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Table 1 Plants used in Libyan folk therapy at the beginning of XXth Century according to Trotter data.

From: A forgotten collection: the Libyan ethnobotanical exhibits (1912-14) by A. Trotter at the Museum O. Comes at the University Federico II in Naples, Italy

Botanical name Local names Part(s) used Description of uses Present uses in Libya and neighboring Countries
Aaronsohnia pubescens (Desf.) K. Bremer et Humphries (PORUN - TTF2300)
ASTERACEAE
uàs-uàsa (arab); uscescuane (tuaregh) Leaves Grounded and eaten against gastro-intestinal aches The whole plant in infusion is used for gastro-intestinal troubles and kidney stones. It is collected and sold in the markets of South Algeria [21]
Achillea maritima (L.) Ehrend. et Y.P. Guo (PORUN - TTF2318)
ASTERACEAE
agbita, sciba (Algeria) Aerial part Sold as a febrifuge and emmenagogues In Marmarica, it is known as medicinal plant [22]. In North African countries, the flowering branches are considered a febrifuge, emmenagogue, tonic, and taenifuge [23]
Ajuga iva (L.) Schreb. (PORUN - TTD52; TTF1411)
LAMIACEAE
Additional file 1
sciandagúra (arab); assaron? (Cirenaica); tletúl teelscín (berber) Aerial part A cold infusion is anthelminthic; mixed with other components, against pulmonary affections In Marmarica, the plant is considered medicinal [22]. A decoction of the aerial parts is administered against rheumatic pains, and as a carminative and stomachic. Aerial parts are also used as incense in ritual practices [24]. In Morocco, the hot infusion is considered antidiabetic [23]; also used as an anthelmintic and for intestinal disorders [25]. Crushed leaves and seeds are smoked for their narcotic effects [26]
Aloë vera L. (PORUN - TTF2331)
ASPHODELACEAE
sabbàr Leaf juice Medicinal properties (not described) The transparent gel from leaf pulp is used as a vulnerary and laxative in different African countries [27]
Alpinia officinarum Hance (PORUN - TTD17)
ZINGIBERACEAE
Additional file 2
cúlgan, cúlgian Rhizome Tonic Drug imported from East Asia and used in Egypt and Morocco, used as an antitussive and stimulant [22, 25]. A preparation from the root is used for rheumatism and sexual impotence [24]
Arbutus unedo L. (PORUN - TTF895)
ERICACEAE
sc'meri (arab); linz (Algeria); isisnu, sciscnu (berber) Bark of roots and leaves Astringent The decoction of leaves or raw fruits to treat kidney diseases [26]
Artemisia arborescens L. (PORUN - TTD51)
ASTERACEAE
Additional file 3
sézeret Marian (arab); scih Young shoots, flowers, leaves A decoction against intestinal affections In Morocco, the plant is considered anthelmintic, aperitive, diuretic, emmenagogue and abortive [25]. A leaf infusion to treat common colds, vertigo, and helminthiasis. Powdered leaves are externally applied for skin infections and wrinkles [24]
Artemisia campestris L. subsp. variabilis (Ten.) Greuter (PORUN - TTF484)
ASTERACEAE
sc'ahâl (arab); togoft, tegoft, taghert, tâghiat (berber); teghoch (tuaregh) Flowers, leaves Anthelminthic, known as dua lehnâsc In Algeria, it is used as a substitute for A. absinthium [23]. In Tassilli N'ajjer (South Algeria), aerial parts and flowers are used for post-partum care, emmenagogue, analeptic, and antispasmodic. Also used as an anthelminthic, for stomach and liver affections. Vulnerary [28]
Artemisia herba-alba Asso (PORUN -TTF482)
ASTERACEAE Figure 3
scih (arab); aghares (berber); azezzeré, zezzeri (temahac) The whole plant and the inflorescence In the Fezzan, the dried plant is ground and used as a stomachic In Marmarica region, it is known as fodder and as a medicinal plant [22]. A potion of the plant is drunk in North Sahara against digestive troubles, as an anthelmintic, and to treat eye affections and obesity [29]. A branch decoction is used for rheumatic pains and helminthiasis [24]. In Morocco, the plant is administered against gastrointestinal affection, as an antiseptic, anthelmintic, antidote to poisons, hypoglycemiant and emmenagogue [25]
Asphodelus refractus Boiss. (PORUN - TTF2304)
ASPHODELACEAE
not reported Leaves Diuretic Roots, shoots and leaves are used from Egypt to Morocco as a tonic and stomachic, against headache, liver affections rheumatisms, and for treatment of syphilis [23]
Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. s.l. (PORUN - TTF2302)
BALANITACEAE
hagilidi, heglig (arab); tebôrac (temahac); tsciaisciot (Tuat); addua (Haussa) Young leaves, pulp of fruits Leaves to clean sores; pulp fruit used in spleen diseases and to kill Guinea worms (Vena medensis) The leaf decoction is used in the central Sahara (Algeria) and in other North African countries, as an anthelminthic, against skin affections, and as a vulnerary. Also administered to cure stomach, liver, pulmonary and spleen affections [23, 28]. In Sudan, the fruit is administered as a purgative, a bark decoction against jaundice, and branch fumigation against rheumatisms [30]. Also used as purgative and for bilharzias [31]
Boswellia sacra Flüeckiger (PORUN - TTD39; TTF2305)
BURSERACEAE
Additional file 4
lúban Resin of stem The yellowish granules of the resin are burnt and chewed for their aphrodisiac properties The species grows in South Arabia and is known by the Arabians as "maghrayt d'sheehaz". The resin is traditionally sold in African markets as a disinfectant and also used in the preparation of cosmetics [32]
Brassica napus L. s.l. (PORUN - TTF2308)
BRASSICACEAE
ft (arab); afrân (temahac) Seeds Medicinal properties (not described) Included among Libyan medicinal plants as an emollient (roots) [33]
Capparis orientalis Veillard in Duh. (PORUN - TTD7; TTF101)
CAPPARACEAE
Additional file 5
cábbar (arab); tilult (berber) Leaves Near Tripoli, a decoction of the plant is mixed with other herbs as a stomachic In North Sahara, it is administered as a pain-killer, mainly to treat toothaches, and against rheumatisms [29]. In central Sahara (Tassili N'ajjer, Algeria), a poultice of fresh leaves is topically applied against rheumatism pains and headache [28]. Flowers and fruits are macerated to treat rheumatism [26]. An infusion of root bark is used as a cholagogue [24]
Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (PORUN - TTF2316)
CUCURBITACEAE
handel, handla (arab); taghillilut (berber); tassellet (mezabita); alched, hagi (tuaregh) Seeds Seed infusion against the viper bites Roots are used as an abortive. In Morocco, it is considered as a antiepileptic, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, and hypoglycemiant. Also administered against gonorrhea and tinea [25]. Moreover, the fruit, broken into small pieces, is used to protect woolen clothing from moths [21]
Coriandrum sativum L. (PORUN - TTF2313)
APIACEAE
cússbur, cóssbor (arab) Fruits A syrup made from the fruit used against pulmonary affections Aphrodisiac, anti-inflammatory, tonic. Seed and leaf decoction used against kidney stones, intestinal pains, insomnia, and scurvy [25, 26]. Fruits are placed onto fire to remove bad spirits [24]
Cuminum cyminum L. (PORUN - TTD9)
APIACEAE
Additional file 6
chemún ahdar (arab); azcar (tuaregh) Fruits Chewed against stomach disorders A milk infusion of fruit is administered against gastric pains and as an intestinal antiseptic, carminative and sudorific [24, 25]. Also used in veterinary medicine [23]
Cupressus sempervirens L. (PORUN - TTD60; TTF854)
CUPRESSACEAE
Additional file 7
arz, sirùa (arab) Seeds An infusion against cough and heart diseases In Libya, Morocco and Tunisia, the cones are considered antidiarrheal, antihemorrhagic, astringent, diuretic, expectorant, and sudorific [23]. In the El-Jabal El-Akhdar region (Libya), leaves and cones are administered in different ways against asthma, piles, and vaginal discharge [34]
Curcuma longa L. (PORUN - TTF2320)
ZINGIBERACEAE
córcob Roots Medicinal properties (not described) In Morocco, it is used as a digestive, stimulant, for blood diseases, and against amnesia [25]. The powdered rhizome is taken orally as a condiment, tonic, calefacient and digestive [24]
Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng. s.l. (PORUN - TTD79)
POACEAE
Additional file 8
led'her (Mizda, arab); bu'rucûba, semmad (Algeria); lemmed, tiberrimt, leberint (Algeria) Basal part of the plant Fumigation against a kind of influence called ahón The plant is used in different countries of North Africa as an antihirheumatic, diuretic, emmenagogue, and febrifuge [23]
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. (PORUN - TTF1127)
POACEAE
négem (arab); tobbalt (berber); asezmir (mezabita); oscerar (temahac) Whole plant The decoction is a diuretic Diuretic [25]. Root decoction against stomach disorders [26]. A decoction of the rhizome or aerial part against rheumatisms, kidney stones, uterine and menstrual pains, and abortion [24]
Cyperus rotundus L. s.l. (PORUN - TTF2307)
CYPERACEAE
giaâd (arab) Tubers A water potion against heart diseases North African Countries. The tubercles are used to cure a wide range of affections [23] In Sudan, a tuber decoction is used to treat stomach troubles and as an anthelmintic [30].
Stem galls mixed with leaves of Lawsonia inermis are powdered, kneaded with water and applied as a hair tonic [24].
The tubers are used to increase body weight [21]
In Morocco, the plant is considered to be a cosmetic and aromatic and is used in hair care [25]
Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton (PORUN - TTD8)
ZINGIBERACEAE
Additional file 9
cacúla Fruits Fruit is grounded and mixed with honey into a tonic Powdered seeds are used in a preparation administered as an aphrodisiac, digestive, and stimulant. Seeds are also used as a condiment [24, 25]
Ephedra alata Decne. s.l. (PORUN - TTF2310)
EPHEDRACEAE
alenda (arab); timatrat (temahac) Seeds and young shoots Medicinal properties (not described) Used in Algeria, Libya, and Morocco as an anthiasthmatic, anti-hypertensive, astringent, and depurative as well as used against headaches and for treatment of pulmonary affections [23]
Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. et Reut. (PORUN - TTF918)
Euphorbia paralias L. (PORUN - TTF922)
EUPHORBIACEAE
lebbîn (arab) Latex Topical application against viper bites Different Euphorbia species are used in Morocco to treat skin diseases [26]
Ferula marmarica Asch. et Schweinf. (PORUN - TTD22)
APIACEAE
Additional file 10
fassuch Gum resin Medicinal properties (not described) Source of gum ammoniac [35]
Globularia alypum L. s.l. (PORUN - TTF2077)
GLOBULARIACEAE
zréga, zrga (arab); taselrha? (berber); tidi-n-tenet (tuaregh) Leaves and branches
Aerial part
The decoction is used as a laxative, against intermittent fevers and topically in the cure of furuncles In North African countries, branch and leaf decoctions are prepared to cure intermittent fevers, arthritis and rheumatisms and used as a depurative, diuretic, hypoglycemiant and laxative [23, 25]. The decoction of the aerial parts is administered against constipation, fever, and mycosis [28].
A leaf infusion is used as a hypoglycemic, digestive, and laxative as well as for bilious stimulation [24]
Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Forssk.) A. Juss. (PORUN - TTD59; TTF2064)
RUTACEAE
Additional file 11
sézeret er rîh (arab) Aerial part Laxative In Egypt and Saharan territories, flowering and fruiting branches are used to cure gastro-intestinal affections, intermittent fevers, and rheumatisms. The plant is also an aphrodisiac and administered against eye and ear affections [23]
Hedypnois cretica (L.) Dum.Cours. (PORUN - TTF2312)
ASTERACEAE
sézeret er rîh (arab) Aerial part Against meteorism and to cure haón (a kind of influence) Medicinal uses not described for Maghreb and neighboring countries. Known as an edible plant in different Mediterranean countries [36, 37]
Hyoscyamus muticus L. subsp. falezlez (Coss.) Maire (PORUN - TTF2315)
SOLANACEAE
gungot (arab); falezlez (arab); afahlehle (temahac); bathim, buthima Aerial part The plant is severely poisonous. The extract of the aerial part mixed with butter is used externally against rheumatic affections Known as medicinal plant in Marmarica [22]. In North Sahara, a potion is drunk as a tonic [29]. The oil macerate of leaves is topically used in Tassili N'ajjer against backache, muscular cramps, spasms, and palpitation anxiety as well as to treat eye inflammation and lice [28]
Jateorhiza palmata (Lam.) Miers (PORUN - TTD69; TTF2322)
MENISPERMACEAE
Additional file 12
zarámba Roots Infusion in orange water is given against cardiac affections Its use is largely diffused in East and Central Africa as a bitter tonic, analgesic, and against diarrhea [38]
Juniperus oxycedrus L. s.l. (PORUN - TTF2327)
CUPRESSACEAE
taga (Algeria) Wood of the stem Trunks are carbonized to give an oil (the cade oil) that is used against skin affections In Tunisia and Morocco, the tar produced by the wood is antiparasitic and antiseptic for the skin [23]
Launaea quercifolia (Desf.) Pamp. (PORUN - TTF654)
ASTERACEAE
machinàn (arab) Aerial part Eaten against rheumatic aches Medicinal uses not described for Maghreb and neighboring countries. In Morocco, L. arborescens is used to cure diabetes and against nausea and skin troubles [21]
Laurus nobilis L. (PORUN - TTD47)
LAURACEAE
Additional file 13
rénd, rhár (arab) Dried leaves Medicinal plant (uses not described). Dried leaves are sold in the markets by herbalists Leaf and fruit oil has a cosmetic application for face care. An infusion of leaves and fruits is administered for dental hygiene and to cure liver, pancreas and digestive diseases. The decoction of the same parts is given to treat rheumatic pains [24, 25]
Lawsonia inermis L. (PORUN - TTF1798)
LYTHRACEAE
hénna (arab); alen (berber); anella (temahac) Aerial part Astringent, vulnerary, used against dandruff and chilblains. Abortive Leaves are antiseptic and astringent as well as used against eye affections and in the preparation of antirheumatic liniments. Flowers have insecticide properties [23]. Leaves powdered and mixed with water are applied as a hair tonic or mixed with lime juice as an emetic [24]. Also administered against gastric ulcer and kidney stones [25]
Lepidium sativum L. s.l. (PORUN - TTD34; TTF852)
BRASSICACEAE
Additional file 14
habb' rsciad (arab); carabau, tsc'uit (Algeria) Seeds Sold in the markets and used to cure cough and asthma In North Africa, the seeds, crushed with honey, or seed flour are administered against cough and pulmonary affections, delivery difficulties, heart tonic, revulsive and also in the cure of skin troubles. The leaves are considered tonic and effective in the prevention of scurvy; frequently used as a condiment [23, 25]. The milk infusion of seeds is used to cure migraines. Seeds boiled in oil are used to treat diarrhea. Powdered seeds are externally applied for skin ulcers and warts. Seeds are also part of a preparation used in the treatment of sexual impotence [24]
Marrubium alysson L. (PORUN - TTF1423)
Marrubium vulgare L. (PORUN - TTF1429)
LAMIACEAE
rúbia, róbia (arab) Aerial part The powdered plant, mixed with oil, is used for rheumatism Flowers have insecticide properties [23]. A leaf and stem decoction is used to treat intestinal pains, cough, and colds. Crushed leaves are used against ear pains [26]. An infusion of the aerial parts is used as an antipyretic, expectorant, antidiarrheal, tonic, bilious stimulation and for bronchitis and menstrual pains. The aerial part is also boiled with wine to obtain a syrup used as a stomachic [24, 25]
Matricaria aurea (Loefl.) Sch. Bip. (PORUN - TTD25; TTF666)
ASTERACEAE
Additional file 15
fleia (arab); greisa (Cirenaica) Flowering branches The decoction is used against gastro-intestinal affections In the Middle East, the plant is used as a substitute for M. chamomilla [39]
Myrtus communis L. s.l. (PORUN - TTD31)
MYRTACEAE
Additional file 16
rehân, ghemmâm, gidra (arab) Leaves and flowers The plant has many medicinal uses The plant is sold in the Algiers and Rabat markets for use against diarrhea, gastro-intestinal disorders, asthma and other respiratory ailments. It is also topically applied for painful organs. The plant is also used in perfumery and cosmetics [23, 25]. Leaves and buds are used against hemorrhoids and skin affections. Fruits are administered for the cure of ocular disorders. An infusion of the leaves is used as a mouthwash against gingivitis and in association with walnut and mulberry in the treatment of diabetes [21].
A leaf decoction is used against cardiac and intestinal affections [26]. A leaf infusion is used against pneumonia, diarrhea and to promote wound healing. For hair care, a mixture with Lawsonia inermis is locally applied [24]
Nitraria retusa (Forssk.) Asch. (PORUN - TTF2317)
ZYGOPHYLLACEAE
gárdegh (arab); atazzim (temahac) Leaves Crushed leaves are put in hot water and then used as a poultice against swellings The leaves are used in Tunisia to reduce swellings, and the ashes are used to cure infected wounds [21]
Olea europaea L. s.l. (PORUN - TTF1811)
OLEACEAE
zêt, zêt ez zitûna Oil Excipient of many plant drugs A leaf decoction is used against nervous troubles and as an anthelmintic. Powdered leaves are used in the treatment of diabetes; burnt leaves are used to cure eye affections. Olive oil is administered to cure dry cough and grippe [26]. In Morocco, it is used for mouth hygiene, stomach pains, intestinal diseases, and diabetes [24, 25]
Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (PORUN - TTF2329)
CACTACEAE
híndi (arab) Flowers Medicinal properties (not described) The powdered flower is used against stomach disorders [26]. An infusion of flowers is administered to stop diarrhea and as a diuretic. Flowers are also part of a preparation used as a calefacient [24]. In Morocco, it is also administered to cure bladder, kidney and uterus infections [25]
Orchis mascula (L.) L. s.l. (PORUN - TTF2326)
ORCHIDACEAE
sahalep Whole plant Used in the preparation of a medicinal powder No medicinal use reported for Maghreb or Sahara
Origanum majorana L. (PORUN - TTD41)
LAMIACEAE
Additional file 17
mardgúscia (arab) Aerial part Against dysentery In the Algiers market, the plant is sold to cure eye affections [23] In Morocco, the infusion of branches is used to treat chills, fever, cough, and flatulence [25, 26]
Origanum vulgare L. s.l. (PORUN - TTF2303)
LAMIACEAE
  Flowers Flowers have medicinal properties In Tunisia and Algeria, the leaves and flowering branches are used as a stimulant [23]
Paliurus spina-christi Mill. (PORUN - TTF2321)
RHAMNACEAE
sédr, zegregh, ennab, corna (arab); abaga, labacat (temahac); magaria, cussulu (Algeria) Young shoots
Leaves
Anthelmintic Medicinal uses not reported in Maghreb and neighboring regions. Used in the East Mediterranean region to treat respiratory, circulatory and gastro-intestinal disorders [40]
Paronychia argentea Lam. (PORUN - TTF2301)
PARONYCHIACEAE
theia el arab, theia el gebel (Algeria) Aerial part Infusion used against dysentery Used as an antidiabetic in the East Mediterranean [41]
Peganum harmala L. (PORUN - TTD35; TTF2067)
ZYGOPHYLLACEAE
Additional file 18
hármal (arab); bender tifli, bender tifîn (tuaregh) Seeds Oil is used against headaches; burnt against mental diseases The plant is sold in North African markets and used for a large number of affections. In Sudan, it is used against inflammations of the head, face and mouth as well as against headache and sinusitis [31]. The leaf decoction is used against high blood pressure and hemorrhoids [21]. In Tassili N'ajjer (Algeria), a decoction of seeds is taken to treat a large number of affections, ranging from skin diseases to nervous disorders, including anxiety. Also used to treat diabetes, helminthiasis and jaundice. The seed decoction is externally applied against tumors, eczema and lice [28]. Similar uses are also reported for Morocco and the Northern Sahara [25, 29]. Powdered seeds of barley and P. harmala are topically applied against rheumatism [21]
Periploca angustifolia Labill. (PORUN - TTF2306)
APOCYNACEAE
sinuâc, teborac, arac (arab); têhac (temahac); chigu (near Tchad) Dried leaves
Fruits
A decoction of dried leaves is used against syphilis mixed with a substance called ras el hânut
A violet, pungent beverage is a slight laxative
The seed decoction is used as a local analgesic and antirheumatic [23]. In Tassili N'ajjer (Algeria), the decoction of seeds or the aerial part of the plant can be drunk as an abortive and to cure diabetes. Externally, used to treat rheumatism and various pains [28].
Fodder appreciated in arid areas, eaten by camels, sheep and goats
Phoenix dactylifera L. (PORUN - TTF2323)
ARECACEAE
na'hla (arab); tezdit (berber); tazzeit, tazeit (temahac); zui (Augila) Fruits The fruits are used to make an alcoholic beverage to which is attributed medicinal properties. In North African countries, the wood of the palm is used as toothbrush. Dates are used as against ulcers of the genital organs and as a diuretic, laxative, and tonic [23]
Piper retrofractum Vahl (PORUN - TTD19)
PIPERACEAE
Additional file 19
dahr el filfil Flowers Imported in Libya from Sudan. When mixed with honey is used as an aphrodisiac The plant is imported from Asian countries. In Morocco, the plant is known for its aphrodisiac, calefacient and magic properties [25]
Pistacia atlantica Desf. (PORUN - TTD3; TTF16)
ANACARDIACEAE
Additional file 20
batúm (arab); tizert (berber) Fruits Sold in the markets. It is chewed against respiratory affections. The oil has similar properties Leaves are used against skin affections. Fruits are used to season dates. Used for tanning [23]. In Marmarica, it is used as fuel, grazing and medicinal plants [22]. Burnt leaves are used in a poultice against eye affections [26]. In Morocco, fruits are administered against stomach-ache, whereas the gall is used for cosmetic applications, against fever and stomach diseases [25]
Plantago afra L. s.l. (PORUN - TTF2324)
PLANTAGINACEAE
anàm, nenàm (arab) Whole plant Vulnerary. Powdered and dried is administered in topical applications In Marmarica, used as medicinal plant [22]. In North African countries, used against metabolic disorders, gastro-intestinal affections, hemorrhoids, skin diseases, urinary tract disorders, and venereal diseases. Fresh leaves are applied topically for poison ivy, insect bites and stings [21]
Punica granatum L. (PORUN - TTD37)
PUNICACEAE
Additional file 21
rummân, rummâna (arab); taarmunt, armun (fruit) (berber); tarrumant (temahac) Flowers Flowers are medicinal. Seeds are tonic and aphrodisiac In Egypt, fruit peels are sold as an astringent; dried powdered peel is sold in Morocco as an antidiabetic, antidiarrheal, antiseptic, antiulcerous, astringent, and hemostatic as well as against gastro-intestinal and gynecological disorders and for cleansing the teeth [2326]
Ricinus communis L. s.l. (PORUN - TTD14)
RUTACEAE
Additional file 22
chèrua (arab) Seeds The water infusion is a laxative (also chewed seeds). Leaves are used in the preparation of poultices Known as a medicinal plant in Marmarica [22]. In Central Sahara, the seed decoction is used against fevers and headaches or externally applied to cure trachoma, aphthae, and hair loss [28]. A decoction is administered to treat cow jaundice [24]. In Sudan, the fresh leaves are rubbed on the head to relieve headache or on the legs against swellings [30]
Rosa damascena Mill. (PORUN - TTF2325)
ROSACEAE
uárd (arab) Rose buds The herbalists in Tripoli sell dried rose buds for medicinal purposes (sciús el uárd) Dried flower buds are used against headache, stomach pains, toothaches, and as laxative and hair tonic are sold in North African markets [23, 25]. Used also in the cure of numerous affection of the eyes and ears [23] The flower infusion is used as a laxative. A mixture with other plants is applied externally [24]
Rosmarinus officinalis L. (PORUN - TTD16; TTF1441)
LAMIACEAE
Additional file 23
clíl (arab); uzbir, uzuer (berber) Leaves The infusion is used against cough; ground dried leaves in oil are vulnerary The leaf decoction is administered against intestinal parasites and rheumatism in Central Sahara [26] as well as an emmenagogue, spasmolytic against gastro-intestinal and liver disorders, diuretic, carminative and sedative in Morocco [25]. A leaf infusion is also prepared against tachycardia and as a cholagogue and vasopressor. Leaves are also externally applied against wrinkles, muscular pains and rheumatism and as a vulnerary [24].
In Tunisia, rosemary leaves are used as an antispasmodic for the digestive tracts and as a vermifuge. Dried leaves, ground and mixed with olive oil, are put on recent circumcision wounds [21]
Ruta chalepensis L. (PORUN - TTF2069)
Ruta sp. (PORUN - TTD24)
Additional file 24
Ruta graveolens L. (PORUN - TTF2309)
RUTACEAE
fgél, figél (arab); issîn (temahac)
fgél, fesál (arab)
Aerial part
Aerial part
Sold in Tripoli market, and used against rheumatic affections and ecchymosis. The smell of the plant keeps the scorpions away from houses
In Cyrenaica, a potion made with this plant is administered to newborns as a tonic
In Rabat Market, the plant is sold for use against nervous affections, and in Algiers markets, for use against vomiting and fevers of children and babies [23]. Washing with crushed leaves is used against ear pains, and leaves are smoked to keep away bad spirits [26]. In Morocco, the aerial parts are used as an abortive, for intestinal and hepatic diseases, male sterility, and vitiligo [25]. Also known as a vulnerary, emmenagogue, and spasmodic; the fresh plant is used as a scorpion and insect repellent. Leaves and seeds, boiled in olive oil, are rubbed on the skin to treat rheumatism and swellings [21]
Salvia aegyptiaca L. (PORUN - TTF1370)
LAMIACEAE
ra'al, sezeret el rházel (arab, ex Muschler); safsaf (tuaregh) 1. aerial part; 2. leaves The infusion is digestive.
The leaves are kept in the nose to give a fresh sensation
In Marmarica, it is used as grazing plant [22]. In Tassili N'ajjer (Algeria), seeds are topically applied as an eye antiseptic. The infusion of the aerial part is a febrifuge, painkiller, and antispasmoic. Also used to treat digestive troubles and infected wounds [28]
Schoenocaulon officinale (Schltdl. et Cham.) A. Gray ex Benth. (PORUN - TTF2311)
MELANTHIACEAE
duá ghémel Seeds Against lice Used as an insecticide in North Africa and on other continents [42]
Smyrnium olusatrum L. (PORUN - TTF2193)
APIACEAE
calch (arab) Aerial part Abortive The genus Smyrnium is included among the medicinal plants of Morocco and is mainly used as a calefacient [25, 43]; the fruits are ground to powder and put in water for a cold in the chest. The decoction is recommended for headaches [44]
Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch. Bip. (PORUN - TTF2332; TTD63)
ASTERACEAE
Additional file 25
usciach Gum resin
Roots
Imported from Marseille and sold in the markets. It is dissolved in vinegar against contusions or to cure furuncles
Medicinal properties (not described)
Used against fever, rheumatoid arthritis and migraines in the popular medicine of Africa, Europe and America [45]
Teucrium polium L. s.l. (PORUN - TTD65; TTF1389)
LAMIACEAE
Additional file 26
giaád, zaád (arab); techmezzutin (tuaregh) Aerial part Gastro-intestinal affections Used in North Africa against dysmenorrhea [21].
In Morocco, the aerial parts are used against chill, edema, live pain and for blood cleansing [25]
Thapsia garganica L. s.l. (PORUN - TTF2196)
BRASSICACEAE
drias (arab) Inflorescence Vulnerary The infusion of the aerial parts is used against cough and rheumatic pains. The root infusion is used to treat liver and bladder diseases, and an oil is externally applied for swelling and wrinkles [24]
Thymus capitatus (L.) Hoffmanns. et Link (PORUN - TTD70; TTF1401)
Additional file 27
Thymus mastigophorus Lacaita (PORUN - TTF2328)
LAMIACEAE
zaátar (arab); sótar (berber)
zaátar (arab); arrar? (berber)
Leaves and floral shoots A cold infusion against cough Eaten as vegetable in Marmarica and also known as medicinal plant [22]. In Libya, the plant is used for coughs, as a tonic, and against skin affections [23]
Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (PORUN - TTF1596)
FABACEAE
hélba (arab) Seeds Against cough, febrifuge Cultivated and naturalized in North Africa [23]. The seed decoction is used for uterine pains. Boiled seeds are also ingested as a hypoglycemic, while powdered seed mixed with water are externally applied as a hair tonic [24]. In Morocco, seeds are considered to be blood cleansing and an aortic-palpitation reconstituant [25]. In Sudan, it is administered against rheumatism and dysentery as well as for cleaning the blood. It is also reputed as a lactagogue [31]. In Tasili N'ajjar (Algeria), the decoction of the aerial parts or seeds are used to cure diabetes, clean the blood, and as a tonic and an analeptic [28]. Seed maceration is effective to treat diabetes, scurvy, and digestive troubles [26]
Zingiber officinale Roscoe (PORUN - TTF2330)
ZINGIBERACEAE
zéngibil, schéngibil Roots Aphrodisiac Used in North Africa for a wide range of affections [23]. In Sudan, used for colds and rheumatism as well as to treat pneumonia [31]
Evernia furfuracea (L.) Mann (PORUN - TTD56)
PARMELIACEAE
Additional file 28
scíba Fragments of thallus When mixed with other species of lichens (see below), it is used to prepare medicinal decoctions Medicinal uses not reported for Maghreb and neighboring regions
Ramalina calicaris (L.) Fr. (PORUN - TTD53)
RAMALINACEAE
Additional file 29
scíba Fragments of thallus See Evernia furfuracea Medicinal uses not reported for Maghreb and neighboring regions
Ramalina farinacea (L.) Ach. (PORUN - TTD54)
RAMALINACEAE
Additional file 29
scíba Fragments of thallus See Evernia furfuracea Medicinal uses not reported for Maghreb and neighboring regions
Usnea plicata (L.) Fries (PORUN - TTD55)
USNEACEAE
Additional file 30
  Fragments of thallus See Evernia furfuracea Medicinal uses not reported for Maghreb and neighboring regions
  1. The occurrence of? after a local name of a plant is a Trotter indication.