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Table 1 Animals species used in popular medicine in the municipality of Bom Sucesso, Paraíba State, Brazil

From: Traditional uses of medicinal animals in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil

Family/species/local name Number of citation Use Value Part used Disease (or illness)
INSECTS
Apidae
Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1758)–Africanised honey bee, “abelha italiana” 38 0.56 Honey (7,8) Sore throat, flu, shortness of breath, cough, tuberculosis
Partamona cupira (Smith)–a stingless Bee, “Abelha cupira” 2 0.04 Honey (7,8) Earache, menstrual cramps
Melipona subnitida (Ducke, 1910)–jandaíra 12 0.16 Honey (7,8) Sore throat, flu, earache, hoarseness
Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811)–abelha mosquito 6 0.10 Honey(7,8) Earache, sore throat
Cephalotrigona capitata (Smith 1854)–Abelha mumbuca 2 0.02 Honey (7,8) Sore throat, nervous problems
Termitidae
Nasutitermes macrocephalus (Silvestri, 1903)–Termite, Cupim 2 0.02 Whole anima (7) Bronchitis, whooping cough
Unidentified family
Unidentified species-beetle 1 0.02 Beetle’s Nest Mumps
AMPHIBIANS
Bufonidae
Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002), Toad 1 0.02 Abdomen (10) Erysipelas
REPTILES
Chelidae
Phrynops geoffroanus (Schweigger, 1812)–Geoffroy’s side-necked turtle, “cágado” 5 0.06 Fat (3) Swelling, sore throat, flu, stuffy nose
Teiidae
Tupinambis merianae (Duméril & Bibron, 1839)–Teju lizard, “tegu”, “tejuaçú” 44 0.88 Fat (3), meat (5) Sore throat, thrombosis
Crotalidae
Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758–South American rattlesnake, “Cascavel” 14 0.22 Fat (3) Rheumatism, skin spots, eye problems, plantar fasciitis, Swelling, pain in general, hoarseness
Boidae
Boa constrictor (Linnaeus, 1758)–Boa, Cobra de veado 12 0.22 Fat (3) Rheumatism, swelling, herniated intervertebral disk, bone fractures
Tropiduridae
Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825)–Lizard, Lagartixa 1 0.02 Whole animal (9) Sore throat
BIRDS
Phasianidae
Gallus gallus domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758)–chicken, Galinha 31 0.38 Gizzard (5), fat (3 or 8), eggshells (2), egg yolk (6), meat (5) Indigestion, sinusitis, shortness of breath, bronchitis, nervous problems, rheumatism, stuffy nose, weak bones, flu, weakness, sore throat, furuncle
Meleagrididae
Numida meleagris Linnaeus, 1758–Helmeted Guineafowl, “Guiné” 2 0.04 Meat (5) whooping cough
Anatidae
Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758–Duck, Pato 1 0.02 Eggs (5) Weakness
Corvidae
Cyanocorax cyanopogon (Wied-Neuwied, 1821)–White-naped Jay 1 0.02 Gizzard (5) Asthma
MAMMALS
Trichechidae
Trichechus manatus (Linnaeus, 1758)–Manatee, Peixe-boi 3 0.02 Fat (3) Headache, rheumatism, corporal lesions
Canidae
Canis lupus (Linnaeus, 1758)–Domestic dog, Cachorro 1 0.02 Faeces (1) Measles
Dasypodidae
Dasypus novemcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758)–Nine-banded armadillo, Tatu-verdadeiro 2 0.04 Meat (5), tail (4) Back ache, snake bite
Mustelidae
Conepatus semistriatus (Boddaert, 1785)–Striped hog-nosed skunk, “Ticaca” 1 0.02 Meat (5) Rheumatism
Caviidae
Kerodon rupestris (Wied-Neuwied, 1820)–Rock cavy, “Mocó” 3 0.04 Meat (5) Disorders after parturition (to accelerate recovery after parturition), weakness, thrombosis
Bovidae
Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758–Domestic cattle, “Boi” 12 0.20 Liver (5), horn (1,7), marrow (7), milk (8), urine (8), butter (8), hoof proteins (7) Anaemia, the evil eye, nervous problems, whooping cough, weakness, eye problems, sore throat, baldness, tuberculosis
Ovis aries Linnaeus, 1758–Sheep, “Carneiro” 31 0.36 Fat (4), suet (4) Rheumatism, cracks in the sole of the feet inflammations, swelling, nervous problems, furuncle, one fractures, suck a splinter out of skin or flesh, mycosis
Hydrochaeridae
Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766), capybara, capivara 1 0.02 Fa (3) Osteoporosis
  1. Legend: 1, Tea; 2, powder, to be ingested with food; 3, ointment to be rubbed on the affected area; 4, ear drops; 5, ingestion of the cooked part; 6, ingestion of the crude part; 7, beverage (‘garrafada’), obtained by mixing medicinal plants and animals; 8, taken as a drink; 9, concoction, taken as a drink; 10, Rubbed on the affected area.