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Table 3 Wild food plants used in Belarus according to Rostafiński’s respondents

From: Wild edible plants of Belarus: from Rostafiński’s questionnaire of 1883 to the present

Scientific name Rel. Local name in 19th c. Part used Use Vo. Letter****
   Names used by Poles marked with PL     
Acer platanoides L. H klon sap fresh or added to sour soups 50 FED, WOJ
Acorus calamus L. L ajer, tatarak leaves leaves added under baking bread (which was supposed to have carminative properties as well)   LAS
Aegopodium podagraria L. H śnitka, snitka, sznitka, śniatka, PL: śnitka aerial parts soups, sour and non-sour, potherb, rarely dried for winter use 4 CZA, DYB, FED, KOR, LAS, LES, NAR, OSS, SLO, TWA, WOJ
Allium sp. ? N PL: czosnek dziki n.d. n.d.   LAS
Anchusa arvensis (L.) M.Bieb. H padasocik, PL: podosocik aerial parts non-sour soups 11 FED
Anethum graveolens L. (?) N kopr aerial parts spice   LES
Armoracia rusticana G.Gaertn., B.Mey. & Schreb O chrin, PL: chrzan n.d. so obvious that use not given, only one author wrote about salad with vinegar   (LAS, LES, NAR, NIE, OSS, TWA,WOJ)
Berberis vulgaris L. N berberys (also PL) fruits raw   FED
Betula spp. H bereza, bieroza, PL: brzoza sap fresh, added to sour soups, fermented into a refreshing drink with dried apples, bread rinds and oak bark, or sugar 45 FED, NIE, WOJ
Carum carvi L. L kmin fruits spice for bread, sauerkraut, fresh cheese, spirits   CZA, DYB, FED, OSS, SLO, WOJ, (LAS, ONU)
Centaurea cyanus L. H wałoszka, PL: wołoszka, włoszka, bławatki very young shoots non-sour soups 9 FED, KOR
Chenopodium album L. H lebieda, PL: lebioda aerial parts non-sour soups, dried for winter use 14 FED, KOR, CZA, ONU, OSS, WOJ, (TWA)
Cirisum arvense (L.) Scop. H asot, PL: oset aerial parts non-sour soups 10 FED
Convolvulus arvenis L. H bierozka,PL: bierozka, brzózka aerial parts non-sour soups 7 FED
Corylus avellana L. H harieszyna; PL: orzechy, orzeszyna, leszczyna fruits n.d. 48 FED, LAS
Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á.Löve H podbierozka (also PL) aerial parts non-sour soups 8 FED
Fragaria spp., mainly F. vesca L. H sunicy, paziomki, poziemi, sunyca, PL: poziomki fruits raw 26 FED, OSS, (LAS, NIE, WOJ)
Glyceria fluitans (L.) R.Br. and most likely other related Glyceria species L manna (also PL), majńo grains made into groat (kasha), mainly boiled in milk, sold in the market of Pińsk, in many places stopped being used in the 1850-60s   FED, LAS, NIE, ONU, OSS, SLO, TWA, WOJ
(in the letters as Glyceria and Glyceria fluitans)       
Helianthus tuberosus L.* N/D bulba, bulwa bulbs roasted or fried, mainly planted but one report says that it was very persistent and ”self-sowing”   (DYB, NAR, ONU, TWA, WOJ)
Heracleum sphondylium L. H borszcz, barszcz, barszczewnik, PL: borszcz, barszcz   sour soups, potherb, often dried for winter 19 CZA, DYB, FED, OSS, SLO, TWA, (LAS)
Lamium sp. or Pulmonaria sp.? N miedunka aerial parts potherb   CZA
Nymphaea alba L. L [grzybienie] seeds n.d.   NIE
Oxalis acetosella L. H zazulin szczawiej, PL: szczaw kukawki, szczaw zajęczy leaves sour soups 17 FED, (WOY)
Papaver somniferum L.* L samosiejka, widuk seeds “for ordinary use ”, i.e. bread and sweets - DYB
Plantago major L. H babka (also PL) leaves non-sour soups 6 FED2
Plantago sp. L tryputnik leaves sour soups, potherb   OSS, SLO
Polygonum aviculare L. or Plantago major L. ? N podorożnik aerial parts sour soup   OSS
Polygonum bistorta L. (syn. Bistorta major S. E. Gray) H oborocień, obaracień, oberek, ober, PL: ober leaves, seeds sour soup, seeds for flatbread, particularly in the 1855 famine 2 DYB, FED
Prunus padus L. O czeremcha czeremszyna, czeromcha, PL: czeremcha fruits n.d. 23** FED
Prunus spinosa L. L PL: tarnina fruits n.d.   (LAS)
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn H paporocień, paporotnik, PL: paproć rhizomes dried, ground and mixed with ordinary flour to make bread 1 FED2
Pyrus pyraster L. L PL: gruszki dziczki fruits raw and conserved   ONU
Quercus robur L. O dub leaves under baking bread (added also due to its carminative properties as well)   LAS
Ranunculus repens L. H padśnitnik, PL: podśnitnik   non-sour soups 5 FED
Raphanus raphanistrum L. A swierzepa, sweripa, świrzepa leaves soups, potherb   NIE, TWA
Ribes nigrum L. N smrodziny, smorodinka, smrodyna, PL: smrodziny, czarne porzeczki fruits, leaves fruits raw, leaves used in manors to make a fizzy drink and to make vodka taste “older” (NIE)   FED, NIE, WOJ, (LAS)
Ribes spicatum Robson N/R parieczki, PL: porzeczki fruits raw   FED
Ribes uva-crispa L. L jagrest, PL: agrest fruits raw   FED
Rosa sp. O PL: róża flowers formerly fried in batter, in a Polish manor, rare   SLO
Rubus idaeus L. O maliny (also PL), małyna fruits raw   FED, OSS, WOJ, (LAS, NIE)
Rubus nessensis W.Hall D/R jaryna fruits raw   WOJ
Rubus saxatilis L. H kościanicy, PL: kościanki fruits raw 28 FED
Rubus subgenus Rubus (probably mainly Rubus plicatus L., R. nessensis W.Hall and R. caesius L.) H ażyny, czornyje maliny, ożyna, PL: ożyny fruits raw 24 FED, WOJ, (NIE, LAS)
Rumex acetosa L. H szczawiej, PL: szczaw leaves sour soups 16 FED
Rumex crispus L. H karpacz (also PL) leaves sour soups 20 FED
Rumex sp. (probably mainly R. acetosa L.)   szczaw, szczawel leaves and stalks raw and in sour soups, as OSS put: “with kvas, whey, sweet or sour milk, butter milk, cream or pig fat (slonina) with vinegar”   NIE, OSS, ONU, SLO, (CZA)
Rumex thyrsiflorus Fing. H harabiniec, PL: szczaw polny leaves sour soups 18 FED
Sambucus nigra L. N PL: bez flowers formerly fried in batter, in a Polish manor, rare   SLO
Scirpus lacustris L. L [sitowie] young stalks raw   NIE
Silene vulgaris (Moecnch)Garcke H laskouka,PL: laskówka aerial parts non-sour soups, dried for winter use 12 FED
Silene vulgaris (?) N łuskawka aerial parts potherb   KOR
Sinapis arvensis L. H redźkouka, świerepa, PL: świrepa, świerżop   non-sour soups, dried for winter use 15 FED
Sinapis arvensis L. or Raphanus raphanistrum L. N świrzepa leaves soup or with kasha   ONU, (TWA)
Sorbus aucuparia L. N PL: jarzębina fruits raw after freezing   CZA
Stellaria media (L.) Vill. H makryca bieła, PL: mokrzyca biała aerial parts non-sour soups, dried for winter use 62*** FED
Trapa natans L. L PL: orzechy wodne seeds raw and boiled   NIE
Urtica spp. (3 records confirm U. dioica L. and 4 rec. – U. urens L.) H krapiwa, kropiwa, kropywa, życzka, żyszka, żyżka, prokywa, prokiwa, pokrzywka, krapiwa piekuszcza, U. urens also rzeszka, rzyczkaja krapiwa; PL: rzeszka, pokrzywa, U. urens also: żagawka, żegawka, rzeszka aerial parts non-sour and sour soups U. urens - 3 CZA, DYB, FED, LAS, LES, NAR, ONU, OSS, TWA, WOJ, (SLO)
Vaccinium myrtillus L. L/O czarnica, czernyca, czernica, czarnicy, czornyje jahody, czerniec; PL: czernice, czarne jagody fruits raw, commonly dried; also boiled with milk into a kind of soup 27 DYB, FED, OSS, NIE, WOJ, (LAS)
Vaccinium oxycoccos L. L/O żurauliny, żurachwyna, PL: żurawiny, żórawiny fruits raw, stored for months in water, in manors made into kissel (with potato flour)   DYB, FED, OSS, NIE, WOJ, (LAS)
Vaccinium uliginosum L. L/O durnicy, bałabony, łochwaczi, PL: durnice fruits raw   FED, FED2, NIE, (LAS), whereas WOJ says that it is narcotic
Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. L/O brusznicy (also PL), bruśnica, brusznyca fruits raw, in manors made into jams and pickles 25 FED, OSS, WOJ, (DYB, LAS, NIE)
Veronica cf persica Poiret H makryca bieła, PL: mokrzyca biała aerial parts non-sour soups, dried for winter use 13, 62*** FED
Viola cf odorata L. N PL: fiołki flowers formerly fried in batter, in a Polish manor, rare   SLO
?   mirsik aerial parts soups   SLO
?   mrzyk aerial parts soups   SLO
?   opich aerial parts soups   SLO
?   saładucha, smaktucha, PL: sołoducha aerial parts non-sour soups   FED
?   zieziulina sałata aerial parts raw as salad (like lettuce)   FED
  1. Rel. Reliability of identification (after [2]): H Confirmed by voucher specimen; O Obvious common name universally used over a large area; L Probable Latin name or scientific name used in the language of a given country, given by a non-botanist; N Determined using comparative analysis of folk names; R determined with the help of the data of a species range or/and habitat; D determined with the help of the verbal description.
  2. * A non-native cultivated species also collected from the populations escaped from cultivation.
  3. ** The voucher specimen belongs to Euonymus europaea L., an obvious mistake.
  4. *** The name makryca bieła seems to refer to both Stellaria media and Veronica cf persica Poiret. Although in the part of Federowski’s herbarium devoted to edible plants only Veronica occurs (no. 13), in the medicinal herbarium both taxa are put together under the same name (no. 62). As the two species often grow together and have a mild taste, and bearing in mind that Stellaria media is still called makryca in Belarus, we infer that both taxa were probably used.
  5. **** Letter codes are created from the first three letters of the author’s name, full names are given in Table 1. Author codes given in brackets mean that the species was mentioned but it is not clear if it was used as food.
  6. Vo Voucher specimen number given by Federowski.