 [55]
Synadenium compactum N. E. Br. [Euphorbiaceae] Muthuuri Latex/ Stem East Coast fever (c) [Itaa/Ng’arang’ari] Latex is applied to the swollen lymph nodes. K/M/B/12-2011/014 [6, 30]
Tagetes minuta L. [Asteraceae] Mubangi Leaves General ectoparasites (c, p) [Ngumba] Concoction Fumigation K/M/B/12-2011/027 [7, 9, 30, 35, 40, 49, 50, 60]
Tephrosia vogelii Hook. f. [Fabaceae] Mucugucugu Leaves General ectoparasites (c, p) [Ngumba] Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/047 [7, 9, 33, 34, 40, 49, 50]
Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd. [Lamiaceae] Kiaraka Leaves Anaplasmosis (c, r) [Ntigana*], Typanosomiasis (c, g) [Mutombo] and Miscarriage (c) [Guta Njau] Concoction / Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/012 [6, 39, 42, 44]
Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray [Asteraceae] Kingana Leaves General ectoparasites (c) [Ngumba] and Helminthiasis (c, p, g, s, pg) [Njoka] Concoction Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/018 [7, 30]
Vangueria infausta Burch. [Rubiaceae] Mubiru Roots Pneumonia (c, g, s, p) [Mpio] Infusion K/M/B/12-2011/013 -
Warburgia ugandensis Sprague [Canellaceae] Muthiga/ Musunui Bark Leaves Roots Helminthiasis (c, p, g, s, pg) [Njoka] Pneumonia (c, g, s, p) [Mpio] and General weakness/dullness (c, g, s, p, pg) [Kuaga inya] Infusion Decoction K/M/B/12-2011/033 [29, 30, 61]
Zea mays L. [Poaceae] Mpempe Maize cob Retained placenta (c) [Kuremera thigiri] Maize cob is burnt, grinded into fine powder and mixed with water K/M/B/12-2011/008 [35, 45]
  1. Key: c–cattle; g goats; s sheep; p–poultry; pg pigs; r-ruminants; m-mammals; Vernacular names of plants and animals’ disease(s) and/or ill-health condition(s) based on the consensus of key respondents and local government veterinarians working in Buuri district, Meru County.
  2. *Name used to describe two or more closely related livestock diseases/conditions/ill-health.