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Table 3 Wild edible plants used by the Tibetans in Shangri-la region, Yunnan Province, China

From: Eating from the wild: diversity of wild edible plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la region, Yunnan, China

Latin name Local name Family name Distribution Parts used Local use (edible only) Collection period Additional local use(s) Frequency
Actinidia arguta (Siebold et Zucc.) Planch. ex Miq. Zhemenkoubu Actinidiaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits ripe fruits eaten fresh. Aug-Sept Whole plants used as hedge plants. ***
Actinidia pilosula (Finet et Gagnep.) Stapf ex Hand.-Mazz. Zhemenkoubu Actinidiaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits ripe fruits eaten fresh. Aug-Sept Whole plants used as hedge plants. **
Actinidia venosa Rehder Zhemenkoubu Actinidiaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits ripe fruits eaten fresh. Aug-Sept Whole plants used as hedge plants. **
Adenophora khasiana (Hook. f. et Thomson) Collett et Hemsl. Zheibamiedu Campanulaceae Weixi and Deqin Roots stewed with meat and eaten as tonic. Jul-Sept Flowers and stems used for weisang. Aerial parts used as fodder. Roots used to treat cough and clearing heat. ***
Alectoria sulcata Nyl. Shuhua Usneaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Whole plant stir-fried Jul-Sep   *
Allium hookeri Thwaites var. muliense Airy-Shaw Rijiucai Liliaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Aerial parts stir-fried or added to soups May-Aug   ***
Allium ovalifolium Hand.-Mazz. Rijiucai Liliaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Aerial parts stir-fried or added to soups May-Aug   *****
Allium trifurcatum (F. T. Wang et T. Tang) J. M. Xu Rijiucai Liliaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Aerial parts stir-fried or added to soups May-Aug   ****
Amaranthus caudatus L. Yani Amaranthaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young stems and leaves stir-fried or added to soups Jun-Jul Aerial parts used as fodder. ***
Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. Yani Amaranthaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young stems and leaves stir-fried or added to soups Jun-Jul Aerial parts used as fodder. ***
Amygdalus mira (Koehne) Ricker Yemaotao; Kamu Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh. Jul-Aug Seeds used to relieve a cough and cure injuries. ***
Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex DC. Huzhangcao Ranunculaceae Weixi Roots stewed with meat and eaten as tonic Jun-Sept Roots used to treat bronchitis. Whole plant used as ornamental. *
Aralia caesia Hand.-Mazz. Shutoucai Araliaceae Shangri-la Young leaves and leaf buds stir-fried or eaten fresh Apr-May   ****
Aralia chinensis L. Gege Araliaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young leaves and leaf buds stir-fried or eaten fresh Apr-May Bark used for weisang *****
Arctium lappa L. Baomujicigen Asteraceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Roots stewed with meat and eaten as tonic. Jun-Aug Fruits, leaves and roots used to relieve fever, and treat measles, dysentery and gastropathy. ***
Arisaema erubescens (Wall.) Schott Reduo Araceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young leaves stir-fried Jun-Jul Tubers used to relieve cough and treat hemoptysis and pneumonia. **
Aristolochia delavayi Franch. Ricaoko Aristolochiaceae Shangri-la Whole plants stir-fried and used as spice Aug-Sept Whole plants used as stomachic tonic. ***
Armeniaca mume Siebold Kangjue Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh. Aug Used as rootstock for Armeniaca vulgaris. *
Arundinaria faberi Rendle Sunzi Poaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin New shoots boiled or stir-fried Jul-Aug Aerial parts used as fodder and to make bamboo wares. *****
Berberis amoena Dunn Qiesi Berberidaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young stems, leaves and fruits eaten fresh May-Sep Whole plants used as fence and hedge plants. ***
Berberis jamesiana Forrest et W. W. Sm. Qiesi Berberidaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young stems, leaves and fruits eaten fresh May-Sep Whole plants used as fence and hedge plants. ***
Berberis pruinosa Franch. Qiesi Berberidaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young stems, leaves and fruits eaten fresh May-Sep Whole plants used as fence and hedge plants. ***
Berberis weisiensis C. Y. Wu ex S. Y. Bao Qiesi Berberidaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young stems, leaves and fruits eaten fresh May-Sep Whole plants used as fence and hedge plants. **
Berchemia hirtella Tsai et K. M. Feng Zhila Rhamnaceae Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Sep   **
Berchemia hirtella Tsai et K. M. Feng Zhila Rhamnaceae Deqin Young leaves used for making tea Apr-Jun   **
Berchemia sinica C. K. Schneid. Zhila Rhamnaceae Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Sep   **
Berchemia sinica C. K. Schneid. Zhila Rhamnaceae Deqin Young leaves used for making tea Apr-Jun   **
Boehmeria penduliflora Wedd. ex Long Sejia Urticaceae Deqin Young stems and leaves boiled or stir-fried Jun-Jul   *
Boehmeria tricuspis (Hance) Makino Sejia Urticaceae Deqin Young stems and leaves stir-fried Jun-Jul   *
Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent.   Moraceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Sep-Oct Leaves used as fodder. Bark used for papermaking. *
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. Zijisuona Brassicaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Aerial part stir-fried May-Jun Aerial parts used as fodder. **
Cardamine yunnanensis Franch. Lijisuona Brassicaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Aerial part stir-fried May-Jun Aerial parts used as fodder. **
Cephalotaxus fortunei Hook. var. alpina H. L. Li Miyou Cephalotaxaceae Weixi, Deqin Seeds eaten fresh or stir-fried Sep-Oct Plants used as fuel-wood. Seeds used to expel parasite. *
Cerasus conadenia (Koehne) T. T. Yu et C. L. Li Xumumiedu Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Jul-Aug Flowers and leaves used for weisang ***
Cerasus tomentosa (Thunb.) Wall. Nuosi Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Jul-Sept   **
Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai Suomugua Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits stewed with meat as spice and used to prepare local wine Sept-Oct   ***
Chenopodium album L. Hui Chenopodiaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young stems and leaves stir-fried Jun-Jul Aerial parts used as fodder. ***
Cinnamomum glanduliferum (Wall.) Meisner Xiangzhangzi Lauraceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits stir-fried and used as spices Aug-Sept Fruits used to treat stomachache. *
Cirsium japonicum (Thunb.) Fisch. ex DC. Baimaci Asteraceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Roots stewed with meat and eaten as tonic Jun-Aug Young stems and leaves used as fodder. ***
Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf. var. handeliana (Nannf.) L. T. Shen Dangshen Campanulaceae Deqin and Weixi Roots stewed with meat and eaten as tonic Jul-Sept Aerial parts used as fodder. Roots used to invigorate the spleen. ***
Coriaria nepalensis Wall. Masen Coriariaceae Weixi Fruits eaten fresh May-Jun   *
Cornus capitata Wall. Jisuo; Jisuziguo Cornaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Sept Fruits, stems and leaves used as veterinary medicine. ***
Cornus macrophylla Wall. Dengtaishu Cornaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Seeds used for making vegetable oil. Aug-Sept Plants used as fuel-wood. **
Cornus schindleri Wangerin Saisaizi Cornaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin seeds used for making vegetable oil Aug-Sept Plants used as fuel-wood. **
Cornus ulotricha C. K. Schneid. et Wangerin Dengtaishu Cornaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin seeds used for making vegetable oil Aug-Sept Plants used as fuel-wood. *
Corylus chinensis Franch. Jilizi Betulaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits used for making pastries Sept-Oct Wood used for construction or furniture. **
Corylus yunnanensis (Franch.) Camus Shanbaiguo Betulaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits used for making pastries Sept-Oct Woods used for construction or furniture. *
Cotinus coggygria Scop. var. glaucophylla C. Y. Wu Jiade Anacardiaceae Shangri-la Young leaves boiled or stir-fried May-Jun Whole plants used as ornamental. *
Crataegus chungtienensis W. W. Sm. Lubu Rosaceae Weixi and Shangri-la Fruits eaten fresh Sept Whole plants used as fence and hedge plants. ***
Crataegus oresbia W. W. Sm. Lubu Rosaceae Weixi and Shangri-la Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Sept Whole plants used as fence and hedge plants. ***
Cynanchum forrestii Schltr. Babeda Asclepiadaceae Deqin and Weixi Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Oct Roots stewed with meat and eaten to treat rheumatism. *
Davidia involucrata Baill. var. vilmoriniana (Dode) Wangerin Labizi Nyssaceae Weixi Fruits eaten fresh Sept-Oct Whole plant used as ornamental. *
Debregeasia orientalis C. J. Chen Jiaojia Urticaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh and used to make local wine Jun-Aug Roots used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and broken bones. *
Decaisnea insignis (Griff.) Hook. f. et Thomson Xianli Lardizabalaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh and used to make local wine Jul-Aug Roots and fruits used to clearing heat. ***
Dioscorea melanophyma Prain et Burkill Huangshayue Dioscoreaceae Weixi Tubers boiled or stir-fried Jun-Jul Aerial parts used as fodder. **
Diospyros lotus L. Tazhi Ebenaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Sept-Oct   ***
Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Focke Dihongpao Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Jun-Jul   *
Elaeagnus multiflora Thunb. Cibie Elaeagnaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Jun-Jul   **
Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. Yangnaiguo Elaeagnaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Jul-Aug   **
Eriobotrya salwinensis Hand.-Mazz.   Rosaceae Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Jun-Aug Plants used as fuel-wood. *
Eutrema deltoideum (Hook. f. et Thomson) O. E. Schulz Limo Brassicaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young stems and leaves stir-fried May-Jun Aerial parts used as fodder. **
Eutrema heterophyllum (W. W. Sm.) H. Hara Limo Brassicaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young stems and leaves stir-fried May-Jun Aerial parts used as fodder. **
Eutrema himalaicum Hook. f. et Thomson Limo Brassicaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young stems and leaves stir-fried May-Jun Aerial parts used as fodder. **
Fagopyrum dibotrys (D. Don) H. Hara Wanao Polygonaceae Deqin Young stems and leaves stir-fried Jun-Aug Aerial parts used as fodder. *
Fargesia melanostachys (Hand.-Mazz.) T. P. Yi Sunzi Poaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin New shoots boiled or stir-fried May-Aug Aerial parts used as fodder and to make bamboo wares. *****
Ficus pumila L. Dongshili Moraceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits used for making bean jelly Jul-Aug Leaves used as fodder. *
Ficus sarmentosa Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. dongshili Moraceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits used for making bean jelly Jul-Aug Leaves used as fodder. *
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Asi Apiaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young stems and leaves eaten fresh or stir-fried May-Jul   **
Fragaria moupinensis (Franch.) Cardot Gasuo Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh. Jun-Jul Whole plants used as fodder. **
Galinsoga parviflora Cav. Nawabijia Asteraceae Deqin and Weixi Young stems and leaves boiled or stir-fried Jun-Aug Whole plants used as fodder. *
Ginkgo biloba L. Baiguo Ginkgoaceae Deqin, Weixi Seeds eaten fresh or stir-fried Sep-Oct Seeds used to treat asthma. *
Gnaphalium affine D. Don Qingmincai Asteraceae Weixi Young leaves grounded with sticky rice to make rice cake. Apr-May Leaves used to treat cuts and gun shot wounds. *
Herminium lanceum (Thunb. ex Sw.) Vuijk Lianxiongde Orchidaceae Shangri-la Whole plant stewed with meat and eaten as tonic. Aug-Sep Whole plant used as fodder. *
Hippophae rhamnoides L. subsp. yunnanensis Rousi Xiju Elaeagnaceae Deqin. Shangri-la Fruits eaten fresh or used to make beverage and wine. Aug-Oct Fruits used to treat cough and invigorate the circulation of blood. *****
Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Zhergen Saururaceae Weixi, Shangri-la Leaves and roots eaten fresh or stir-fried Jun-Jul   ***
Juglans regia L. Daiga Juglandaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Seeds eaten fresh or stir-fried, and used for making vegetable oil. Aug-Sept Plants used as fuel-wood. ***
Kalopanax septemlobus (Thunb.) Koidz. Cilaobao Araliaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young stems and leaves eaten fresh or stir-fried May-Jun   **
Lethariella cladonioides (Nyl.) Krog Gangge Parmeliaceae Deqin Whole plant used for making tea, wine and beverage Aug-Oct Used to tranquilize mind and clearing heat. *
Leycesteria formosa Wall. Sezha Caprifoliaceae Deqin Fruits eaten fresh. Aug-Oct   *
Ligusticum daucoides (Franch.) Franch. Riqincai Apiaceae Shangri-la Whole plants stir-fried or added to soups Apr-May Aerial parts used as fodder. ****
Lindera kariensis W. W. Sm. Rihujiao Lauraceae Weixi, Deqin Fruits used as spices Jul-Sept   **
Lindera nacusua (D. Don) Merr. Rihujiao Lauraceae Weixi Fruits used as spices Jul-Sept   **
Lindera obtusiloba Blume var. heterophylla (Meisn.) H. P. Tsui Rihujiao Lauraceae Weixi Fruits used as spices Jul-Sept   *
Lindera reflexa Hemsl. Rihujiao Lauraceae Weixi Fruits used as spices Jul-Sept   *
Lobaria sp. Qingwapi Stictaceae Shangri-la and Weixi Aerial part eaten fresh Jul-Sept Whole plant used to treat dyspepsia. *
Lycopus lucidus Turcz. ex Benth. Ganluo Lamiaceae Shangri-la Young stems and leaves eaten fresh or stir-fried or used for making pickle Jul-Aug   **
Mahonia duclouxiana Gagnep. Jisa Berberidaceae Deqin Fruits eaten fresh. Aug-Sep Whole plants used as hedge plants. *
Maianthemum atropurpureum (Franch.) LaFrankie Zhuyecai; Nibai Liliaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young shoots and leaves stir-fried or added to soups May-Jun Aerial parts used as fodder. *****
Maianthemum forrestii (W. W. Smith) LaFrankie Zhuyecai; Nibai Liliaceae Shangri-la and Weixi Young shoots and leaves stir-fried or added to soups May-Jun Aerial parts used as fodder. ****
Maianthemum henryi (Baker) LaFrankie Zhuyecai; Nibai Liliaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young shoots and leaves stir-fried or added to soups May-Jun Aerial parts used as fodder. ****
Maianthemum oleraceum (Baker) LaFrankie Zhuyecai; Nibai Liliaceae Weixi, Shangri-la Young shoots and leaves stir-fried or added to soups May-Jun Aerial parts used as fodder. ***
Maianthemum purpureum (Wallich) LaFrankie Zhuyecai; Nibai Liliaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young shoots and leaves stir-fried or added to soups May-Jun Aerial parts used as fodder. *****
Maianthemum tatsienense (Franct.) LaFrankie Zhuyecai; Nibai Liliaceae Shangri-la Young shoots and leaves stir-fried or added to soups May-Jun Aerial parts used as fodder. ****
Malus rockii Rehder Tangli Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Sept Plants used as fuel-wood, and rootstock for Malus pumila. Whole plants used as fence. ***
Malus spectabilis (Ait.) Borkh. Haitangguo Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Sept Fruits decoction used to treat dark urine. **
Malva verticillata L. Jiangba Malvaceae Deqin Young stems and leaves stir-fried Jun-Aug Leaves, stems and seeds used as fodder. Whole plant used as ornamental. *
Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Tadaro Huangguaxiang Onocleaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Immature fronds eaten fresh or stir-fried May-Jun   ****
Medicago lupulina L. Mocuo Fabaceae Deqin, Shangri-la Young stems and leaves eaten fresh or stir-fried Jun-Jul Leaves, stems, flowers and seeds used as fodder. *
Megacarpaea delavayi Franch. Yuose Brassicaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young stems and leaves stir-fried May-Jun Aerial parts used as fodder. **
Megacarpaea polyandra Benth. ex Madden Yuose Brassicaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young stems and leaves stir-fried May-Jun Aerial parts used as fodder. **
Mentha canadensis L. Qiubi Lamiaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young leaves eaten fresh or stir-fried Jun-Aug   **
Nostoc sphaerioides Kützing Shuimuer Nostocaceae Shangri-la Whole plant eaten fresh or added to soups Jun-Jul Whole plant used to treat burns and scalds. *
Metapanax delavayi (Franch.) J. Wen et Frodin   Araliaceae Deqin, Weixi Young leaves used for making tea Apr-May Whole plants used as hedge plants. *
Ophioglossum reticulatum L. Yimuyidun Ophioglossaceae Shangri-la Immature fronds stir-fried or added to soups Jul-Aug Whole plants used to treat impotence and lumbago. *
Opuntia monacantha (Willd.) Haw. Xianrenguo Cactaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Sep Tubers and fruits used as fodder. Whole plants used as fence and hedge plants. ***
Oreorchis indica (Lindl.) Hook. f. Xiabaji Orchidaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Pseudobulbs boiled or stir-fried Jun-Aug Whole plants used as fodder. Pseudobulbs used to stop bleeding and detumescence. *
Osmunda japonica Thunb. Shuijuecai Osmundaceae Weixi Immature fronds stir-fried May-Jun   ***
Osteomeles schwerinae C. K. Schneid. Sele Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Sept Leaves and fruits used as fodder. **
Panax japonicus (T. Nees) C. A. Meyer var. major (Burkill) C. Y. Wu et K. M. Feng Gedeqi Araliaceae Shangri-la Young stems and leaves eaten fresh or stir-fried May-Jun Whole plants used as fodder. Roots used to stop bleeding. ***
Panax japonicus (T. Nees) C. A. Meyer var. major (Burkill) C. Y. Wu et K. M. Feng Gedeqi Araliaceae Shangri-la Rhizomes stewed with meat and eaten as tonic. Jul-Aug Whole plants used as fodder. Rhizomes used to stop bleeding. ***
Pentapanax henryi Harms   Araliaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young stems and leaves eaten fresh or stir-fried Apr-May   **
Photinia glomerata Rehder et E. H. Wilson Chongsi Rosaceae Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Sept   *
Phyllanthus emblica L. Ganlan Euphorbiaceae Shangri-la Fruits eaten fresh Jul-Sept Barks used to extract tannin. ***
Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. Tuoqiong Phytolaccaceae Deqin Young stems and leaves eaten fresh or stir-fried Jul-Aug Roots used to promote diuresis. *
Pinellia pedatisecta Schott Luoa Araceae Deqin Young leaves stir-fried Jun-Jul Corms used to treat vomit and http://reduce http://phlegm. *
Pinus armandii Franch. Seitu; Songzi Pinaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Seeds eaten fresh or stir-fried Sept-Oct Leaves and stems used for weisang. Needles used as fodder. Plants used as fuel-wood. **
Pistacia weinmanniifolia J. Poiss. ex Franch. Li Anacardiaceae Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Sept Leaves and stems used for weisang. Leaves and fruits used as fodder. ****
Plantago asiatica L. Hamaye Plantaginaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Whole plants boiled or stir-fried Jun-Aug Leaves, stems, flowers and seeds used as fodder. ***
Plantago major L. Hamaye Plantaginaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Whole plants boiled or stir-fried Jun-Aug Leaves, stems, flowers and seeds used as fodder. ***
Potentilla anserina L. Chuomo Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Roots eaten fresh or boiled Jun-Sept Leaves, stems and fruits used as fodder. Roots used to control leukorrhea flow. ***
Potentilla coriandrifolia D. Don var. dumosa Franch. Zumuyasha Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Roots eaten after boiling Jun-Sept Whole plants used as fodder. *
Potentilla leuconota D. Don Pagu Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Roots eaten after boiling Jun-Sept Whole plants used as fodder. *
Prasiola subareolata Skuja. Shihuacai Prasiolaceae Shangri-la Whole plants eaten fresh or added to soups Jun-Jul   *
Prinsepia utilis Royle Qingciguo Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Seeds used for making vegetable oil Jul-Aug   ***
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. latiusclum (Desv.) Underw. ex A. Heller Zhila Pteridaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Immature fronds eaten fresh or stir-fried May-Jul Whole plant used to treat rheumatism or for clearing heat. ****
Pyracantha fortuneana (Maxim.) H. L. Li Sare Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Sept-Oct   *
Pyrus betulifolia Bunge Reli Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Oct   *
Pyrus calleryana Decne. Xialie Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Oct   *
Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don Suilun Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Oct   **
Pyrus pseudopashia T. T. Yu Suilun Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Sept   **
Ramalina fastigiata (Pers.) Ach. Shuhua Ramalinaceae Whole plant Whole plant stir-fried Jul-Sept   *
Rheum likiangense Sam. Mojue Polygonaceae Shangri-la and Deqin Young leaves eaten fresh Jun-Aug Roots used to remove blood stasis. *
Ribes alpestre Wall. ex Decne. Suanmiguoguo Saxifragaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh and used to prepare local wine Aug-Sept Whole plants used as fence and hedge plants. ***
Ribes moupinense Franch. Hiangshen Saxifragaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh and used to prepare local wine Jul-Oct Leaves, stems and fruits used for weisang. Whole plants used as fence and hedge plants. ***
Ribes glaciale Wall. Niangxu Saxifragaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Sept Leaves and stems used for weisang. Whole plants used as fence and hedge plants. ***
Rosa omeiensis Rolfe Xuwabala Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Jul-Sept Whole plants used as fence and ornamental. ***
Rosa praelucens Byhouwer Xielermiedu Rosaceae Shangri-la Fruits eaten fresh Sept-Oct Flowers used for weisang. Whole plant used as ornamental. ***
Rosa soulieana Crép. Xuwabala Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Sept Whole plants used as fence and ornamental. **
Rubus assamensis Focke Hongpai; Yongde Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Sept Whole plants used as fence. **
Rubus fockeanus Kurz Hongpai; Yongde Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Sept Whole plants used as fence. *
Rubus niveus Thunb. Hongpai; Yongde Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Sept Whole plants used as fence. **
Rubus pectinellus Maxim. Jiaoxumu Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Sept Leaves and stems used for weisang. Whole plants used as fence. ***
Rubus pentagonus Wall. ex Focke Hongpai; Yongde Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Sept Whole plants used as fence. **
Rubus polyodontus Hand.-Mazz. Hongpai; Yongde Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Sept Whole plants used as fence. *
Rubus rubrisetulosus Cardot Hongpai; Yongde Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Sept Whole plants used as fence. **
Rubus stans Focke Hongpai; Yongde Rosaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Sept Whole plants used as fence. **
Sageretia thea (Osbeck) M. C. Johnst. Luozi Rhamnaceae Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Apr-May   *
Sambucus chinensis Lindl. Debangqiongjie Caprifoliaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Jul-Sept Aerial parts used as fodder. ***
Schisandra rubriflora (Franch.) Rehder et E. H. Wilson Wuweizi Schisandraceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh and used to prepare local wine Aug-Oct Fruits used as antidiarrheic and for invigorating kidney. Whole plant used as ornamental. ***
Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T. S. Ying Agabule Berberidaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Jul-Sept Roots, stems and leaves used to clear heat. Seeds used to cure antenatal pain and help expelling placenta. Whole plant used as ornamental. **
Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames Xiaobaiji Orchidaceae Shangri-la Whole plant stewed with meat and eaten as tonic Aug-Sept Whole plants used as fodder. *
Stachys kouyangensis (Vaniot) Dunn var. franchetiana (H. Lév.) C. Y. Wu Riganlu Lamiaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Tubers boiled or stir-fried Jun-Sept Whole plants used as fodder. *
Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz. Yongma Asteraceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Whole plants boiled or stir-fried Jun-Aug Whole plants used as fodder. ***
Taxillus chinensis (DC.) Danser Yawakeqi Loranthaceae Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Oct   **
Taxillus thibetensis (Lecomte) Danser Yawakeqi Loranthaceae Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Oct   ***
Thamnolia vermicularis Ach. Xiare Thamnoliaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Whole plant used for making tea, wine and beverage Aug-Oct Used to tranquilize mind and clear heat. *
Thlaspi arvense L. Manlancai Brassicaceae Weixi and Deqin Young stems and leaves stir-fried or used for making pickle May-Jun Aerial parts used as fodder. **
Thlaspi arvense L. Manlancai Brassicaceae Weixi and Deqin Seeds used for making vegetable oil Jul-Aug Aerial parts used as fodder. **
Thlaspi yunnanense Franch. Manlancai Brassicaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young stems and leaves stir-fried or used for making pickle. May-Jun Aerial parts used as fodder. **
Thlaspi yunnanense Franch. Manlancai Brassicaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Seeds used for making vegetable oil Jul-Aug Aerial parts used as fodder. **
Tibetia himalaica (Baker) H. P. Tsui   Fabaceae Deqin, Shangri-la Roots eaten fresh Jun-Aug Aerial parts used as fodder. *
Toona sinensis (Juss.) Roem.   Meliaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Leaf buds eaten fresh or stir-fried May-Jun   **
Torreya fargesii Franch. var. yunnanensis (C. Y. Cheng et L. K. Fu) N. Kang Shasongguo Taxaceae Weixi, Shangri-la seeds eaten fresh or stir-fried Sept-Oct Leaves and stems used for weisang. Plants used as fuel-wood. *
Toxicodendron succedaneum (L.) Kuntze Si Anacardiaceae Weixi and Deqin Fruits used for making vegetable oil Jul-Sept Wax is extracted from fruits to use in varnish and polish. *
Toxicodendron vernicifluum (Stokes) F. A. Barkley Si Anacardiaceae Weixi and Deqin Fruits used for making vegetable oil Jul-Sept Wax is extracted from fruits for using in varnish and polish. *
Triosteum himalayanum Wall. Sachi Caprifoliaceae Shangri-la Fruits eaten fresh Aug-Sept Aerial parts used as fodder. *
Typhonium diversifolium Wall. ex Schott Banxia Araceae Shangri-la Young leaves used for making pickle Jul-Aug   **
Urtica fissa E. Pritz. Yanglala Urticaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young stems and leaves stir-fried Jun-Jul   **
Urtica mairei H. Lév. Yanglala Urticaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young stems and leaves stir-fried Jun-Jul   **
Viburnum betulifolium Batalin Ruosi Caprifoliaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh and used to prepare local tonic wine Aug-Sept   *
Viburnum kansuense Batalin Ruosi Caprifoliaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh and used to prepare local tonic wine Aug-Sept   *
Vitis betulifolia Diels et Gilg Geng Vitaceae Weixi and Deqin Fruits eaten fresh Jul-Oct Leaves used as fodder. **
Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. Yemu Rutaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Young stems and leaves eaten fresh or stir-fried Apr-May   ****
Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. Yemu Rutaceae Shangri-la, Weixi and Deqin Fruits used as spices Jul-Sept   *****
  1. Frequency: ***** > 75% of respondents; **** > 50% of respondents; *** > 1/4 of respondents; ** > 1/8 of respondents; * < 1/8 of respondents, but at least 2 respondents.