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Table 1 Medicinally Utilized Plants in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea

From: An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the eastern highlands of Papua New Guinea

Genus and species [References] Voucher number Family Local name [Dialect : Village] Disease Plant part Medicinal preparation Route
Abrus sp. [9, 11] WL065 Leguminosae Amanani-Aginogo [U : A] GIT / Swelling [Magic] L Concoction O
Adenostemma sp. [13, 14]*, [15]* SK057 Asteraceae Hovepa [B : S] Swollen skin & skin infection L, F & vines Sun drying E
Ageratum conyzoides L. [8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16]*, [15]* SK013 Asteraceae Govu suva [S : O] Diarrhea L & F F / Succus O
Alpinia sp. [8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16]*, [17] WL052 Zingiberaceae Amo-o [Ki : A] GIT / Swelling [Magic] Stem Concoction O
Alpinia sp. [8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16]*, [17] SK056 Zingiberaceae Sinogepuna [B : S] Swollen joints L Chopped leaves are cooked together with pig meat O
Alpinia sp. [8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16]*, [17] SK030 Zingiberaceae Gini giye [S : O] Flatulence yf L Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat in bamboo O
Alpinia sp. [8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16]*, [17] RJ006 Zingiberaceae Koikadene [I : J] Ovulation / Fertility Fruit/Seeds Fresh O
Alpinia sp. [8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16]*, [17] SK020 Zingiberaceae Gavu [S : O] Sever fever yf L & shoot Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat in bamboo O
Alstonia brassii Monach. [811, 13, 16, 18] SK064 Apocynaceae Gigipe [B : S] Skin infection Sap (Milkywhite) Fresh / Succus E
Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br. [811, 13, 16, 18] RJ011 Apocynaceae Yaknalae's Ita [I : M-B] Malaria L, B Fresh / dry O
Alstonia sp. [811, 13, 14, 16]*, [15, 18, 19]* SK046 Apocynaceae Hihipa [B : S] To gain strenght during warfare L & B Cut into small pieces & cooked with pig meat in bamboo O
Alyxia sp. [14]*, [18] RJ034a Apocynaceae Kevitingoje [I : J] Dyspnea soft L Fresh O
Aristolochia indica L. [20] RJ001 Meliaceae Yaki'Itchale [I : J] Malaria, Abortion, uterine inflammation L, B Fresh, Decoction O
Ascarina philippinensis C.B.Rob. [21]*, [14]* RJ036 Chloranthaceae Nebotniari [I : J] High fever L, fruit Fresh O
Ascarina philippinensis C.B.Rob. [21]*, [14]* WL021 Chloranthaceae Pawasa [F : Y] GIT / Swelling [Magic] L Concoction O
Aspium sp. WL034 Unidentified Waise [F : Y / E] Diarrhea / abdominal pain / Cachexia L Concoction O
Bacopa sp. SK033 Scrophulariaceae Momoto [G : U] For gaining weight L, F & Stem Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat in bamboo O
Barringtonia sp. [8, 9, 13, 1517]* SK054 Barringtoniaceae Lahapa [B : S] Stomach ache L & sap Sap & chopped leaves are mixed together and cooked with pig meat in bamboo O
Begonia rex Putz. RJ012 Begoniaceae Woyatchale [I : J] Sores / Boils (esp. on neck) L, Stem Fresh or dried O
Begonia sp. [9, 10, 21]*, [13, 14]*, [15, 20, 2224]* WL031 Begoniaceae Awaya [F : Y] Excessive menstrual bleeding L Concoction O
Begonia sp. [9, 10, 21]*, [13, 14]*, [15, 2224]* RJ002 Begoniaceae Saiguwong'giye [I : J] Strong cough / general good health L / or A Fresh O
Bidens pilosa L. [9, 11, 13, 15, 16, 19, 24]* WL045 Asteraceae Kamena [K : E] Sores & Wounds L Heated / Succus E
Bidens pilosa L. [9, 11, 13, 15, 16, 19, 21, 24]* RJ013 Asteraceae Toiporeyie [I : J] Cuts/Wounds/Scratches (Hemostatis) L & shoot Succus (crushed) E
Blumea sp. [9, 10, 13, 14, 21] WL020 Asteraceae Aleu [F : Y] Weight decrease due to abdominal problems / nausea L Concoction O
Boerlagiodendron eminens (W. Bull) Merr.*** SK050 Araliaceae Sofa [B : S] Control sexual desire of men L Leaves cut into pieces and cooked with pig meat in bamboo O
Bubbia sp. RJ021 Winteraceae Pangwe [I : J] Aches and pains, cough, arthritis, dyspnea L, B Decoction O
Calycacanthus magnusianus K. Schum RJ029 Acanthaceae Ikowote/Wusale [I : W / AD] Sores (all types) L Fresh (Mascerated) E
Castanopsis acuminatissima (Blume) Rehder [10, 21]*, [14]* SK009 Fagaceae Nege [S : G] Otitis media B F /Succus (Scraped and juice extracted) E
Casuarina oligodon L.A.S. Johnson [21]*, [14]*, [25] WL062 Casuarinaceae Alaeva / Karavefa [Ki / K : A] GIT / Swelling [Magic] B Concoction O
Chionanthus ramiflorus Roxb. SK045 Oleaceae Hagavi [B : S] Malnutrition/Growth retardation L & B Scrapped bark & chopped leaves are cooked in bamboo with pig meat O
Chrysanthemum sp. SK015 Asteraceae Seveya [S : O] Boil F F /Succus E
Cinnamomum sp. [9, 10, 21]*, [13, 14]*, [15, 20, 2224]* WL007 Lauraceae Yaravu [F : U] Weakness / nausea / vomiting B Concoction O
Cinnamomum sp. [9, 10, 21]*, [13, 14]*, [15, 20, 2224]* SK036 Lauraceae Yahoma [B : S] Poison within body system L & B Scraped B is added to chopped L & pig meat and cooked in bamboo O
Cladonia scabriuscula (Delise) Leight WL075 Cladoniaceae Lanefa-Kikinofa [K : A] Vaginal discharge / bleeding A Heated O
Coleus blumei Benth. [9, 11] SK043 Lamiaceae Mufler [B : S] Induce labour in childbirth L Cut into pieces and cooked with other leaves & pig meat in bamboo O
Coleus scutellarioides (L.) Benth. [9, 21]*, [13, 15]* RJ007 Lamiaceae Wuririta [I : J] Strong productive cough f soft L Heated and Fresh O
Commelina sp. [8, 9, 11, 14]*, [15]* WL042 Commelinaceae Hitirifa [K : E] Headache [Analgesic] A Fresh O
Commersonia bartramiana (L.) Merr. [8, 21]* WL001 Sterculiaceae Kalaifa [K : E] Emetic B Concoction O
Coprosma sp. [14]* WL066 Rubiaceae Loanoya [Ki : A] GIT / Swelling [Magic] L Concoction O
Cordyline fruticosa (Linnaeus) A. Chevalier [8, 13, 14, 16]*, [15] SK019 Agavaceae Gini fono [S : O] Anemia & Dizziness yL Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat in bamboo O
Cordyline terminalis (L.) Kunth [911] RJ044 Agavaceae Alebiyei [I : KA] Magical soft un-sprouted shoot / L Concoction O
Cosmos sp. SK001 Asteraceae Seho gihi [G : N] Toothache F Decoction O (Rinse)
Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore [9, 21]*, [14, 15]* RJ037 Asteraceae Matchope [I : J] Wounds and cuts (hemostasis) L Succus (crushed) E
Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore [9, 21]*, [14]*, [15]* SK004 Asteraceae Okore gihi [G : N] Fresh cuts yL, F & Stem F / Succus (All are squeezed together) E
Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore [9, 21]*, [14]*, [15]* WL046 Asteraceae Ino-Kamena-e [K : E] Sores & Wounds L Heated / Succus E
Crotalaria retusa L. [9, 13] SK071 Leguminosae Orupa flawa [G : G] Chicken-pox F Fresh / Succus E
Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. [9] SK005 Hypoxidaceae Orupa napa [G: N] Growth retarded children Tubers Maceration, then liquid is used to cook greens & meat in bamboo O
Cyrtandra sp. [21]*, [13, 14]*, [15]* SK060 Gesneriaceae Minise [B : S] Malnutrition L & Stem Cut into pieces and cooked with pig meat in bamboo O
Cyrtandra sp. [21]*, [13, 14]*, [15]* WL032 Gesneriaceae Asaswa [F : Y] Weight decrease due to abdominal problems / nausea L Concoction O
Cyrtandra sp. [13, 21]*, [14]*, [15]* RJ015 Gesneriaceae Kodatchale [I : J] Emetic and strong cough (expectorant) L Fresh O
Decaspermum bracteatum (Roxb.) A.J.Scott SK047 Myrtaceae Sosome [B : S] Back & joint pain, headache & toothache L & B Cut into pieces and cooked with pig meat in bamboo O
Dendrobium sp. [9, 21]*, [13, 14]* SK029 Orchidaceae Fonomuna [S : O] Severe headache & dizziness L & stem Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat O
Dendrobium sp. [9, 21]*, [13, 14]* WL048 Orchidaceae Kinua [K : E] Backache [Analgesic] A Fresh O
Dendrocnide interrupta (L.) Chew WL035 Urticaceae Fai [K : U] Muscle / joint pains / headache L Fresh E
Dendrocnide sp. [13] RJ048 Urticaceae Iwole [I : J] Productive cough soft L Concoction O
Desmodium sp. [8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16]*, [22, 26] SK021 Leguminosae Suwaroka ginona [S : O] Malnutrition L, F & Stem Cooked with meat in bamboo O
Dianella ensifolia (L.) DC. [14]*, [15]* SK066 Liliaceae Mamuha [B : S] Irritating cough & throat mucus L & Tubers Infusion O
Diospyros sp. [13] WL010 Ebenaceae Kigi Yosita-e [F : Y] Shortness of breath w/ abdominal discomfort and bodyswelling B Concoction O
Diospyros sp. [13] WL037 Ebenaceae HamaitoYosa [K : E] Significant weight loss L & B Concoction O
Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. [11, 21]*, [14, 16]*, [27] WL044 Sapindaceae Karu [K : E] Bone Fractures / Painful joints L Heated E
Drymaria cordata (L.) [9, 14]*, [15] RJ042 Caryophyllaceae Motdeikedike [I : J] Tooth ache A Decoction O
Elaeagnus sp. [21]* WL009 Elaeagnaceae Tunakafe yosita-e [U : Y] GIT / Swelling [Magic] L Dried O
Elaeocarpus sp. [9, 10, 13, 14, 21]*, [15, 17]* WL051 Elaeocarpaceae Ukari [K : A] GIT / Swelling [Magic] B Concoction O
Eleutheranthera sp. [28] WL056 Asteraceae Lemu [Ki : A] Pains [general analgesic] R Concoction O
Emilia prenanthoidea DC. [10, 13, 14]*, [9, 21] SK022 Asteraceae Gambiri govu [S : O] Rumbling stomach L Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat in bamboo O
Erigeron sumatrensis Retz.[14, 21]* WL013 Asteraceae Kisekise / Okiopa [K : U] GIT / Swelling [Magic] B Concoction O
Euphorbia hirta L. [9, 15, 16] SK032 Euphorbiaceae Saha gihi [G : U] Dysentery L, F & Stem F / Succus O
Eurya sp. [21]*, [14]* WL070 Theaceae Iyaleya [Ki : A] Headache, fatigue, GI discomfort, muscle aches and arthralgia L Concoction O
Eustrephus latifolius R. Br. SK075 Philesiaceae Haya sono [G : G] Anti-helminthics L Fresh / Succus O
Ficus benjamina L. [29] SK052 Moraceae Makeyafa [B : S] Joint & back pain L & B Scraped bark & chopped leaves are cooked with pig meat in bamboo O
Ficus copiosa Steud. [8, 9, 21]*, [14, 16]* WL047 Moraceae Atai-Yosita [K : E] Chest Pains, labored breathing L & B Concoction O
Ficus pumila L. [811, 13, 14, 16]*, [19, 22] WL025 Moraceae Kasakonde [F : Y] Malaise, fever, shaking, vomiting [sometimes] L Concoction O
Ficus pungens Reinw. ex BL. [9, 10, 13, 14, 16]* SK073 Moraceae Gegeha [G : U] Shivering hands & feet L & Fruit Chopped leaves & smashed fruits are cooked together with pig meat in bamboo O
Ficus pungens Reinw. ex Blume [9, 10, 13, 14, 16]* RJ017 Moraceae Ayeye [I : W] Oral trush soft f L Succus (crushed) O
Ficus sp. [811, 13, 14, 16, 21]*, [19, 22] WL015 Moraceae Higifa [K : Y] GIT / Swelling [Magic] L Concoction O
Ficus sp. [811, 13, 14, 16, 21]*, [19, 22] WL038 Moraceae Yagarueta [K : E] Malaise, fever, shaking, vomiting [sometimes] L Concoction O
Finschia sp. SK037 Proteaceae Yakof [B : S] Abdominal swelling L Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat O
Gardenia sp. [14]*, [21]* SK007 Rubiaceae Amanini [G : N] Faintness / Epilepsy L Chopped into pieces & cooked with meat in bamboo O
Glochidion sp. [14]*, [15]* SK024 Euphorbiaceae Poroqui [S : O] Frequent dizziness yf L Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat in bamboo O
Gordonia papuana Kobuski [21]*, [14]* WL069 Theaceae Oasiri / Kogaisiri [Ki / K : A] GIT / Swelling [Magic] B Concoction O
Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griffith [8, 21]*, [14]*, [22] WL017 Acanthaceae Otoro [U : Y] Excessive menstrual bleeding L Concoction O
Grevillea papuana Diels [10, 13, 21] SK072 Proteaceae Mumusopa yaha [G : G] F cuts & Ulcer sores L Poultice E
Hemigraphis sp. [810, 21]*, [13, 14]*, [20] WL074 Acanthaceae NamKatoga [K : NI (E)] GIT / Swelling [Magic] L Concoction O
Hemigraphis sp. [810, 21]*, [13, 14]*, [20] RJ041 Acanthaceae Bukmeye/Murie [I : KA] Magical L Concoction O
Hyptis sp. [9, 11, 13, 23] SK017 Labiatae Seve moiba [S : O] Spear wounds L F / Succus E
Hyptis sp. [9, 11, 13, 23] SK018 Labiatae Gekesagu [B : S] Otitis media Soft stem & Stem skin F / Succus E
Impatiens hawkeri W.Bull [10, 21]*, [14]* RJ043 Balsaminaceae Meyebui [I : KA] Magical L Concoction O
Impatiens hawkeri W.Bull [10, 21]*, [14]* RJ045 Balsaminaceae Kolumbota [I : KA] Magical L Concoction O
Kibara katikii Philipson SK025 Monimiaceae Suwa nara [S : O] Epilepsy L Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat in bamboo O
Laportea decumana (Roxb.) Wedd. [9, 10, 21]*, [13, 16, 19, 22, 24, 26, 30] RJ009 Urticaceae Nabotne (green) [I : J] Liver pain soft L Heated and Fresh O
Laportea decumana (Roxb.) Wedd. [9, 10, 21]*, [13, 16, 19, 22, 24, 26, 30] RJ018 Urticaceae Nabotne (Pink) [I : J] Joint pain (analgesic); magical L Fresh O
Laportea sp. [9, 10, 21]*, [13, 14, 16, 19, 22, 24, 26, 30] RJ004 Urticaceae Keletichale [I : J] Liver pain (Epigatric pain) f soft L Fresh O
Leucosyke capitellata (Poir.) Wedd. [8] SK063 Urticaceae Hagaza [B : S] Skin itchiness L & stem Fresh / Succus O & E
Litsea exsudens Kosterm. [14]* SK048 Lauraceae Sagifa [B : S] Cleanes bodysystem L & B Leaves & barks are cut into pieces and cooked with pig meat in bamboo O
Ludwigia hyssopifolia (G. Don) exell apud A.R. Fernandes [21]* WL040 Onagraceae Lawolawosa [K : E] Blood in urine, yellow tongue, headache with high fever, aching joints [all ocurring together] A Concoction O
Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven [14]* SK069 Onagraceae Goluwaiyo [G : G] Ulcer sores Fruit & seeds Fresh / Succus E
Maclura sp. RJ020 Moraceae Iveriate [I : J] Malaria soft L Fresh O
Medinilla sp. SK028 Melastomataceae Lunu aira [S : O] Anemia L Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat O
Melastoma malabathricum L. [14]* WL014 Melastomataceae Tawakaya [F : U] GIT / Swelling [Magic] L & B Concoction O
Melastoma sp. [8, 9, 11, 13, 14]* WL006 Melastomataceae Kora Yosa / Au Yosaita [F / K : Y] Heart Problems L Concoction O
Mucuna stanleyi C.T.White [8, 9, 13] RJ014 Leguminosae Kang'ole [I : J] Contraception soft L Succus (crushed) O
Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack [28] SK068 Rutaceae Onupa yaha [G : N] Mentallydisturbed L Leaves are cut into pieces and cooked with meat in bamboo O
Murraya sp. [28] SK031 Rutaceae Nuva yaha [G : G] Nasal congestion L Steaming I
Musa sp. [8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16, 21]*, [23, 24, 30] WL053 Musaceae Abu [Ki : K] GIT / Swelling [Magic] Stem Concoction O
Myrmecodia sp. [8, 21]*, [13] RJ046 Rubiaceae Kleklina [I : KA] Magical soft L Concoction / Fresh O
Ophiorrhiza nervosa RidL. [14]* SK049 Rubiaceae Atu [B : S] Poison within body system L Cooked with pig meat in bamboo O
Ophiorrhiza sp. [14, 21]* WL011 Rubiaceae Temu / Afela Hefi [F / K : Y] Epigastric pain, nausea, vometing, abdominal swelling [Stomach cancer] L & soft stem Concoction O
Orania sp. WL072 Arecaceae Vayave [K : AN (E)] Difficult breathing, cough and wheezing B Concoction O
Oxalis corniculata L. [9, 14, 16]*, [19] SK041 Oxalidaceae Sokolo [B : S] Dysmenorrhoea L, F & Stem Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat in bamboo O
Oxalis corniculata L. [9, 14, 16]*, [19] SK035 Oxalidaceae Gehani gihi [G : M] Labour pain L, F & Stem F / Succus O
Pandanus sp. [9, 13, 14, 16, 21]*, [22] RJ047 Pandanaceae Awangwe [I : J] Asthma soft L Succus (squeezed) O
Phyllanthus niruri L. [9, 11, 13, 16] SK070 Euphorbiaceae Saha gihi [G : G] Stings from insects/bees L & F Fresh / Succus E
Piper aduncum L. [29] WL043 Piperaceae Kamani-Lucefa [K : E] Bone Fractures L Heated E
Piper betle L. [9, 10, 16] SK061 Piperaceae Yagerere [B : S] Malnutrition L Chopped and cooked together with pig meat O
Piper gibbilimbum C.DC. [14]*, [31, 32] RJ038 Piperaceae Kutmunne [I : J] Improves platability of other TrM L Wrapper O
Piper sp. [810, 21]*, [13, 14, 16]*, [17, 18, 22] RJ039 Piperaceae Mudutganan'ne [I : KA] Magical soft L Concoction O
Piper sp. [810, 21]*, [13, 14, 16]*, [17, 18, 22] SK026 Piperaceae Gegiya [G : U] Toothache yf L Succus E
Pipturus argenteus (G.Forst.) Wedd. [9, 10, 13, 16, 18, 26] SK067 Urticaceae Ase yaha [G : N] Remove worms L Chopped leaves are cooked together with pig meat O
Pittosporum sinuatum BL. [14]* WL058 Pittosporaceae Ilawau-u [Ki : A] GIT / Swelling [Magic] L Concoction O
Pittosporum sp. [9, 21]*[13, 14, 16]* RJ027 Pittosporaceae Wununghe [I : W Scabies, ulcerative sores A Decoction O
Planchonella sp. [14]* RJ024 Sapotaceae Ik'klake [I : J] Abdominal swelling / Magical Seed, L, B Decoction (bark) / fresh O
Plantago major L. [21]* SK044 Plantaginaceae Getuya [B : S] Diarrhea Whole Either cooked separately or with pig meat in a bamboo O
Plantago major L. [21]* SK034 Plantaginaceae Masiga gihi [G : U] Deep wound (pig/dog bite, axe/knife wound) L & stem F / Succus E
Plectranthus scutellarioides R. Br. [3, 13, 14, 16, 18] SK040 Lamiaceae Salita [B : S] Dysentery L Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat in bamboo O
Podocarpus neriifolius Don. [9, 27] WL054 Podocarpaceae Laso [Ki / K : A] GIT / Swelling [Magic] B Concoction O
Poikilospermum sp. [8, 14]* SK058 Urticaceae Sikrutafa [B : S] To gain weight/become fat L & vine Chopped leaves & scraped vines are cooked together with pig meat O
Polygala paniculata L., [21]*, [13], [14]* SK016 Polygalaceae Nuva gihi [G : O] Malaria & High Fever L & F Cooked with meat in bamboo O
Polygonum strigosum R. Br. [14] RJ022 Polygonaceae Tungole [I : J] Labor pain (analgesic) soft L Fresh O
Polyscias filicifolia (C.Moore ex E.Fourn.) L.H.Bailey RJ005 Araliaceae Iriduki'Imetchale [I : J] Malaria L Fresh O
Psidium guajava L. [8, 9, 13, 16] SK002 Myrtaceae Gusigusi [G : N] Diarrhea L Fresh / Succus O
Psoralea sp. SK003 Leguminosae Gulumeha [G : G] White mouth sores / Candida like L, F & Stem F / Succus (All at once) O (Chewed)
Psychotria sp. [9, 11, 21]*, [13, 14]* WL033 Rubiaceae Katoya [F : Y] GIT / Swelling [Magic] L Concoction O
Rubus moluccanus L. [9, 14, 16, 21]* WL023 Rosaceae Uruturu [F : Y] Fevers L Concoction O
Rungia klossii S.Moore [11, 21]*, [14, 30]* WL004 Acanthaceae Hefi [K : U] none Herb Major additive to Wl001- > 003 O
Saccharum sp. [9, 11, 21]*, [13, 14, 16]*, [17, 23, 26] RJ051 Poaceae Sale / Saimije [I : J] Improves platability of other TrM Crystallized Additive (taste / texture) O
Sacciolepis sp. [10, 13, 14, 21] WL036 Poaceae Hufa-aigoyae [K : AN] Small sores & minor cuts F / Stem Succus E
Salacia sp. [14]* WL029 Celastraceae Agenafa [K : Y] GIT / Swelling [Magic] L & Stem Concoction O
Sambucus javanica Reinw. ex Blume SK008 Caprifoliaceae Golani yaha [G : N] Chicken-pox F Infusion used for bathing E
Sanchezia nobilis var. glaucophylla Lem. SK076 Acanthaceae Girukaru [G : U] Broken bones & joint dislocations L Cooked with meat or other greens O & E
Saurauia andreana (F.MuelL.) Diels [8, 14]* WL064 Actinidiaceae Ayano [Ki : K] GIT / Swelling [Magic] L Concoction O
Saurauia sp. [8, 21]*, [14]* SK027 Actinidiaceae Goiva [S : O] Ulcers L Poultice E
Saurauia sp. [8, 21]*, [14]* SK051 Actinidiaceae Kiahuyave [B : S] Dysmenorrhoea L & B Leaves / bark or both are cut into pieces and cooked with pig meat in bamboo O
Saurauia sp. [8, 21]*, [14]* SK053 Actinidiaceae Yaketupa [B : S] Abnormal mouth & nose bleeding L & B Chopped leaves & scraped bark are cooked together with pig meat in bamboo O
Saurauia sp. [8, 21]*, [14]* RJ010 Actinidiaceae Kokgingila [I : J] Permanent contraceptive B Decoction O
Saurauia sp. [8, 21]*, [14]* RJ030 Actinidiaceae Gol'lik [I : W / AD] Liver pain / epigastric pain L Fresh O
Saurauia sp. [8, 21]*, [14]* WL005 Actinidiaceae Karakieta [F : Y] Pains, Fevers & GI Symptoms ["typhoid symptoms"] L Concoction O
Saurauia sp. [8, 21]*, [14]* WL018 Actinidiaceae Kaware [F : Y] Excessive menstrual bleeding L Concoction O
Schefflera sp. [21]*, [13], [14]*, [15]* WL003 Araliaceae Ase [K : E] Emetic L Concoction O
Scindapsus sp. SK055 Araceae Yage [B : S] Severelysick patients Stem & yf L Chopped leaves & scraped vines are cooked together with pig meat O
Selaginella emmeliana Van Geert WL049 Selaginellaceae Kakasi [Ki / K : A] Swollen Hands and Feet L Concoction O / E
Senecio sp. [14]* SK012 Asteraceae Gotu aira [S : O] Cough with runny nose yL & S F / Succus O
Setaria sp. [810, 14] SK010 Poaceae Nomu suva [S : O] Malaria whole plant Chopped into pieces & cooked with meat in bamboo O
Sida acuta Burm. F. [9, 13, 16] SK014 Malvaceae Nivinihani [G : O] Dysmenorrhoea, Diarrhea yf L & Rs Eaten with food & F / Succus O
Sigesbeckia orientalis L. [14]* SK042 Asteraceae Mezamua [B : S] Diarrhea Whole Fresh / Succus O
Smilax rotundifolia L. [8, 9, 16] WL024 Smilacaceae Kogana [K : Y] Pains and Fevers [Analgesic] L Concoction O
Smilax sp. [8, 9, 14, 16]* WL030 Smilacaceae Ala-Kogana [K : U] GIT / Swelling [Magic] L Concoction O
Smilax sp. [8, 9, 14, 16]* SK023 Smilacaceae Gatapa nara [S : O] Epilepsy y soft L Cut into pieces & cooked with pig meat in bamboo O
Steganthera sp. [14]* RJ033 Monimiaceae Kwagisal'lik [I : AD] Strong cough with burning/nausea soft L & S Fresh O
Symplocos sp. [14, 21]* WL002 Symplocaceae Vefa [K : E] Emetic B Concoction O
Symplocos sp. [14, 21]* WL059 Symplocaceae Nimihavaya [Ki : A] Epigastric pain L Concoction O
Symplocos sp. [14, 21]* RJ032 Symplocaceae Guruke [I : W Cough L Fresh O
Syzygium longipes Merr. & L.M.Perry [811, 13, 16, 18] SK059 Myrtaceae Maze [B : S] Malnutrition L & B Cut into pieces and cooked with pig meat in bamboo O
Syzygium sp. [811, 21]*, [13, 14, 16]*, [18] SK074 Myrtaceae Nuva yaha [G : G] Mild-severe chest pain L & Fruit Dry / fresh chopped leaves are cooked with meat in bamboo O
Syzygium sp. [811, 21]*, [13, 14, 16]*, [18] WL019 Myrtaceae Yasawa [F : Y] GIT / Swelling [Magic] B Concoction O
Syzygium sp. [8], [911, 21]*, [13, 14, 16]*, [18] SK038 Myrtaceae Fitome [B : S] Swallowing of poison L & B Cut into pieces and cooked with pig meat in bamboo O
Tagetes sp. [11] SK006 Asteraceae Ukuromini [G : N] Toothache F & Stem near F F (All are squeezed and applied directly) D
Tasmannia piperita (Hook. f.) Miers. [13, 14] RJ008 Winteraceae Iridukichale [I : J] Malaria and strong cough L Fresh or dry O
Tecoma sp. [21]*, [15]* WL067 Bignoniaceae Na-a [Ki : A] Vaginal discharge/bleeding R Concoction O
Timonius belensis Merr. & L.M.Perry [14]* SK039 Rubiaceae Kipe [B : S] Joint & back pain L & B Scraped B is added to chopped L & pig meat and cooked in bamboo O
Timonius sp. [9, 13, 14, 16]* WL039 Rubiaceae Ubagu [K : E] GIT / Swelling [Magic] L Concoction O
Trichospermum sp. WL071 Tiliaceae Aviya [Ki : A] Headache, fatigue, GI discomfort, muscle aches and arthralgia L Concoction O
Tridax procumbens L. [11, 16] SK077 Asteraceae Lilita [G : U] Mild-severe headache L Cooked with meat in bamboo O
Tristiropsis sp. RJ023 Sapindaceae Longola [I : J] Malaria, cough w/ chest pain / Magical soft L Fresh O
Uncaria sp. [8, 21]*, [14]* SK062 Rubiaceae Glagigo [B : S] Internal sores & candida infections L & Stem Candida: stem smashed to release succus which is gargled; sores: stem and leaves are cooked and eaten O (Rinse) / O
Unidentified SK011 Araliaceae Gororotave nara [S : O] Toothache L & stem F / Succus (Cut & squeezed in hand) E
Unidentified SK065 Not given Nagepa [B : S] Headache L, F & Stem All parts are cooked together with pig meat O
Unidentified RJ003 Unidentified Imetchale [I : J] Malaria L Fresh O
Unidentified RJ016 Icacinaceae Kawikaule [I : J] Strong cough L Fresh or dry O
Unidentified RJ025 Scrophulariaceae Imetchale [I : J] Malaria and Asthma A Fresh or dry O
Unidentified RJ026 Solanaceae Kwagi'Kuwogie [I : J] Persistent cough L Fresh O
Unidentified RJ028 Unidentified Kimamite (small) [I : J] Malaria / mental enhancement L, Stem Leaf Fresh / Stem charred and inhaled O
Unidentified RJ031 Unidentified Kat'tungje [I : J] Strong cough with rhinorrhea (decongestant) L Fresh O
Unidentified RJ034b Unidentified Ammate [I : J] Dyspnea soft L Fresh O
Unidentified RJ035 Unidentified Kimamite (big) [I : J] Headache / Malaise L Fresh O
Unidentified RJ040 Euphorbiaceae Klalebongbonge [I : KA] Magical soft shoot / L Concoction O
Unidentified WL008 Leguminosae Orovia [F : Y] Abdominal discomfort / bodyaches [also magical: make people like bearer] F Fresh O
Unidentified WL012 Unidentified Kuougo [U : Y] GIT / Swelling [Magic] Stem [dried] Concoction O
Unidentified WL016 Euphorbiaceae Kamira [KT : F] Excessive menstrual bleeding L Concoction O]
Unidentified WL026 Unidentified Tewesa [F : Y] GIT / Swelling [Magic] A Concoction O
Unidentified WL027 Myrtaceae Kuta [K : Y] GIT / Swelling [Magic] [also magical as protection for bearer] B Concoction O
Unidentified WL028 Unknown Nonhe [F : Y] GIT / Swelling [Magic] L & B Concoction O
Unidentified WL041 Unidentified Eso-Aginogi [K : E] Weight Loss with severe bodyaches and GI complications A Concoction O
Unidentified WL050 Unidentified Veya [Ki : A] Swollen Hands and Feet A Concoction O / E
Unidentified WL055 Lamiaceae Natano [Ki / K : A] GIT / Swelling [Magic] B Concoction O
Unidentified WL057 Sapindaceae M-e [Ki : A] Pains [BodyAches] B Concoction O
Unidentified WL060 Theaceae Alau / Kalau [Ki / K : A] GIT / Swelling [Magic] B Concoction O
Unidentified WL061 Unidentified Kaviaya / Kamagafa [Ki / K : A] GIT / Swelling [Magic] B Concoction O
Unidentified WL068 Melastomataceae Masirita [Ki : A] GIT / Swelling [Magic] L Concoction O
Unidentified WL076 Unidentified Hapalaga Hitirifae [K : NI (E)] Diarrhea F / Fruit Fresh O
Unidentified RJ050 Unidentified Tungoje [I : J] Cough L Fresh O
Usnea strigosa (Ach.) Eaton WL063 Parmeliaceae Oleazu [Ki : A] Headache A Concoction O
Vaccinium sp. [13], [14]*, [21]*, [15]* RJ019 Ericaceae Yopengchale [I : J] Strong cough, asthma/dyspnea, fertility, stop menstruation L Fresh O
Zingiber officinale Roscoe [810, 16, 22, 26, 30] RJ059 Zingiberaceae Imate [I : J] Sore throat / Magical Rhizome Concoction O
Zingiber officinale Roscoe [810, 16, 22, 26, 30] WL073 Zingiberaceae Atu [K : NI (E)] Common Ingredient R Concoction Many
  1. Languages: Gahuku – G; Siane – S; Bena – B ; Ipma-Baruya Language – I ;Fore – F ; Keyagana – K ;Kimi = Ki ; Unknown – U.
  2. Villages: Amusa - A; Ande - AD; Aniruvi - AN; Egera-Haga - E; Ginipauka - G; Jomuru -J; Kimi - K; Kam'mwa - KA; Kamiyovindi-Tunuku - KT; Masiga - M; Mala and Boiko M-B; Numurapoka - N; Niruvi - NI; Orumba - O; Sekagu -S; Unknown - U; Wauko - W; Yawanita Haya -Y.
  3. Route: Oral – O ; External – E; D – direct on tooth; I - Inhaled.
  4. Plant parts: Aerial parts – A; Bark – B; Flowers – F;; Leaves – L; Tubers – T; Root – R; Vine – V; Whole – W; young – y.
  5. Medicinal preparation: Fresh – F.
  6. *** now known as Osmoxylon eminens (W.Bull) Philipson.
  7. A * following a reference number indicates no reference to medicinal use of the plant was made in the cited source.