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Table 1 Typology for measuring cultural values and animal symbolism adapted from Kellert [[67]] and Vermeulen & Koziell [[68]]

From: Values, animal symbolism, and human-animal relationships associated to two threatened felids in Mapuche and Chilean local narratives

Value typology Related representations
Naturalistic 1. Deep experience with nature
2. Awareness and attentiveness, willingness to examine and discover
3. Enhanced creativity and imagination
Ecologistic-scientific 1. Systemic study of nature
2. Pursuit of knowledge to understand nature
3. Cycles and system comprehension
Humanistic 1. Deep feelings of attachment to nature's components
Utilitarian (direct/indirect use) 1. Resource view (material value associated)
2. Subsistence (or household use)
3. Productive (or tradable use)
4. Environment services offered to human well being
Aesthetic 1. Capacities for curiosity, imagination and creativity
2. Recognition of order, harmony, symmetry, grace and balance
3. Aesthetic search, real beauty, ideal and perfect
Negativistic 1. Aversive reactions to nature
2. Destructive practices sometimes
3. Environmental problems like pollution
Dominionistic 1. Sense of control and domination of nature
2. Nature as a place for exercising mastery
Moralistic 1. Nature as a philosophical resource
2. Willingness to treat nature with respect and kindness
3. Ethical responsibility
4. Affinity feelings
Symbolic 1. Use the sights, sounds of nature in language, and other symbolic ways
2. Religion, spirituality, anthropomorphism
Spiritual 1. Attachment to nature through its affinity with ancestors, religion, or its role in traditional ceremonies
2. Related to cosmovision
Cultural 1. Objects of nature that express the values of the culture superimposed on, thus linked to belongingness and identity
Existence 1. Nature existence regardless of utility humans
  2. Bequest to future generations