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Table 2 List of medicinal roots and their ethno-medicinal uses in Marrakech region (in order of frequency on 15 herbalists’ free lists)

From: Botanical identification of medicinal roots collected and traded in Morocco and comparison to the existing literature

Vernacular names Botanical identification Family Voucher Frequency Uses Reported availability Other scientific names listed in the literature
Foua Rubia peregrina L. Rubiaceae 795A 12 Hepatitis, Liver problems, Tonic, Gain weight Common Rubia peregrina L.a,b,c
Rubia tinctorum L.a,b,c
Galium odoratum (L.) Scop.b
Serghina (Tasserghint) Petrorhagia illyrica (Ard.) P.W. Ball & Heywood, Corrigiola telephiifolia Pourret Caryophyllaceae 866A, 867A 12 Gain weight, Appetizer, Incense, Headache, Migraine Common Corrigiola telephiifolia Pourret a,b,c
Kherchouf (Kherchouf Beldi) Cynara cardunculus L. Asteraceae 470K 11 Abdominal pain Common Cynara cardunculus L. a,b,c
Cynara humilis L.b
Cynara scolymus L.b
L’guseb Phragmites communis Trin. Poaceae 836A 11 Hair problems Common Phragmites communis Trin.aPhragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Ex Steud.bArundo donax L.a
Bereztem Aristolochia paucinervis Pomel Aristolochiaceae 797A 11 Aorta palpitation Common Aristolochia baetica L aAristolochia longa L. a,c
Fouilia NA NA NA 11 Fractures Common ---
Tasskra Echinops spinosissimus subsp. fontqueri (Pau) Greuter Asteraceae 478K 10 Rheumatism, Colds, Female reproductive ailments Common Echinops spinosissimus subsp. fontqueri (Pau) Greuter a,b,c
Ouden helouf Pulicaria odora (L.) Reichenb. Asteraceae 806A 10 Gain weight, Sterility Common Ranunculus bullatus L.a,c
Ranunculus macrophyllus Desf.a,b
Ranunculus muricatus L.a,c
Ranunculus arvensis L.a
Addad Carlina gummifera (L.) Less. Asteraceae 835A 10 Acne, Pruritus, Fumigation Rare Atractylis gummifera L. a,b,c
Bekbouka Bunium bulbocastanum L. Apiaceae 92A 9 Gain weight Rare Colchicum autumnale L. a,b,c
Amssekhsser Ammoides pusilla (Brot.) Beistr. Apiaceae 794A 9 Incense Rare Polygonum aviculare L.a
Polygonum equisetiforme S.M.a
Polygonum maritimum L.a
Daucus crinitus Desf.a
Harmel Peganum harmala L. Zygophyllaceae 837A 9 Rheumatism Common Peganum harmala L.a,b,c
N’jem Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Poacese 838A 8 Cold, Diuretic, Bladder infection Common Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. a,b,c
Tafgha Rhaponticum acaule L. Asteraceae 842A 8 Stomach problems Common Centaurea chamaerhaponticum Bail.a
Tiguendizt Anacyclus pyrethrum var. pyrethrum Catannanche caerulea L., Anacyclus pyrethrum var. depressus (Ball) Maire Asteraceae 872A 7 Stomach problems, Chest pain, Rheumatism Rare Anacyclus pyrethrum (L.) Link a,b,c
805A
873A
Ziyata NA NA NA 6 Oral infection Common Limoniastrum guyonianum C.D.a
Limoniastrum ifniense (Caball.) F.-Q. a
Polygonum maritimum L.a, b
Ghazghaz Carlina brachylepis (Batt.) Meusel & Kästner Asteraceae 791A 6 Coughing, Chest pain Common ---
Deryass Thapsia villosa L. Thapsia transtagana Brot. Apiaceae 790A, 465 KGh 6 Aphrodisiac, Gain weight, Colds, Incense Abundant Thapsia garganica L.a,b,c
Thapsia villosa L.a
Bllalourz Asphodelus cf. microcarpus Parl. Asphodelaceae 475K 6 Gain weight, Skin disease, Rheumatism, Colds Abundant Asphodelus cf. microcarpus Parl.a,c
Asphodelus ramosus L.a
Asphodelus aestivus Brot.b
Asphodelus cerasifer J.Gay.c
Kelkh Ferula communis L. Apiaceae 840A 5 Sterility, Gain weight Common Ferula communis L.a,b,c
Bougoudz Tamus communis L. Dioscoraceae 796A 5 Skin diseases Common ---
Khoudenjel NA NA NA 5 Colds, Gain Weight Common Alpinia officinarum Hance a,b,c
Taryala NA NA NA 5 Aphrodisiac Common Mandragora autumnalis Bertol. a,b,c
Tarra soudaniya Cyperus rotundus L. Cyperaceae 845A 4 Hair problems Common Cyperus rotundus L.a,b,c
Cyperus longus L.c
Cyperus articulates L.a
Cyperus maculates Boeck.a
Tigheghcht Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke Caryophyllaceae 800A 4 Clean wool, Intestinal pains, Incense, Itching Common Saponaria vaccaria L.a
Saponaria glutinosa Bieb.a
Silene inflata Sm.a
D’bagh Quercus ilex L. subsp. rotundifolia (Lam.) T. Morais Fagaceae 486K 4 Stomach problems, Hair problems, Skin inflammation Common Quercus ilex L. subsp. rotundifolia (Lam.) T. Moraisa
Quercus suber L.c
Awedmi Armeria cf. alliacea (Cav.) Hoffmanns. & Link, Meum athamanticum Jacq. Plumbaginaceae 802A, 862A 4 Rheumatism Rare Polygonum aviculare L.a
Polygonum equisetiforme S.M.a
Armeria cf. alliacea (Cav.) Hoffmanns. & Link a
Armeria mauritanica Wallr.a
Boughlam sahraoui Spergularia marginata (DC.) Kittel Caryophyllaceae 869A 4 Cold, Gain weight Rare Spergularia marginata (DC.) Kittel a
Telh Acacia gummifera Willd. Mimosaseae 846A 4 Fumigation Common Acacia gummifera Willd.a
Acacia raddiana Savi.c
Acacia seyal Del.c
M’ghizla Eryngium tricuspidatum L. Apiaceae 793A 3 Gain weight, Tonic, Rheumatism Common Eryngium tricuspidatum L.a
Swak Raayan NA NA NA 3 Vitiligo Common ---
Derdar NA NA NA 3 Migraine Common ---
Bessbess Foeniculum vulgare P. Mill Apiaceae 843A 3 Stomach problems, Sterility Common Foeniculum vulgare P. Mill a,b,c
Foeniculum dulce DC. a
Hedja NA NA NA 2 Rheumatism Common Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schard. a,b,c
Aarq sous NA NA NA 2 Stomach and Throat problems Common Glycyrrhiza glabra L. a,b,c ,
Glycyrrhiza foetida Desf. a,c
Awermi (Fijel) Ruta montana L. Rutaceae 789A 2 Aphrodisiac, Rheumatism, Colds Common Ruta montana L. a,b,c,
Ruta chalepensis L. a,b,c
Haplophyllum vermiculare Hand. & Maz. a
Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Forssk.) A. Juss. b
Boujlal NA NA NA 2 Gain weight Rare ---
Soussban NA NA NA 2 Gain weight Common Iris germanica L. a,b,c
Iris florentina L. a
Iris pseudoacorus L. a
Frifra NA NA NA 2 NA Rare ---
S’der Ziziphus lotus (L.) Lam. Rhamnaceae 489K 2 Stomach problems, Bladder problems Common Ziziphus lotus (L.) Lam. a,b,c
Doum Chamaerops humilis L. Palmaceae 841A 2 Aphrodisiac Abundant Chamaerops humilis L.a
Bouzfour Ammoides pusilla (Brot.) Beistr. Apiaceae 474K 2 Incense Rare Daucus crinitus Desf. a
Abu Kundmania sicula (L.) DC. Apiaceae 808A 2 Aphrodisiac, Sterility, Colds, Rheumatism Common Thapsia garganica L. a,b
Thapsia villosa L. a
Kef saboun NA NA NA 2 Colds Rare ---
Kers aanou NA NA NA 2 Aphrodisiac, Gain weight, Colds Rare ---
Terta NA NA NA 2 NA Common ---
Belhdar NA NA NA 2 NA Rare ---
S’koum Asparagus stipularis Forsk. Asparagaceae 844A 2 Aphrodisiac Common Asparagus stipularis Forsk. a,b
Asparagus albus L. a
Asparagus acutifollius L. a
Asparagus pastorianus Webb. & Berth. a
Asparagus altissimus Munb. a
R’tem NA NA NA 1 Incense, Abortion Rare Retama monosperma Boiss. a
Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss. a
Retama retam (Forsk.) Webb. a
Tizgha NA NA NA 1 NA Rare ---
Baguremane NA NA NA 1 NA Rare ---
Ghartague NA NA NA 1 NA Rare ---
Nedkhir NA NA NA 1 NA Rare ---
Temt Carthamus pinnatus Desf. Asteraceae 468K 1 Fumigation Common ---
Swaka Juglan regia L. Juglandaceae 469K 1 Tooth care, Gingivitis Abundant Juglan regia L. a, b,c
Smar Juncus maritimus Lamk. Juncaceae 839A 1 Cold, Fumigation Common Juncus maritimus Lamk.a,b,c
Juncus acutus L. a,b
Juncus bufonius L. a,b
Saleh n’der Verbascum sinuatum L. Scrofulariaceae 870A 1 Ophthalmopathy Common Verbascum sinuatum L.a,b
Verbascum thapsiforme Scrad c
Verbascum granatense Boiss a
Tizorin Valeriana tuberosa L. Valerianaceae 830A 0 Colic Common ---
Azalim n’ouchen (Aansla) Drimia maritima (L.) Stearn, Hyacinthaceae 471K, 882 A 0 Hepatitis, Black magic, Rheumatism, Colds Abundant Urginia maritime (L.) Baker a,b, c
        Urginia noctiflora Batt. & Trab. a
  1. NA: not locally available.
  2. a. Bellakhdar [11].
  3. b. Boulos [13].
  4. c. Benchaabane et Abbad [12].