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Table 1 Characteristics of the regions and field studies included in our review

From: Plants used for making recreational tea in Europe: a review based on specific research sites

Reg. State Region Year N RN UR CI SP Age Landscape Language Occup. Method Clim. Source
RU1 Russian Federation Ust’-Tsil’ma region of Komi Republic 2001 nk nk nk   2 nk Paldual meadows, fir forests Russian, Komi F nk Dfc [15]
RU2* Russian Federation Vologda 1990s nk nk nk   5 nk Shallow, decidous and conifer forests Russian A nk Dfc [16]
RU3* Russian Federation St Petersburg 2000s nk nk nk   6 nk Taiga, mixed forests, Russian M SB Dfc Exp. RU1
RU4 Russian Federation Belgorod oblast 1926 nk nk nk   4 nk Hilly meadows, decidous forests Russian A nk Dfb [17]
ES1 Estonia Kohla-Järve 1930 27 10 34 1.26 17 45-80 Costal line, meadows, conifer forests Estonian A HA Dfb [18]
ES2 Estonia Kullamaa 1930 32 17 49 1.53 14 45-80 Costal line, wooden meadows, meadows, decidous and conifer forests Estonian A HA Dfb [18]
ES3 Estonia Peipsi 1999-2008 46 11 31 0.67 11 61 Shore of the large lake, conifer forests Russian M I, PO, SB Dfb [19]
ES4 Estonia Räpina 1930 29 11 56 1.93 16 45-80 Flat inland, meadows, conifer forests, Seto A HA Dfb [18]
UA1 Ukraine Storozhinets region of Chernovtsy oblast’ 1999-2000 nk 59 14   8 nk Broadleaf forest, mountainous pastures, flat cornfields Ukrainian, Romanian A SB Dfb Exp UA1
UA2 Ukraine Strointsy, Tivriv region, Vinnitsa oblast’, Ukraine 2012 47 47 nk   29 55 Broad leaf forest, steppe Ukrainian A I, SS, PO, SB Dfb Exp UA2
LT1 Lithuania Užpaliai district 2010 33 33 23 0.70 16 44-90 meadows, forest Lithuanian M I, SS Dfb [20]
BY1 Belarus Gervėčiai ethnic region 2010 62 62 61 0.98 17 40-91 meadows, forest Lithuanian, Russian, Belarusian A I, SS Dfb [21]
PL1 Poland Puszcza Knyszyńska 2006-2012 89 68 248 2.79 37 65 hilly, mixed forests Polish A SB Dfb [22]
PL2 Poland Pogórzanie ethnogrphic region (Krosno and Jasło area), SE Poland 2010 + PO 1975-2012 133 PO nk nk   8 69 hilly, mixed forests Polish M SB, PO Dfb [23, 24]
RO1 Romania Bukovina Pojana Mikuli (Poiana Mikului) 2005-2006 28 28 94 3.36 10 48 mountainous, beech forest Polish M I, SS, PO, SB Dfb [25] + Exp RO1
BG1 Bulgaria Chepelare community, Smoljan region 2007 nk 9 37   22 nk mountainous mixed forest, small agricultural flatlands and meadows Bulgarian M SB Dfc Exp BG1
BG2 Bulgaria Laki community, Asenovgrad region 1992-1999 nk 28 9   9 nk mountainous mixed forest, small agricultural flatlands and meadows Bulgarian M SB ET Exp BG2
KS1 Kosovo Gollak 2009 66 29 nk   9 >50 hilly, mixed forests Albanian M SB Dfb [26]
KS2 Kosovo Albanian Alps 2010 91 30 nk   12 50-79 hilly, mixed forests Albanian M SB Dfb [27]
SE1 Serbia Pester Plateau 2010 nk 42 nk   22 43-93 years old pasture and meadows Serbo-Croatian A SB Cfa [28]
IT1 Italy Western Italian Alps 2011 81 nk nk   8 mid-aged & elderly mountains Alpine Provencal & Kye A SB Cfa [29]
IT2 Italy Vulture Alto Bradano 2000-2001 44 nk nk   21 47-94 years old hilly, mixed meadow & forest Italian M SB Csb [30]
SP1 Spain Campoo 1999-2001 107 nk 45 0.42 9 68 mosaic of meadows and forests, and high mountain vegetation Spanish M SB Cfb [3133]
SP2 Spain Piloña 1999-2003 94 nk 36 0.38 9 57 mosaic of meadows and forests, and high mountain vegetation Spanish M SB Cfb [3436]
SP3 Spain Gorbeialdea 2008-2010 103 2 2 0.02 1 74 mountainous: pastures mixed with Pinus radiata plantations and forests Basque I, S SB Cfb [37]
SP4 Spain Sierra Norte de Madrid 2003-2009 112 52 82 0.73 17 68 mountainous mixed forest agricultural valleys and pastures Spanish S SB Bsk [38]
SP5 Spain Sanabria 2004? 44 nk 11 0.25 5 nk mosaic of meadows and forests, and high mountain vegetation Spanish nk SB Csb [39]
SP6 Spain Picos de Europa nk 131 nk 96 0.73 6 nk mountainous: mosaic of meadows and forests, and high mountain vegetation Spanish M SB Cfb [31, 40]
PT1 Portugal Montesinho 2000-2004 107 nk 293 2.74 21 62 mosaic of meadows and forests and high mountain vegetation Portuguese M SB Csb [31, 34, 41, 42]
  1. Abbreviations: Reg abbreviation for region, Year year of research or publication, N number of study participants, RN number of respondents reporting the use of plants as recreational tea, UR nr of use-reports for recreational teas, CI cultural importance of the category, i.e., UR/N, SP nr of species used as recreational tea, Age range or average age of respondents, Landscape landscape type, Language dominant language in the region, Occup primary occupation in the region (A agrarian, F forestry, I industry, M mixed, S service), Clim climate of the region according to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system [43] (Bsk cold semi-arid climate, Cfa warm oceanic climate/humid subtropical climate, Cfb temperate oceanic climate, Csb temperate Mediterranean, Dfb temperate continental climate/humid continental climate, Dfc cool continental climate/subarctic climate, ET tundra climate), Method fieldwork method (HA homework assignment for schoolchildren, I interview, PO participant observation, SB snowball sampling, SS semi-structured questionnaire); nk not known, * - local plants are used as additives to oriental tea.