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Table 2 Contemporary use of wild food plants (20-21th century)

From: Wild edible plants of Belarus: from Rostafiński’s questionnaire of 1883 to the present

  Modern local name (transliterated from Cyrillic apart from Polish names following Polish orthography (marked PL) Part 20th – 21th century use Source
Acer platanoides L. klyon, yavor leaves leaves under baking bread EP
Acorus calamus L. ayer (also PL), air, babki leaves, shoot center leaves under baking bread, formerly; shoots formerly as a spring snack [51], EP, FS
Aegopodium podagraria L. snitka leaves soup EP
Allium sp. ? PL: dziki czosnek leaves spice EP
Allium ursinum L. cheremsha leaves raw EP
Aquilegia vulgaris L. vodosbor nectar raw children’s snack EP
Armoracia rusticana G.Gaertn., B.Mey. & Schreb khren roots and leaves roots – grated into a spicy paste called kren or added to dishes as spice, leaves as spice for fermented sauerkraut, cucumbers and tomatoes, and soups TG, EP
Artemisia absinthium L. polyn' leaves herbal teas EP
Berberis vulgaris L. n.d. fruit raw, snack, juice or salted EP
Betula spp. byeryoza sap fresh and fermented (such drink is called byarozavik) TG, EP, PAE
   wood shavings “eaten” (probably added to bread as famine food) FS
Carum carvi L. tmin, kmin fruits spice for bread and sauerkraut TG, EP
Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert n.d. inflorescences herbal tea EP
Chenopodium album L. labadá (mistakenly as Atriplex), PL: lebioda leaves formerly in soups [51], FS
Corylus avellana L. oryekh, aryekh, aryéshnik, lyeshina, fruits mainly raw [17, 51], EP
Crataegus sp. boyáryshnik fruits (“jablochki”) fresh and in jams, wine TG, EP
Dactylis glomerata L. yezha stalk inner part as a snack EP
Fragaria spp., mainly F. vesca L. sunítsa, zyemlyanika fruits raw, jams, wine etc., formerly also eaten with milk and cream [17, 51], EP
Glyceria fluitans (L.) R.Br. manna, máyna grains used until late 1940s to make kasha [17, 52, 53], PAE
Hippophaë rhamnoides L. * oblyepikha fruits fresh, juice, jams TG
Humulus lupulus L. khmyel' fruits formerly dried, spice for beer and mead and added to bread dough [17, 51], EP
Juniperus communis L. n.d. pseudo-fruits raw children’s snack, spice for food and alcoholic beverages EP
Lamium album L. n.d. nectar raw children’s snack EP
Linaria vulgaris L. l’vinyy zyev nectar raw children’s snack EP
Lotus corniculatus L. miadunka nectar from flowers raw children’s snack EP
Malus sylvestris Miller or Malus domestica Borkh. yáblyki fruits eaten raw, dried, lactofermented in sauerkraut or boiled [17, 51]
Malva pusilla Sm. yagodki immature fruits raw children’s snack EP
Nymphaea alba L. mákowka (for fruits), húski (for the plant) seeds raw as a snack [17]
Oxalis acetosella L. zayacha kapusta, záyachy shchavyel', zayach’ya kapusta, kislitsa leaves raw children’s snack, formerly sometimes used for soups [51], EP
Pinus sylvestris L. sasná resin(1), young shoots(2) raw children’s snack(1), famine food(2) EP
Plantago lanceolata L. n.d. leaves salads EP
Poa pratensis L. travka young shoots raw children’s snack EP
Polygonum bistorta L. (syn. Bistorta major S. E. Gray) PL: wężownik leaves eaten with bread during World War I FS
Prunella vulgaris L. (?) PL: czemborek aerial parts infusion drunk as everyday drink FS
– uncertain identification, the folk name suggests it could also be Thymus sp.     
Prunus cerasifera Ehrh.* alychá fruits fresh and in jams TG, EP
Prunus spinosa L. n.d. fruits spice for alcohol, raw snack EP
Pulmonaria officinalis L. cf ssp. obscura (Dumort.) Murb. (syn. P. obscura Dumort.) myedunitsa flowers fresh nectar as a snack and made into herbal teas TG, EP
Pyrus pyraster L. hróshka, hrúsha, ihrúshka, grush́a lyesnáya fruits raw or in boiled dishes, formerly fermented in water and sugar [17, 51], TG
Quercus robur L. dub leaves and bark formerly under baking bread [51], EP
Ribes nigrum L. smoródina chyérnaya fruits, twig and leaves fruits – fresh or dried; twigs – decoction; leaves as spice for fermented sauerkraut, cucumbers and tomatoes TG, EP
Ribes uva-crispa L. kryzhóvnik fruits fresh  
Robinia pseudoacacia L. n.d. flowers formerly raw snack EP
Rosa canina L. and other spp. shipóvnik sobáchyy fruits fresh and in jams, wine and herbal tea TG, EP
Rubus caesius L. yezhevika fruits raw EP
Rubus chamaemorus L. struzhýna fruits raw [51]
Rubus idaeus L. malína fruits fresh, jam, formerly dried as medicine inducing sweating [17, 51], TG, EP
Rubus saxatilis L. kamyenítsa, kostyanika fruits raw [17], EP
Rubus subgenus Rubus azhýna, ozhýna, stryzhýna fruits mainly raw due to low abundance, sometimes in wine and hot desserts [17, 51], EP
Rumex acetosa L. shchavyél’, shchavyey leaves sour soup called borshch [17, 51], TG, EP, PAE
Rumex acetosella L. verabyóvy shchavyél’ leaves sour soup called borshch [51]
Rumex confertus Willd. shchavyey leaves soup EP
Sambucus nigra L. n.d. fruit juice, wines, rarely also raw EP
Sorbus aucuparia L. ryabína, rabina fruits mainly jam from frozen fruits, also raw as children’s snack and in herbal infusion or as spice TG, EP; according to [17] was regarded as poisonous in Polesia
Sorbus intermedia (Ehrh.) Pers. n.d. fruits gathered from city greenery in Minsk for preserves TG
Stellaria media (L.) Vill. zvyezdchátka, makritsa leaves fresh in salads, squeezed into juice TG
Syringa vulgaris L. * siryen’ nectar from flowers raw children’s snack EP
Taraxacum sp. n.d. nectar from flowers, leaves raw snack, leaves also in salads EP
Thymus spp. n.d. flowering tops herbal infusion, spice for alcohol EP
Tilia cordata Mill. lípa flowers, leaves nectar and leaves as children’s snack, infusion from flowers as beverage TG, EP
Trifolium spp., mainly T. pratense L. klyevyer, trilistnik nectar from flowers raw children’s snack EP
Urtica dioica L. and U. urens L. krapiva, PL: pokrzywa aerial parts potherb, now rarely; formerly also sour soups [51], EP, FS
Vaccinium myrtillus L. chernítsa, charnítsa, chyerníka, fruits and leaves fruits– fresh, jams and juice, or in milk soups, leaves as spice for fermented sauerkraut, cucumbers and tomatoes; the most widely gathered wild fruits in Belarus [17, 51], TG, EP, PAE
Vaccinium oxycoccos L. klyúkva, klukva, zhuravína fruits fresh, jam, kisel, juice, formerly also added to suaerkraut [17, 51], TG, EP. PAE
Vaccinium uliginosum L. lohynya, buyakí, golubika; PL: pijanica fruits raw, in many places considered inedible [51], EP
Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. brushnítsa, brus’nítsa, brusnika fruits raw or jam [17, 51], EP, PAE
Viburnum opulus L. kalína fruits jams, boiled in kisyel’, raw – after drying [17, 51], TG
Viola tricolor L. n.d. aerial parts herbal tea EP
  1. * a non-native cultivated species also collected from the populations escaped from cultivation.
  2. EP Ewa Pirożnikow’s questionnaires from Belarusian respondents (mainly botanists); TG Tanya Gervasi’s field interviews; PAE Data from the Polish Ethnographic Atlas – retrospectives of Poles resettled from Belarus in the 1940s; FS Adam Fischer’s archives (Polish Folklorist Society, Wrocław).