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Table 1 Medicinal plant uses recorded on the Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps in the current study.

From: Medical ethnobotany of the Albanian Alps in Kosovo

Botanical taxon, botanical family and voucher specimen code Folk name(s) quoted by respondents English name Status Quotation frequency Part(s) used Administration Treated disease(s) or folk medical uses(s)
Abies alba Mill. (Pinaceae) 13/DE/10 Bredhi i bardhë European silver fir W + Resin Boiled in oil Stomach pain
       Topically applied Skin infections
       Mixed and boiled with milk butter Skin hematomas
Skin infections
Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) 03/DE/10 Hajdukati Yarrow W ++ Areal parts Infusion Anti-diarrhoeal
Stomach pain
       Tincture topical used in wound Antibacterial
Aconitum divergens Pančić (Ranunculaceae)
Pelini i egër (i zi)   W ++ Areal parts Infusion Stomach disorders
Oral cavity antiseptic
      Whole plant Infusion Anti-cholesterolemic
      Leaves Squeezed and topically applied to the wound Anti-bacterial
Skin infections
Adiantum capillus-veneris L. (Adiantaceae)
Majdanozi i egër Southern maidenhair fern W + Areal parts Decoction Bronchitis
Sour throat
Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Sapindaceae) 06/DE/10 Gështenja e egër Horse chestnut W ++ Leaves Infusion Expectorant
      Fruits Decoction Antitussive
       Tincture Anti-rheumatic
Agropyron repens (L.) P. Beauv. (Poaceae)
Pirrovina Couch grass W + Roots Decoction Anti-rheumatic
Stomach and hepatic disorders
       Infusion Lithontriptic
Allium cepa L. (Amaryllidaceae) 11/DE/10 Qepa Onion C + Leaves Decoction To treat influenza
      Bulb Extracted with cold mineral water Anti-hypertensive
Allium porrum L. (Amaryllidaceae) 09/DE/10 Purrini Garden leek C + Leaves and stem Eaten fresh Anti-cholesterolemic
Allium sativum L. (Amaryllidaceae) 10/DE/10 Hudhra Garlic C + Bulb
Tincture Improve blood circulation
       Decoction Tooth ache
Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. (Betulaceae)
Verri Black alder W + Cortex Decoction, used to wash whole body Anti-rheumatic
      Leaves Extracted with cold water Disinfectant on wounds
Althaea officinalis L. (Malvaceae) 07/DE/10 Mëllaga e bardhë Marshmallow W ++ Roots Extracted with cold water Expectorant
       Decoction To treat lung disorders
Oral cavity antiseptic
Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) 12/DE/10 Bullushtra Greater burdock W + Areal parts Decoction Gastrointestinal disorders
      Leaves Boiled in milk (used externally Skin inflammation and ulcers
Aristolochia clematitis L. (Aristolochiaceae)
Fiku i egër Birthwort W + Fruits Decoction Anti-haemorrhoidal Eczemas
      Areal parts Decoction Infected wounds
Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae) 02/DE/10 Pelini i butë Wormwood W + Areal parts Infusion Stomach disorders
Beta vulgaris L. (Amaranthaceae)
Sveklla Common beet C + Roots Decoction Anti-anaemic
Betula verrucosa Ehrh. (Betulaceae) 16/DE/10 Mështekna Silver birch W + Cortex Decoction Kidney infections
      Leaves Decoction Lithontriptic
Brassica oleracea L. (Brassicaceae) 18/DE/10 Lakra Cabbage C + Leaves Fermented leaves topically applied Anti-bacterial
Bryonia alba L. (Cucurbitaceae) 15/DE/10 Stërkungulli White bryony W + Roots Extracted with sunflower oil, apply topically in pain place Anti-rheumatic
Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) 28/DE/10 Lulduhani Pot marigold C + Flowers Extracted with cold milk Kidney disorders
Stomach ulcers
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. (Brassicaceae) 29/DE/10 Shtrapër Shepherd's-purse W + Whole plant Infusion Fever
Capsicum annuum L. (Solanaceae) 32/DE/10 Speci djegës Pepper C + Fruits Eaten fresh fruits Anti-rheumatic
Lung disorders
Carduus nutans L. (Asteraceae) 27/DE/10 Gjemb gomari Musk thistle W + Inflorescences Extracted with cold water for ten days and then used as tea Eczemas
Castanea sativa Mill. (Fagaceae) 20/DE/10 Gështenja e butë Sweet chestnut W/C + Fruits Decoction Headache
      Fruits Decoction external applied Anti-haemorrhoidal
Centaurea cyanus L. (Asteraceae) 30/DE/10 Kokoçeli Cornflower W + Flowers Decoction Eye infections
Centaurium erythraea Rafin. (Gentianaceae) 21/De/10 Kiçica Common centaury W ++ Areal parts Extracted with cold water Stomach disorders
Urinary system infections
       Decoction Anti-haemorrhoid
      Stem Decoction Lithontriptic
Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae) 22/DE/10 Çikorja Common chicory W + Stem Infusion Anti-diarrhoeal
      Roots Decoction Bronchitis
Urinary system infections
Chelidonium majus L. (Papaveraceae) 31/DE/10 Tamblaqoku Tetterwort W + Areal parts Infusion Bronchitis
Stomach ulcers
Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) 33/DE/10 Shalqiri Watermelon C + Fruit juice Fruit juice applied into the ear Ear-ache
      Seeds Eaten dried seeds of watermelon, apple, melon To prevent prostate cancer
Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. (Rutaceae) 35/DE/10 Limoni Lemon C + Fruits Lemon juice mixed with honey Anti-tussive
Respiratory infections
Cornus mas L. (Cornaceae) 24/DE/10 Thana Dogwood W ++ Fruits Decoction Anti diabetic
       Tincture Stomach disorders
       Consumed Eaten raw
       Decoction Anti-anaemic
Corylus avellana L. (Betulaceae) 25/DE/10 Lajthia Hazel W + Leaves Decoction Anti-diabetic
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (Rosaceae) 19/DE/10 Murrizi Oneseed W ++ Areal parts Infusion Heart rhythm regulator
      Fruits Decoction Anti-hypertensive
      Flowers Decoction Anti-hypertensive
Cucumis melo L. (Cucurbitaceae) 36/DE/10 Pjepri Melon C + Seeds Eaten dried seeds of watermelon, apple, melon To prevent the prostate cancer
Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae) 26/DE/10 Kungulli Pumpkin C + Seeds Eaten Anti-helminthic
To prevent prostate cancer
Cydonia oblonga Mill. (Rosaceae) 23/DE/10 Ftoni Quince C + Leaves Infusion Respiratory inflammations
      Seeds Decoction Appetizing
Cynodon dactylon (L.).Pers. (Poaceae) 34/DE/10 Bar magari Bermuda grass W + Roots Decoction Anti-haemorrhoidal
Daucus carota L. (Apiaceae) 37/DE/10 Karota Carrot C + Storage root Boiled and eaten Stomach infections
Digitalis grandiflora Mill. (Plantaginaceae) 38/DE/10 Naprastak Big-flowered foxglove W + Whole plant Infusion Hart disorders
Echinops bannaticus Rochel ex Schrad. (Asteraceae) 40/DE/10 Gjembardha   W + Roots Decoction Lithontriptic
Equisetum arvense L. (Equisetaceae) 39/DE/10 Këputja e arave Horsetail W + Stem and Leaves Infusion Lithontriptic
Urinary system infections
Euphorbia cyparissias L. (Euphorbiaceae) 41/DE/10 Bima e lythave Cypress spurge W + Stem Fresh leaves topically applied Warts
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae) 43/DE/10 Kopra e egër Fennel W + Flowers Decoction Constipation
Fragaria vesca L. (Rosaceae) 42/DE/10 Dredhëza e egër Strawberry W + Leaves Infusion Neuro-relaxant
Gentiana asclepiadea L. (Gentianaceae) 45/DE/10 Utrobica   W + Roots Tincture Anti-rheumatic
Stomach ulcers
Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae) 44/DE/10 Sanëza   W ++ Roots Tincture Improve the blood circulation
Stomach disorders
Anti rheumatic
Galium verum L. (Rubiaceae) 46/DE/10 Ngjitësi i vërtetë Yellow bedstraw W + Flowers Infusion Urinary system infections
Helleborus odorus Waldst. et. Kit. (Ranunculaceae) 49/DE/10 Shpendra Fragrant hellebore W + Fruits Applied in tooth Tooth-ache
Humulus lupulus L. (Cannabaceae) 48/DE/10 Sumbullari Common hop W + Fruits Infusion Kidney inflammations
      Areal parts Decoction Insomnia
Menstrual cycle regulator
Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) 47/DE/10 Kantarioni St. John's wort W +++ Flowers Decoction Stomach pain
      Whole plant Decoction Respiratory disorders
      Areal parts Extracted with olive oil Stomach pain
Skin infections
To treat skin after sunburn or thermal burn
Anti haemorrhoidal
Respiratory infections
Iris sp. (Iridaceae) 50/DE/10 Lule purriri   W + Leaves Squeezed and topically applied to the ear Ear ache
Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae) 52/DE/10 Arra Common walnut W/C +++ Roots Extracted for one month with sunflower oil and then liquid mixed with honey. Lung inflammations
Anti asthmatic
      Fruits Decoction Anti-tussive
       Honey (1 kg) mixed with fruits (1 kg) extracted for one month Lung inflammations
       Extracted with cold water. Anti-cholesterolemic
       Tincture Stomach disorders
      Leaves Infusion Anti-haemorrhoid al
Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae) 51/DE/10 Gllia Juniper W ++ Fruits Decoction Back pains
       Extracted for 10 days in cold water mixed with lemons Kidney inflammations
Anti rheumatic
       Decoction Respiratory inflammations
       Decoction Stomach disorders
Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. (Cucurbitaceae) 53/DE/10 Pocerka Bottle gourd C + Fruits Fruits opened and filled with water and then water used to flush the nose Sinusitis
Linaria peloponnesiaca Boiss. et. Heldr. (Plantaginaceae) 57/DE/10 Lanilist   W + Seeds Decoction Constipation
Linaria vulgaris Mill. (Plantaginaceae) 56/DE/10 Gjineshtra Common toadflax W + Areal parts Decoction Urinary system inflammations
Linum hirsutum L. (Linaceae)
Liri   W + Seeds Decoction Anti-haemorrhoidal
Urinary system inflammations
      Leaves Infusion Headache
Respiratory inflammations
Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (Solanaceae) 55/DE10 Domatja Tomato C + Fruits Beaked fruits mixed with sugar topically applied in wound Wound infections
Malus dasyphylla Borkh. (Rosaceae) 60/DE/10 Molla sherbete Apple W + Fruits Squeezed and topically applied to the ear Earache
Malus sylvestris Mill. (Rosaceae) 61/DE10 Molla e pyllit
Molla e egër
European wild apple W ++ Areal parts Infusion Anti-tussive
      Fruits Extracted with cold water then fruit juice mixed sugar Anti-hypertensive
      Fruits Decoction Anti-diabetic
      Leaves Applied topically in wound Wound infections
Matricaria recutita L. (Asteraceae) 59/DE/10 Kamomili Chamomile W ++ Areal parts Infusion Stomachache
Oral cavity inflammations
Urinary system infections
Infusion Oral inflammations
Urinary system infections
       Decoction Constipation
      Areal parts Infusion Drunk as a tea
Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) 58/DE/10 Bari i bletës Lemon balm W + Areal parts Infusion For treating abdominal pains during pregnancy
      Areal parts Decoction Neuro-relaxant
Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. (Lamiaceae) 63/DE/10 Menta Horse mint W + Areal parts Infusion Neuro-relaxant
Morus nigra L. (Moraceae) 64/DE/10 Mani i zi Black mulberry W + Leaves Decoction Anti diabetic
Origanum vulgare L. 65/DE/10
Qaji i bjeshkës Oregano W + Areal parts
Areal parts
Infusion Respiratory inflammations, flu
       Decoction Anti-tussive
Orlaya grandiflora (L.) Hoffm. (Apiaceae) 66/DE/10 Torilis White lace flower W + Areal parts Decoction Constipation
Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss (Apiaceae) 70/DE/10 Majdanozi Parsley C + Leaves Boiled with garlic and carrot Stomach infections
       Decoction together with lemon Anti-cholesterolemic
Pinus sylvestris L. (Pinaceae) 69/DE/10 Çetina Scots pine W ++ Cones 40 cones mixed with honey (1 kg) eaten after one month Bronchitis
       Decoction Anti-tussive
Phaseolus vulgaris
L. (Fabaceae) 77/DE/10
Fasulja Common bean C + Seeds 2-3 soup spoons in the morning Anti-acid
Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae) 73/DE/10 Dejzi heshtor Narrowleaf plantain W ++ Leaves Fresh leaves applied topically in wound Wound infections
Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae) 67/DE/10 Dejzi gjethegjerë Common plantain W ++ Leaves Infusion Back pains
       Eaten squeezed juice mixed with honey Bronchitis
Anti haemorrhoid
       Applied topically in wound Wound infections
Polygonum bistorta L. (Polygonaceae) 75/DE/10 Reni Meadow bistort W + Roots Macerated roots (200-300 g) mixed honey (1 kg) Respiratory infections Expectorant
Populus nigra L. (Salicaceae) 72/DE10 Plepi i zi Black poplar W + Cortex Decoction Urinary system inflammations
      Leaves Decoction Tuberculosis
Prunus avium (L.) L. (Rosaceae)71/DE/10 Bojlia Wild cherry C + Fruits Infusion Anti- diabetic
Respiratory inflammations
Prunus domestica L. (Rosaceae) 68/DE/10 Kumbulla Plum C + Fruits Decoction Constipation
Prunus spinosa L. (Rosaceae) 74/DE/10 Kulumria Blackthorn W + Fruits Decoction Anti-hypertensive
       Eaten fresh fruits Consumption
Pteridium aquilinum Kuhn. (Dennstaedtiaceae) 76/DE/10 Fieri Bracken W + Leaves Decoction Anti-bacterial
Pyrus pyraster (L.) Du Roi (Rosaceae) 78/DE/10 Dardha e egër Wild pear W + Fruits Tincture Anti-hypertensive
Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabaceae) 82/DE/10 Bagreni Black locust W + Flowers Decoction Respiratory inflammations
Rosa canina L. (Rosaceae) 80/DE/10 Kaça Dog rose W + Fruits Infusion Drunk as a tea
      Fruits Decoction Influenza
Increase immunity
Rubus fruticosus L. (Rosaceae) 79/DE/10 Mani Blackberry W ++ Leaves Fresh leaves applied topically in wound Skin infection
      Leaves and fruits Decoction Tuberculosis
Increase immunity
      Fruits Eaten fresh fruits
Rubus idaeus L. (Rosaceae) 80/DE/10 Mjedra Raspberry W + Leaves Decoction Sore throat
Increase immunity
Sambucus ebulus L. (Adoxaceae) 83/DE/10 Kinla Dwarf elderberry W ++ Areal parts Topically in applied in pain place Anti rheumatic
      Fruits Tincture Menstrual pains Regulation of menstrual cycle
      Flowers Tincture Urinary inflammations
Sambucus nigra L. (Adoxaceae) 85/DE/10 Shtogu Elderberry W +++ Stem cortex Extracted with sunflower oil To treat sunburns
       Boiled with butter milk To treat thermal burns
      Flowers Infusion mixed with lemon and sugar Anti asthmatic
       Infusion Antitussive
      Fruits Drunk fruit juice Anti-anaemic
      Areal parts Decoction Anti-allergic
Salix purpurea L. (Salicaceae) 86/DE/10 Shelgu Purple willow W + Leaves Applied topically in breast Anti-fever
Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) 88/DE/10 Sherbela Garden sage C + Leaves Decoction Sedative
Sempervivum tectorum L. (Crassulaceae) 87/DE/10 Bar veshi Houseleek W + Leaves Decoction after cooled applied in ear Ear ache
Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae) 84/DE/10 Patatja Potato C + Tuber Cut in several pieces and placed in front of the head Head-ache
Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. (Asteraceae) 96/DE/10 Lule dielli Dandelion W + Flowers Decoction mixed with lemon fruits. Bronchitis
Teucrium chamaedrys L. (Lamiaceae) 94/DE/10 Arrsi i vogël Wall germander W + Areal parts Infusion Anti-haemorrhoidal
      Whole parts Infusion Anti diabetic
Thymus spp. (Lamiaceae) 93/DE/10 Shpirti i nënës Wild thyme W ++ Areal parts Decoction Respiratory inflammations
      Whole plant Infusion Bronchitis
      Areal parts Infusion Lung inflammations
Tilia platyphyllos Scop. (Malvaceae) 95/DE/10 Blini Largeleaf linden W + Flowers Decoction Sore throat
Lung inflammations
Trifolium pratense L. (Fabaceae) 92/DE/10 Tërfoja e kuqe Red clover W/C + Leaves Squeezed leaves juice Stomach disorders
Trifolium repens L. (Fabaceae) 91/DE/10 Tërfili i bardhë White clover W + Flowers Decoction Anti-diarrhoeal
Triticum vulgare L. (Poaceae) 89/DE/10 Gruri
Wheat C + Seeds Boiled seeds with water and added sugar Constipation
      Flowers Decoction Kidney disorders
Anti rheumatic
Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) 97/DE/10 Hithi Common nettle W ++ Leaves Eaten fresh Anti anaemic
      Leaves and stem Tincture Improve blood circulation
      Roots and Leaves Decoction Alopecia
      Roots Decoction Anti-haemorrhoidal
Vaccinium myrtillus L. (Ericaceae) 98/DE/10 Boronica Bilberry W + Areal parts Infusion Anti-diabetic
      Fruits and Leaves Decoction Neuro-relaxant
Urinary inflammations
Lung inflammations
Stomach disorders
      Fruits Eaten fresh Consumed
Veratrum album L. (Melanthiaceae) 99/DE/10 Shtara White hellebore W + Leaves Decoction Anti-lice
      Roots Decoction Head ache
      Leaves Extracted with sunflower oil Eczemas
Zea mays L. (Poaceae) 100/DE/10 Misri Corn W + Silks Infusion Anti-diabetic
  1. + quoted by less than 5% of the participants; ++ quoted by more than 5% and less than 30% of the participants; +++ quoted by more than 30% of the participants