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Table 1 Zootherapeutic remedies

From: Johan Turi’s animal, mineral, vegetable cures and healing practices: an in-depth analysis of Sami (Saami) folk healing one hundred years ago

Species Source Use(s) Method References
Canis lupus (wolf) T1 p. 107 gout, body aches, blisters, wounds rub fat directly on affected area B: [8, 9]
C: [10]
T1 p. 107 wounds, wolf bite pour gall on wound, wrap with adipose tissue A: [11, 12]
C: [11]
Canis lupus familiaris (dog) T1 p. 127 dog bite rub blood of dog on wound*  
T2 XXXVII pregnancy cravings pass partially chewed food to a female dog* A: [12, 13]
B: [14]
C: [15, 16]
T2 II recovering from various diseases the presence of a dog will draw away illness* B: [14]
Delichon urbicum (house martin) T1 p. 125 hemorrhage during childbrith drink house martin nest litter boiled in milk** A: [12, 17, 18]
C: [1923]
Dytiscus sp. (diving beetle) T1 p. 123 causes fatal illness if swallowed use a straw made from reindeer antler or bird bone to drink water from streams, if swallowed induce vomiting with rotten fish entrails, or a reindeer tendon  
Homo sapiens (human) T1 p. 121 sore throat drink a spoonful of urine and stretch and rub neck in every direction A: [12, 13]
C: [24]
T1 p. 128 difficult labor have the mother drink the urine of the father and say his name** A: [12, 13]
C: [24]
T2 XVI unreciprocated love have the person consume some of your sweat* C: [2528]
T2 XVI unreciprocated love have the person consume a couple drops of your blood*  
T2 XVI unreciprocated love have the person consume a few scales from your foot*  
Ovis aries (sheep) T1 p. 121 sore throat rub turpentine on neck and then wrap in a woolen kerchief overnight A: [12, 29]
B: [30, 31]
C: [32, 33]
T1 p. 125 strained tendon wrap affected limb in unwashed woolen yarn** A: [12, 13, 29]
T1 p. 129 inability to pass afterbirth place a hot compress of sand and ash wrapped in woolen fabric just below mother’s chest A: [12, 13, 29]
C: [20]
Pediculus humanus (lice) T1 p. 126 jaundice secretly feed the affected person nine lice in buttered frybread or gruel* A: [12, 13, 34, 35]
Rana temporaria (frog) T1 p. 122 sore throat find a frog with white markings, dry in a saltbin, cut into pieces, cook in milk, and then drink A: [12, 36]
C: [3745]
T1 p. 122 skin eruptions rub a frog with white markings directly on the affected area** "
T1 p. 122 healing hand catch a frog and have it urinate on your hand, the hand can be used to relieve pain* "
T1 p. 123 thrush press a frog with white markings on the tongue "
T1 p. 123 stomach ailments cook a frog with white markings in milk and drink "
T1 p. 123 eggs cause fatal illness if swallowed if eggs are swallowed induce vomiting with rotten fish entrails, or a reindeer tendon  
Rangifer tarandus (reindeer) T1 p. 22 healthy drink add reindeer milk and sorrel (Rumex acetosa) to hot water A: [12, 46]
T1 p. 24 nutrition for baby when no milk is available give baby reindeer fat to suck on  
T1 p. 55 stomach ailments boil reindeer brains with pine bark and fat and then ingest A: [12]
C: [47]
T1 p. 123 induces vomiting force a tendon from a reindeer’s leg down the throat  
T1 p. 124 swelling rub reindeer fat (sometimes mixed with flecks of copper) onto swelling A: [12]
B: [8, 48]
C: [49, 50]
T1 p. 125 chills drink reindeer blood  
T1 p. 126 sore tooth or gland press a heated reindeer jawbone on the affected area* B: [14]
T1 p. 127 wounds rub reindeer cheese on the affected area A: [12]
T1 p. 128 inability to pass afterbirth give woman reindeer butter to eat  
T1 p. 129 inability to pass afterbirth grind up downy birch buds (Betulina pubescens), mix with hot reindeer milk, sorrel, and water, and give to mother to drink A: [12]
C: [20, 51]
T1 p. 169 burns apply reindeer bone marrow to affected area A: [12]
C: [52]
T2 XXXVI sprained tendon wrap a reindeer tendon around the affected limb A: [12]
Ursus arctos (brown bear) T1 p. 98 heart problems and internal ailments drink bear gall A: [11, 12]
C: [11, 5355]
T1 p. 98 wounds pour bear gall on affected area "
T1 p. 98 throat rash pour milk through a bear trachea three times and then drink the milk* A: [12]
B: [14]
T1 p. 98 gout, body aches, blisters, wounds cover affected area in bear fat A: [12]
B: [9, 11]
C: [10]
T1 p. 126 sore tooth or gland press a bear tooth on the affected area A: [12, 13, 56]
B: [14]
Miscellaneous  
Rotten fish entrails T1 p. 123 swallowed frog eggs or diving beetle give rotten fish entrails to a person for ingestion, which will induce vomiting  
Animals and birds for divination T1,T2 p. 111–112, XI prediction of weath, luck, impending death examining patterns in bird and animal behavior* A: [13, 29, 56]
Snakestone T1 p. 115 maintaining good luck in legal matters steal a snakestone* A: [12, 29, 56]
  1. *magical treatment.
  2. **accompanying incantation.
  3. A: mentions of similar remedies used in other cultures.
  4. B: historical commentaries on a particular remedy or technique.
  5. C: research that evaluates the possible efficacy of compounds or techniques described in the remedy.