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Table 1 Medicinal plants of the Miandam area with their medicinal properties, and biological, ecological and chorological characteristics

From: Diversity and use of ethno-medicinal plants in the region of Swat, North Pakistan

Plant family Taxon name Local name Parts used Medicinal uses, remedies Growth form Plant status Frequency Habitat
Amaranthaceae Amaranthus viridis Chalvaray Leaves Leaf extract is emollient, also used for curing cough and asthma. Annual Indigenous Common Ruderal
Anacardiaceae Pistacia chinensis Shnai Insect galls, leaves and bark Powdered insect galls, bark and leaves are topical antiseptic, also for curing jaundice and liver diseases. Tree Established alien Scattered Woodland
Apiaceae Bupleurum longicaule Gillo Whole plant Powdered plant is mixed with milk and used as laxative Perennial Indigenous Common Woodland
Apiaceae Coriandrum sativum Dhanyal Whole plant Stimulant and carminative Annual Cultivated Common Arable
Apiaceae Foeniculum vulgare Kaga vanalay Fruit Powdered fruit is mixed with sugar, taken with a cup of milk for curing urinary problems (dysuria); dry fruits are carminative and laxative Annual Cultivated Common Arable
Apiaceae Pimpinella diversifolia Watani kaga Fruit Powdered fruits are carminative Perennial Indigenous Scattered Woodland
Apiaceae Heracleum candicans Kadu panra Root Decoction of root against colic and asthma Perennial Indigenous Scattered Wetland
Araceae Arisaema jacquemontii Marjarai Rhizome Rhizome bolus is given orally to livestock for respiratory problems Perennial Indigenous Scattered Woodland
Araliaceae Hedera nepalensis Prewata Leaves Juice from leaves for curing diabetes, also considered as blood purifier Woody climber Indigenous Common Woodland
Asclepiadaceae Periploca aphylla Barara Stem, fruits Milky juice of stem and fruit applied to swellings; stem latex as antimycotic for curing dermatitis in livestock Shrub Indigenous Common Ruderal
Asteraceae Artemisia scoparia Jaukay Shoot and seeds Respiratory stimulant, anthelmintic, purgative and against earache Biennial Indigenous Common Woodland
Asteraceae Cichorium intybus Han Root Decoction of fresh root for treatment of fever Perennial Indigenous Common Ruderal
Asteraceae Echinops echinatus Ghwand Saray Ghanowala Root Powdered root applied to wounds of cattle for killing maggots; also to kill lice Perennial Indigenous Scattered Wetland
Asteraceae Launaea procumbens Shauda pai Leaves Mixture of powdered leaves with sugar to enhance lactation in livestock Perennial Indigenous Common Ruderal
Asteraceae Sonchus asper Shauda pai Shoot Shoots fed to livestock for enhancing lactation Annual Indigenous Common Ruderal
Asteraceae Taraxacum sp. Ziar gulai Leaves and roots Grinded leaves are tonic, root decoction against kidney and liver disorders Perennial Indigenous Common Ruderal
Asteraceae Xanthium strumarium Ghishkay Leaves Leaf decoction recommended in malarial fever Annual Indigenous Common Ruderal
Berberidaceae Berberis lycium Kwaray Root bark Dried root bark given orally as body tonic Shrub Indigenous Scattered Woodland
Berberidaceae Podophyllum hexandrum Kakora Rhizome Powdered rhizome used to cure liver diseases Perennial Indigenous Scattered Woodland
Boraginaceae Cynoglossum lanceolatum Gat gul Whole plant Powdered plant taken with a decoction of Coriandrum sativum fruits as laxative Perennial Indigenous Common Woodland
Boraginaceae Onosma hispida Khwaga abai Root Used to color mustard oil which is applied for smoothing hair Perennial Indigenous Common Ruderal
Brassicaceae Brassica campestris Sharshum Seeds Oil, extracted from seeds, is used as ointment, for massage of body and hair Annual Cultivated Common Arable
Brassicaceae Brassica campestris var. rapa Tepar Leaves, roots Against stomachache and ulcer problems Annual Cultivated Common Arable
Brassicaceae Capsella bursa-pastoris Bambesa Leaves and seeds Paste of fresh leaves with milk for curing diarrhea; seeds are stimulant and diuretic Annual Indigenous Common Ruderal
Brassicaceae Nasturtium officinale Talmera Young shoot Young shoot against constipation and stomachache Perennial Indigenous Common Wetland
Buxaceae Sarcococca saligna Ladanr Leaves Heated in mustard oil and applied to muscular pain; infusion of leaves orally for rheumatism Perennial Indigenous Common Woodland
Cannabaceae Cannabis sativa Bang Leaves Leaves in bandage for wound healing; powdered leaves as anodyne, sedative, tonic and narcotic; juice added with milk and nuts as a cold drink (“Tandai”) generating a pleasant excitement; “Charas” is also prepared from it Annual Indigenous Common Arable
Caprifoliaceae Sambucus wightiana Benakai Leaves, fruits and flowers Poultice from leaves and flowers to treat burns and rheumatism; berries are purgative and used in dropsy Shrub Indigenous Rare Woodland
Caprifoliaceae Viburnum grandiflorum Ghuz meva fruit Fresh fruit is eaten to cure stomach problems Shrub Indigenous Common Woodland
Caryophyllaceae Arenaria griffithii Kinar Shoots Dried shoot powder with honey after meal as antispasmodic Perennial Indigenous Common Woodland
Caryophyllaceae Silene vulgaris Matorangay Shoot Shoot against stomachache and as emollient Perennial Indigenous Common Woodland
Caryophyllaceae Stellaria media Oulalai Whole plant Decoction is considered as purgative Annual Indigenous Common Arable
Chenopodiaceae Chenopodium album Sarmay Whole plant Dried powdered plant considered as carminative and diuretic agent Annual Indigenous Common Ruderal
Clusiaceae Hypericum perforatum Shin chai Shoot Used as diuretic and its tea is stimulant and analgesic Perennial Indigenous Scattered Woodland
Convolvulaceae Convolvulus arvensis Prewatai Whole plant Purgative, also applied in skin disorders Perennial, climber Indigenous Common Arable
Cuscutaceae Cuscuta reflexa Zelai Whole plant Decoction for urine control, diabetes and blood purification; plant extract used as anti-lice Perennial, climber Established alien Scattered Arable
Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea deltoidea Kanis zelai Rhizome Powdered rhizome mixed with powdered root of Berberis lycium, the mixture is used for treatment of jaundice and ulcers Perennial, climber Indigenous Scattered Woodland
Ebenaceae Diospyros kaki Sur amlok Ripe fruits Laxative Tree Cultivated Common Arable
Ebenaceae Diospyros lotus Tour amlok Dried ripe fruits Carminative, purgative and causing flatulence; boiled in milk and taken against constipation and dysentery Tree Cultivated Common Arable
Elaeagnaceae Elaeagnus umbellata Ghanum ranga Flowers, leaves Decoction of flowers used twice a day to cure heart diseases; decoction of leaves against cough; mature raw seeds eaten as vitamin C source Shrub Indigenous Rare Woodland
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia wallichii Shangla Whole plant Dried leaves and seeds given to children in bowel complains; plant juice against ringworm Perennial Indigenous Common Woodland
Euphorbiaceae Ricinus communis Harhanda Seeds Seed oil demulcent and to evacuate bowels in children Shrub Established alien Scattered Ruderal
Fabaceae Indigofera heterantha Ghwarija Root and leaves Dried powdered root taken with glass of water against scabies; leaves against stomach problems Shrub Indigenous Common Woodland
Fabaceae Lathyrus aphaca Korkamanai Seed Decoction of the seed 3 times a day for wound healing Annual Indigenous Scattered Arable
Fabaceae Lotus corniculatus Fateh khana Whole plant Decoction of dried powdered plant with ghee or boiled water against sexual debility and backache Perennial Indigenous Scattered Woodland
Fagaceae Quercus oblongata Banj Fruit Powdered fruits in urinary infection Tree Indigenous Common Woodland
Fagaceae Quercus floribunda Tour banj Fruit Powdered fruits for treating gonorrhea and urinary disease Tree Indigenous Common Woodland
Fumariaceae Corydalis stewartii Mamera Floral shoot Decoction of floral shoot to cure eye diseases Biennial Indigenous Scattered Mountain grassland
Geraniaceae Geranium wallichianum Srazela Root Root decoction with pods of Pistacia chinensis to treat cough and fever and urinary complaints Perennial Indigenous Common woodland
Hippocastanaceae Aesculus indica Jawaz Seeds and bark Fruits are anthelmintic and given to horses in colic; plant oil externally used against rheumatism; nuts against colic and to cure chest diseases in horses, donkeys and mules Tree Indigenous Scattered Woodland
Juglandaceae Juglans regia Ghwaz Fruit, bark, leaves Dried fruit mixed with coconut and honey used as tonic; bark (locally called Dandasa) for cleaning and sparkling of teeth; decoction of leaves against eczema and intestinal worms Tree Cultivated Common Arable
Lamiaceae Ajuga bracteosa Booti Whole plant Locally, decoction of the plant or its powder swallowed with water before breakfast for the treatment of throat sore, internal colic, purifying blood and epilepsy; decoction for curing jaundice and hypertension Perennial Indigenous Common Ruderal
Lamiaceae Mentha spicata Podina Leaves and stem Carminative Perennial Cultivated Common Arable
Lamiaceae Mentha royleana Valenay whole plant Decoction of leaves for treatment of diarrhea in children; powdered plant mixed with sugar for prevention of vomiting and dyspepsia Perennial Indigenous Common Ruderal
Lamiaceae Nepeta cataria Pisho botai Flowers and leaves Dried leaves and flowering tops carminative Perennial Indigenous Scattered Mountain grassland
Lamiaceae Otostegia limbata Spin azghai Whole plant Juice of leaves applied to gums for treatment of gum problem in children; dried powder of plant is used in jaundice Perennial Indigenous Common Woodland
Lamiaceae Isodon rugosus Spearkai Leaves Dried leaves put in mouth as remedy for toothache Shrub Indigenous Common Woodland
Lamiaceae Origanum vulgare Shamakay Whole plant Diuretic and against toothache and earache Perennial Indigenous Common Woodland
Lamiaceae Salvia lanata Spera botai Leaves Paste of leaves applied to toes laceration in hot and moist season Perennial Indigenous Scattered Woodland
Lamiaceae Salvia moorcroftiana Kherghwag Leaves Brassica campestris oil applied to fresh leaves tied round for healing of wounds Perennial Indigenous Common Ruderal
Lamiaceae Thymus linearis Chi botai Shoots Tea of shoots advised for treating pain and fever Perennial Indigenous Common Mountain grassland
Liliaceae Allium sativum Ouga Bulb and leaves Boiled and the cooled extract administered against diarrhea, dysentery and for lowering blood pressure; bulbs stimulant; leaves diuretic, aphrodisiac and expectorant; antiseptic; juice applied to soothe irritation caused by scorpion and hornet stings Perennial Cultivated Common Arable
Liliaceae Allium cepa Piaz Bulb and leaves Bulbs stimulant; leaves diuretic, aphrodisiac and expectorant; also antiseptic and juice applied to soothe irritation caused by scorpion and hornet sting; Mountaineers have it with them while crossing high altitude passes as it enhances the intake of oxygen Perennial Cultivated Common Arable
Liliaceae Colchicum luteum Qaimat guallay Whole plant Blood purifier, laxative and aphrodisiac; fried corms are used for joints pain Perennial Indigenous Rare Mountain grassland
Liliaceae Polygonatum multiflorum Noorealam Rhizome Rhizome infusion against dysentery; referred aphrodisiac Perennial Indigenous Scattered Woodland
Liliaceae Polygonatum verticillatum Noorealam Rhizome Against rheumatism and as aphrodisiac Perennial Indigenous Scattered Woodland
Malvaceae Abelmoschus esculentus Bhindi Fruits Emollient, demulcent and diuretic Annual Cultivated Scattered Arable
Meliaceae Melia azedarach Tora bakyana, shandai Fruits, shoots, bark, leaves Dried, crushed fruits against gastric trouble, fever and cough; dry leaves mixed with wheat flour used as anthelmintic in livestock; decoction of the bark considered anti-allergic; extraction of leaves used by women against head lice; leaves, young branches or fermented fruits are given as carminative to cattle, when belly is swollen through gas accumulation due to overeating Tree Established alien Scattered Woodland
Moraceae Ficus palmata Inzer Flowers and fruits Fresh floral parts as demulcent; juice extracted from fruit as expectorant Tree Cultivated Common Arable
Moraceae Morus alba Toot Fruit Fruit to treat constipation and cough Tree Indigenous Common Arable
Oleaceae Jasminum humile Rambil chambil Roots and flowers Powdered roots as anthelmintic and diuretic; juice extracted from flowers against skin diseases, headache and mouth rash Shrub Indigenous Rare Woodland
Oleaceae Olea europaea Khona Leaves Decoction of leaves as gargle considered as remedy for toothache, mouth and gum diseases Tree Cultivated Scattered Arable
Oxalidaceae Oxalis corniculata Tarukey Whole plant Decoction of plant to enhance digestion Annual Indigenous Common Ruderal
Paeoniaceae Paeonia emodi Mamekh Rhizome Powdered rhizome with milk to cure backache and general weakness Perennial Indigenous Scattered Woodland
Papaveraceae Papaver somniferum Qashqash Capsule, seeds Capsules and seeds as narcotic; dried capsule to make tea for cough and fever Annual Indigenous Scattered Arable
Plantaginaceae Plantago lanceolata Jabai Leaves Leaves applied to treat bedsores, inflamed surfaces and candidiasis Perennial Indigenous Scattered Ruderal
Plantaginaceae Plantago major Ghwa jabai Seeds, leaves Leaves applied to treat bedsores and candidiasis Perennial Indigenous Scattered Ruderal
Platanaceae Platanus orientalis Chinar Bark Powdered bark taken orally to control diarrhea Tree Indigenous Scattered Woodland
Poaceae Avena sativa Jamdaray Fruit Fried in ghee and milk, the paste is considered as general body tonic and aphrodisiac Annual Cultivated Common Arable
Poaceae Cynodon dactylon Kabal Whole plant Decoction as blood purifier and to control nose bleed; chewed and placed on wound to stop bleeding and as topical anti-septic Perennial Indigenous Common Ruderal
Polygonaceae Rumex dentatus Shalkhay Rhizome, leaves Rhizome and leaves as poultice for wound healing Annual Indigenous Common Ruderal
Portulacaceae Portulaca oleracea s.l. Warkharae Shoot Shoot decoction against liver and kidney diseases Annual Cultivated Common Arable
Primulaceae Primula denticulata Mamera Stem base Infusion of young stem base ophthalmic Perennial Indigenous Common Woodland
Punicaceae Punica granatum Nangoray, Anar Fruit Dried fruit in bolus form for removal of intestinal helminths Shrub Cultivated Scattered Arable
Ranunculaceae Aconitum violaceum Zaharmora, Da Ghra Zahar Rhizome Rhizomes, wrapped in sheep or goat intestine and thoroughly boiled in milk; milk discarded and rhizomes crushed into powder, taken against rheumatism and arthritis; administering as such may cause death or mental problems if overdozed Perennial Indigenous Rare Woodland
Ranunculaceae Caltha alba Makan path Leaves Leaves laxative in nature Perennial Indigenous Scattered Wetland
Ranunculaceae Delphinium denudatum Jadwar Rhizome Rhizome powder with water to cure cough and fever Perennial Indigenous Scattered Woodland
Rosaceae Fragaria bucharica Da zmaki toot Root, fruit Powdered root useful in disease of urinary tract; fruits carminative and laxative Perennial Indigenous Common Woodland
Rosaceae Prunus armeniaca Khubanai stem Gum obtained from stem famed as anticancer Tree Cultivated Common Arable
Rosaceae Prunus domestica Alucha Fruits Fruit laxative Tree Cultivated Common Arable
Rosaceae Rosa moschata Gulab Flowers Decoction of flowers for curing stomach disorders Shrub Indigenous Scattered Woodland
Rosaceae Spiraea spec. Krachae Flowers Tea from its flowers to ease natal pain Shrub Indigenous Common Woodland
Rutaceae Skimmia laureola Nazar pana Leaves Burnt incense to expel evils and evil eyes; tea for indigestion, smoke considered as antiseptic Shrub Indigenous Common Woodland
Rutaceae Zanthoxylum armatum Dambara Fruit Fruits as antipyretic and for treating stomachache Shrub Indigenous Scattered Woodland
Saxifragaceae Bergenia stracheyi The Spinsar Gat Pana Rhizome Powdered rhizome with milk in the mornings as tonic Perennial Indigenous Common Woodland
Simaroubaceae Ailanthus altissima Backyanra bark Bark juice mixed with milk to cure dysentery and diarrhea Tree Established alien Common Arable
Solanaceae Atropa acuminata Bargak leaves Poultice of leaves against pain and rheumatism Perennial Indigenous Scattered Woodland
Solanaceae Capsicum annuum Marchakay Fruits Carminative Annual Cultivated Common Arable
Solanaceae Datura stramonium Batora Leaves, seeds and flowers poultice of flowers applied to wounds to reduce pain; seeds narcotic in nature Annual Indigenous Common Ruderal
Solanaceae Solanum nigrum Kachmacho Leaves and fruit Leave paste applied to treat skin inflammation, fruits against fever Annual Indigenous Common Ruderal
Solanaceae Solanum virginianum Marraghonay Fruit Decoction of fruit diuretic and anthelmintic Perennial Indigenous Scattered Ruderal
Solanaceae Withania somnifera Kotilal Whole plant Aphrodisiac Shrub Indigenous Scattered Ruderal
Thymelaeaceae Daphne mucronata Laighonai Fruits, leaves Poultice from fruits and leaves against rheumatism Shrub Indigenous Common Woodland
Ulmaceae Celtis australis Tagha Fruits, bark Fruits against colic and amenorrhea; bark decoction as anti-allergic Tree Indigenous Scattered Woodland
Urticaceae Debregeasia saeneb Ajlai Leaves Fresh ground leaves in paste form for blistered feet Shrub Indigenous Common Woodland
Verbinaceae Verbena officinalis Shamakai Whole plant Decoction is anti-malarial Perennial Indigenous Common Ruderal