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Table 3 Evaluation of the 15 most salient plant taxa mentioned in free lists, following the Smith’s salience (S) value and their stated uses in Tyrol, Australia, Brazil and Peru

From: Transformation of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants: the case of Tyroleans (Austria) who migrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru

Country Vernacular name Scientific name Plant family Claimed uses Basic values Indices Ranking
      Resp% F UR NU S UV S UV
Tyrol Brennessel Urtica dioica L. Urticaceae blood cleansing, iron source, food, genitourinary system, hair care, prostate, vitamin provider 80 12 11 7 0.608 0.33 1 4
Arnika Arnica montana L. Asteraceae apoplectic stroke, athlete’s foot, blood circulation, aches, body tension, decongestant, injuries, lumbago, rheumatism, soothing, sore muscles, sprains, stimulant 80 12 12 4 0.6 0.26 2 5
Frauenmantel Alchemilla spp. Asteraceae female disorders, genitourinary system disorders, menopausal problems, wounds 80 12 12 3 0.512 0.2 3 6
Spitzwegerich Plantago lanceolata L. Plantaginaceae animal fodder, cough, croakiness, heart, haemostasis, insect bites, throat, wounds, 80 12 13 4 0.481 0.27 4 5
Salbei Salvia officinalis L. Lamiaceae antibiotic, breastfeeding, cough, fumigant, gargle, kitchen herb, oral mucus, sore throat, stomach 60 9 13 4 0.479 0.27 5 5
Kamille Matricaria chamomilla L. Asteraceae anti-inflammatory, calmative, disinfection, immune system, intestines, relaxation, stomach, universal remedy, wellbeing 80 12 16 6 0.474 0.4 6 3
Johanniskraut Hypericum perforatum L. Hypericaceae antidepressant, burns, depression, ear pain, nervous system, relaxation, sedative, skin and nail care, sun burn, throat ache, well-being 60 9 16 6 0.43 0.4 7 4
Schafgarbe Achillea millefolium L. Asteraceae anticonvulsant, blood cleansing, digestive effect, female disorders, genitourinary system, herbal tonic, influenza, stomach problems, veterinary use 67 10 11 7 0.361 0.47 8 2
Pfefferminze Mentha x piperita L. Lamiaceae aromatic, breastfeeding, cold, cough, headache, increasing blood pressure, sedative, stomach, revitalising 60 9 9 6 0.361 0.4 9 3
Holunder Sambucus nigra L. Adoxaceae bladder infection, cough, drink, fever, fumigant, food, headache, immune system, inflammation, influenza, insect bites, universal remedy, vitamins 67 10 19 8 0.323 0.53 10 1
Tyrol Huflattich Tussilago farfara L. Asteraceae blood cleansing, cold, cough 47 7 7 3 0.314 0.2 11 6
Loewenzahn Taraxacum officinale L. Asteraceae cough, blood cleansing, digestion, drink, food, spice, stomach, vitamins 53 8 12 4 0.308 0.27 12 5
Thymian, Quendel Thymus spp. Lamiaceae bronchitis, chest, cold, cosmetic, cough, cramps, fragrance, fumigant, kitchen herb, lungs, relaxation, revitalising 40 6 14 5 0.28 0.33 13 4
Himmelschlüssel Primula veris L. Primulaceae anti-inflammatory, chest, cough, headache, lungs, minerals, throat 53 8 9 5 0.273 0.33 14 4
Rosmarin Rosmarinus officinalis L. Lamiaceae activating, cardio vascular system, drink, kitchen herb, refreshing, stimulating, revitalising, warming 53 8 8 3 0.261 0.2 15 6
Australia Kamille Matricaria chamomilla L. Asteraceae calmative, cold, cold sores, eye cleaning, nausea, sedative, stomach ache, universal remedy, wellbeing 75 15 16 6 0.551 0.3 1 1
Arnika Arnica montana L. Asteraceae anti-inflammatory, bones, burns, bruises, cleansing, joints, massage, wounds 60 12 12 4 0.475 0.2 2 3
Salbei Salvia officinalis L. Lamiaceae anti-inflammatory, cold, digestion, drink, kitchen herb, stomach, sore throat 40 8 8 4 0.273 0.2 3 3
Pfefferminze Mentha x piperita L. Lamiaceae chest, cooling, digestive, sedative, stomach, throat 50 10 10 4 0.263 0.2 4 3
Aloe Vera Aloe spp. Asphodelaceae bites, burns, cleansing, dermatophytes, insects, herbal tonic, sunburn, wounds 35 7 8 4 0.232 0.2 5 3
Brennessel Urtica dioica L. Urticaceae circulation system, cleansing, food, revitalising 35 7 9 3 0.164 0.15 6 4
Knoblauch Allium sativum L. Amaryllidaceae blood cleansing, cold, spice, universal remedy 35 7 9 5 0.152 0.25 7 2
Holunder Sambucus nigra L. Adoxaceae cold, drink, fever 25 5 6 3 0.146 0.15 8 4
Johanniskraut Hypericum perforatum L. Hypericaceae blood cleansing, fear, panic attack, relaxation, skin care, stress, sunburn 15 3 4 2 0.132 0.1 9 5
Linde Tilia spp. Tiliaceae cold, fever, nerves, relaxing, wellbeing 20 4 4 4 0.122 0.2 10 3
Spitzwegerich Plantago lanceolata L. Plantaginaceae bronchitis, throat 15 3 3 1 0.121 0.05 11 6
Australia Ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe Zingiberaceae cold, immune system, stomach 15 3 3 3 0.114 0.15 12 4
Hagebutte Rosa canina L. Rosaceae calmative, drink, nervous system, refreshment, skin care, wellbeing, 20 4 5 3 0.112 0.15 13 4
Zwiebel Allium cepa L. Amaryllidaceae antipyretic, cold, inflammation, lungs 15 3 3 3 0.101 0.15 14 4
Wachholder Juniperus communis L. Cupressaceae bladder infection, spice 10 2 2 2 0.1 0.1 15 5
Brazil Babosa° Aloe arborescens Mill. Asphodelaceae abscess, burns, cancer, cardialgia, digestive effects, hair care, injuries, stomach, sun burns, universal remedy, thrombosis, ulcer, herbal tonic, liver, wooden splinter, wounds 81 13 6 13 0.64 0.4 1 1
Aloe variegata L.
Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.
Camomila Matricaria chamomilla L. Asteraceae digestion, inflammation, influenza, stomach ache, wounds 56 9 10 4 0.415 0.27 2 2
Macela Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC. Asteraceae digestion, high blood pressure, stomach ache, wound cleansing 56 9 10 6 0.347 0.4 3 1
Carqueja° Baccharis articulata (Lam.) Pers. Asteraceae diuretic, high blood pressure, strain, joint pain, weight reduction 44 7 6 3 0.313 0.2 4 3
Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC
Losna Artemisia absinthium L. Asteraceae digestive, headache, itchiness, stomach 31 5 4 1 0.218 0.27 5 5
Calendula Calendula officinalis L. Asteraceae relaxation, wounds 31 5 4 2 0.185 0.13 6 4
Cipó mil homens Aristolochia triangularis Cham. Aristolochiaceae diarrhoea, internal organs, stomach ache 25 4 4 1 0.175 0.06 7 5
Hortelã Mentha spp. Lamiaceae cough, sedative 25 4 4 2 0.173 0.13 8 2
Alecrim Rosmarinus officinalis L. Lamiaceae calmative, heart 19 3 2 2 0.17 0.13 9 4
Brazil Erva cidreira Hyptis althaeifolia Pohl ex Benth. Lamiaceae influenza, relaxation, sedative, stomach 19 3 1 1 0.161 0.06 10 5
Lippia alba var. globiflora (L’Hér.) Moldenke Verbenaceae
Melissa officinalis L. Lamiaceae
Quebra pedra Phyllanthus niruri L. Euphorbiaceae diuretic, kidneys 25 4 3 1 0.16 0.06 11 5
Urtiga° Urtica spp. Urticaceae blood pressure, weight reduction 31 5 4 2 0.143 0.13 12 4
Urera spp.
Boldo° Plectranthus barbatus Andrews Lamiaceae digestion, stomach 25 4 4 3 0.141 0.2 13 3
Plectranthus neochilus Schltr.
Alcachofra Cynara scolymus L. Asteraceae high blood pressure, high cholesterol, stomach 25 4 3 3 0.138 0.2 14 3
Cidreira Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf Poaceae influenza, relaxation, sedative, stomach 19 3 4 3 0.13 0.2 15 3
Hyptis althaeifolia Pohl ex Benth. Lamiaceae
Lippia alba var. Globiflora (L‘Hér.) Moldenke Verbenaceae
Peru Llanten° Plantago spp. Plantaginaceae anti-inflammatory, cicatrices, disinfection, fever, germ-killing, inflammation, stomach, swells, throat 80 1 13 6 0.626 0.4 1 2
Uña de gato Uncaria guianensis (Aubl.) J.F. Gmel. Rubiaceae cancer, cleansing, inflammation, liver, wounds, pain, swells, tumour 67 1 14 5 0.557 0.33 2 3
Orégano Lantana spp. Lamiaceae baby tea, digestive, gastrospasm, stomach, flatulence 67 1 10 1 0.422 0.06 3 7
Mentha spicata L.
Origanum vulgare L
Matico Piper spp. Piperaceae anti-inflammatory, bladder, blister, bruises, cicatrices, cold, cough, infection, kidneys 53 8 13 6 0.389 0.4 4 2
Bejuco chuncho Cissus gongylodes Burch. Ex Baker Vitaceae anti-rheumatism, cancer, disinfection, diabetes, gastritis, joint pain, kidney stones, stomach, turgor, pain relief 53 8 10 7 0.375 0.4 5 1
Peru Sangre de Grado Croton lechleri Müll. Arg. Euphorbiaceae cancer, cicatrices, gastritis, wounds 47 7 13 4 0.352 0.26 6 4
Guanábana Anona muricata L. Annonaceae cancer, inflammation, turgor 40 6 6 2 0.233 0.13 7 6
Guayaba Psidium guajava L. Myrtaceae diarrhoea, stomach 40 6 7 2 0.229 0.13 8 6
Muñá° Hyptis mutabilis (Rich.) Briq. Lamiaceae cicatrices, cuts, inflammation 27 4 4 2 0.217 0.13 9 6
Minthostachys setosa (Briq.) Epling
Cola de Caballo Equisetum spp. Equisetaceae liver, kidneys 40 6 6 2 0.205 0.13 10 6
Plano° Persea caerulea (Ruiz & Pav.) Mez Lauraceae bone fractures, dislocation, inflammation, swelling 33 5 7 4 0.202 0.26 11 4
Nectandra reticulata (Ruiz & Pav.) Mez
Zarzaparrilla Serjania rubicaulis Benth. Ex Radlk. Sapindaceae antibacterial, blood cleansing, cicatrices, fungal infection, inflammation, swelling 27 4 5 4 0.19 0.26 12 4
Achiote Bixa orellana L. Bixaceae kidneys, prostate, wounds 20 3 3 2 0.173 0.13 13 6
Verdolaga Portulaca oleracea L. Portulacacea fever, liver, stomach ache 27 4 5 3 0.168 0.2 14 5
Santa Maria° Piper peltatum L. Piperaceae antibiotic, cicatrices 20 3 3 2 0.164 0.13 15 6
   Piper umbellatum L.           
  1. Plant ranking is based on each index, the lower the number the higher the rank.
  2. Coding of Variables: Resp% = the percentage of people who mentioned each item; F = the frequency of mentions per item; UR = number of use reports (‘citations’); NU = number of different use reports; S = Smith’s salience, which accounts for frequency and the average rank of items mentioned in the respondent’s list; UV = Use value index; RFC = relative frequency of citation index; ° listed plant item applies to more than one scientific plant taxon.