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Table 1 Orchids reported in traditional medicine and commercial trade in Nepal

From: Collection and trade of wild-harvested orchids in Nepal

Scientific name voucher numbera Local name Parts usedb Traditional use Reference Commercial trade
Acampe praemorsa (Roxb.) Blatt. & McCann (syn. Acampe papillosa (Lindl.) Lindl.) Subedi 170 Parajivi, Rasna (Sanskrit) Ra Powder used in treating rheumatism and for cooling effect. This study Medicinal
Aerides multiflora Roxb. Kunwar 101 Parajivi, Thuur Lf Powder used in tonic preparation. This study Floricultural, medicinal
Aerides odorata Lour. Subedi 172 Parajivi Lf Paste of leaves used externally to treat wounds. This study Floricultural, medicinal
Brachycorythis obcordata (Lindl.) Summerh. Subedi 150 Gamdol Tb Powder mixed with milk and consumed as tonic. [19] Medicinal
Bulbophyllum careyanum (Hook.) Spreng. Subedi 220 Banharchul, Thuur, Parajivi Lf, Pb Fresh pulp of pseudobulbs externally applied to burns. Powder of leaves used with honey to induce abortions within 3 months of pregnancy and stimulate recovery from childbirth. [10], This study Medicinal
Bulbophyllum leopardinum (Wall.) Lindl. ex Wall. Subedi 221 Thuur, Parajivi Lf, Pb Fresh pulp or juice externally applied to burns. This study Medicinal
Bulbophyllum odoratissimum (Sm.) Lindl. ex Hook. f. Subedi 370 Thurjo Ep Powder used in treating tuberculosis, chronic inflammation and fractures. [20] Medicinal
Calanthe sylvatica (Thouars) Lindl. Subedi 153 Pakha phul Fl Juice applied to stop nosebleeds. [11] Floricultural, medicinal
Calanthe plantaginea Lindl. Kunwar 120 Ban aduwa Rz Dry powder consumed with milk as tonic and as aphrodisiac. This study Floricultural, medicinal
Calanthe puberula Lindl. Subedi 223 Ban aduwa Rz Dry powder consumed with milk as tonic and as aphrodisiac. This study Floricultural, medicinal
Coelogyne corymbosa Lindl. Subedi 375 Chadigava Pb Paste applied to the forehead to relieve headaches, fresh juice applied to burns as analgesic. [7, 11, 21] Floricultural, medicinal
Coelogyne cristata Lindl. Subedi 224 Chandigava, Bankera Pb Freshly collected paste or juice consumed to relieve headaches, fever and for indigestion. Pulp applied to burnt skin. Juice also applied to skin boils and wounded hooves of cattle. [1, 10, 21, 22], This study Floricultural, medicinal
Coelogyne fimbriata Lindl. Subedi 225 Jiwanti (Sanskrit) Pb Powder used in tonic preparation. This study Floricultural, medicinal
Coelogyne flaccida Lindl. Subedi 301 Chadigava Pb Paste applied externally or consumed to relieve frontal headaches. Juice taken for indigestion. [7, 21] Floricultural, medicinal
Coelogyne fuscescens Lindl. Subedi 312 Bankera Pb Paste applied externally or consumed to relieve headaches, fever and stomach ache. Paste applied externally on burns. This study Floricultural, medicinal
Coelogyne nitida (Wall. ex D.Don) Lindl. Subedi 226 Banlasun, Thuur Pb Paste consumed against headaches and fever. Paste applied externally on burns. This study Floricultural, medicinal
Coelogyne prolifera Lindl. Subedi 227 Thuur Pb Paste consumed against headaches and fever. Paste applied externally on burns. [10] Floricultural, medicinal
Coelogyne stricta (D.Don) Schltr. Subedi 314 Banpyaj Pb Paste applied externally against headaches and fever. This study Floricultural, medicinal
Crepidium acuminatum (D.Don) Szlach. (syn. Malaxis acuminata D. Don) Subedi 321 Gachno, Gavndamala Ra, Pb Powder of roots used against burning sensations, to treat fever and to stop bleeding. This study Medicinal
Cymbidium aloiflolium (L.) Sw. Subedi 228 Banharchul, Kamaru, Harjor Ep Dried powder used as tonic against diarrhea. Fresh paste applied externally over fractured or dislocated bones. [10, 23] Floricultural, medicinal
Cymbidium elegans Lindl. Kunwar 123 Thuur Ra, Pb Fresh juice of pseudobulb consumed to relieve fever. Boiled root juice fed to livestock suffering from cold. [21, 22] Floricultural, medicinal
Cymbidium iridioides D. Don Subedi 315 Thuur Pb, Lf Powder of pseudobulb consumed as tonic. Leaf juice applied externally to stimulate blood clotting in deep wounds. [11], This study Floricultural, medicinal
Cypripedium himalaicum Rolfe Kunwar 124 Khujukpa Ep Powder and juice consumed for urine retention, against kidney stones, heart disease, chest disorders and coughs. [24] Medicinal
Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don) Soo Kunwar 103 Paanchaunle, Hatajadi Tb Paste consumed against fever. Powder used topically as hemostatic, or to heal fractures. Decoction consumed against intestinal pain. Tuber, eaten raw or as tonic, or mixed with honey or milk used as stimulant. [7, 23] Medicinal
Dendrobium amoenum Wall. ex Lindl. Subedi 400 Thuur Pb Fresh paste applied topically on burnt skin and dislocated bones. This study Medicinal
Dendrobium densiflorum Lindl. Subedi 316 Sungava Pb Fresh pulp applied to boils and pimples. [21, 22] Floricultural, medicinal
Dendrobium eriiflorum Griff. Kunwar 104 Thurjo Pb Paste mixed with wheat flour and applied on dislocated or fractured bones. Dried powder used as tonic. This study Floricultural, medicinal
Dendrobium heterocarpum Wall. ex Lindl. Subedi 317 Thuur Pb Paste mixed with wheat flour and applied on fractured or dislocated bones. This study Floricultural, medicinal
Dendrobium longicornu Lindl. Subedi 401 Kause Ra, Pb Juice of stems is consumed against fever. Boiled root fed to livestock suffering from coughs. [7] Floricultural, medicinal
Dendrobium transparens Wall. ex Lindl. Subedi 402 Parajivi, Thuur Pb Paste used on fractured or dislocated bones. [10] Floricultural, medicinal
Dienia cylindrostachya Lindl. (syn. Malaxis cylindrostachya (Lindl.) Kuntze) Kunwar 132   Pb Powder used as tonic. This study Medicinal
Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz Kunwar 133   Ra Juice consumed to cure insanity and gout. [11] Medicinal
Eria spicata (D.Don) Hand.-Mazz. Subedi 403 Parajivi Pb Powder consumed during stomach ache, paste applied externally against headaches. [11] Medicinal
Eulophia dabia (D.Don) Hochr. Kunwar 134 Hatti paila Rz Powder consumed against coughs and heart trouble, also used as tonic and appetizer. [1, 11] Medicinal
Eulophia spectabilis (Dennst.) Suresh (syn. Eulophia nuda Lindl.) Kunwar 135 Amarkand Tb Powder used against worm infestation, scrofula, blood disorders, bronchitis and as appetizer. [11] Medicinal
Flickingeria fugax (Rchb.f.) Seidenf. Kunwar 140 Jiwanti Ep Powder used as tonic against general debility and as stimulant. This study Medicinal
Flickingeria macraei (Lindl.) Seidenf. Subedi 319 Jiwanti Ep Paste used against snake bites, general debility, as stimulant and demulcent. [1, 25] Medicinal
Gastrodia elata Blume Subedi 421   Tb Dried powder used as tonic and for treating headaches. [11] Medicinal
Gymnadenia orchidis Lindl. Kunwar 141   Tb Powder used to treat gastric, urine and liver disorders. [11] Medicinal
Habenaria intermedia D.Don Subedi 422 Riddhi Ra, Lf Powder used for blood diseases. [3] Medicinal
Habenaria pectinata D.Don Kunwar 141 Seto musli Tb, Lf Leaf juice applied on snake bites. Tuber used against arthritis. [3] Medicinal
Luisia trichorrhiza (Hook.) Blume Subedi 320 Arjona Lf Paste applied externally to treat muscular pain. [11] Medicinal
Luisia tristis (G. Forst.) Hook.f. (syn Luisia zeylanica Lindl.) Subedi 423 Bori jhaar Ep Juice used for treating chronic wounds. [11] Medicinal
Malaxis muscifera (Lindl.) Kuntze Kunwar 142 Jivaka Pb Paste applied during diathesis, burning sensation, fever, on sores and as tonic. This study Medicinal
Otochilus albus Lindl. Subedi 370 Aankhle laharo Ep Powder used as tonic. This study Medicinal
Otochilus lancilabius Seidenf. Kunwar 107 Aankhle laharo Ep Paste applied to fractured and dislocated bones. [6] Medicinal
Papilionanthe teres (Roxb.) Schltr. Subedi 424 Harjor, Thurjo Pb, Lf Paste externally applied to treat dislocated bones. [7] Medicinal
Pholidota articulata Lindl. Subedi 368 Hadjor Ep Paste applied on fractured bones and consumed as tonic. This study Floricultural, medicinal
Pholidota imbricata Lindl. Subedi 367 Thurjo, Patharkera Pb Paste consumed to relieve fever and powder as tonic. This study Medicinal
Pholidota pallida Lindl. Subedi 369 Thurjo, Patharkera Rh, Pb Paste used to relieve fever, powder to induce sleep and to cure abdominal pain, juice used for navel pain. This study Floricultural, medicinal
Platanthera edgeworthii (Hook.f. ex Collett) R.K.Gupta (syn. Habenaria edgeworthii Hook.f. ex Collett) Kunwar 145 Riddhi Rh, Lf Powder or paste consumed to cure blood diseases and for cooling. [3] Medicinal
Pleione humilis (Sm.) D.Don Kunwar 108 Shaktigumba Pb Paste applied on cuts and wounds. Powder used as tonic. [7, 21] Floricultural, medicinal
Pleione praecox (Sm.) D.Don Kunwar 109 Shaktigumba Pb Dried powder consumed with milk as tonic and energizer. Paste externally applied on cuts and wounds. [22], This study Floricultural, medicinal
Rhynchostylis retusa (L.) Blume Chadephuul, Dhogegava Ep Juice of roots applied to cuts and wounds. Leaf powder used to cure rheumatic diseases. Dried flowers as insect repellent and to induce vomiting. [1, 7, 10, 22] Floricultural, medicinal
Satyrium nepalense D.Don Mishri, Thamni Tb Dried tubers consumed as tonic against dysentery. Juice consumed against fever and applied on cuts and wounds. [7, 21] Medicinal
Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames Subedi 451   Tb Powder consumed against headaches as tonic and energizer. [19, 26] Medicinal
Thunia alba (Lindl.) Rchb.f. Golaino Ep Paste used on fractured bones. [25] Medicinal
Vanda cristata Wall. ex Lindl. Subedi 201 Vhagute Phul, Thuur Ra, Lf Root paste applied to boils and to treat dislocated bones. Leaf powder used as expectorant, paste applied to cuts and wounds. [7, 21] Floricultural, medicinal
Vanda tessellata (Roxb.f.) Hook.ex G.Don (syn. Vanda roxburghii R.Br.) Subedi 467 Parajivi, Rasna Ra, Lf Root used as antidote for scorpion stings, and remedy of bronchitis and rheumatism. Paste of leavesused to treat fevers. [3] Floricultural, medicinal
Zeuxine strateumatica (L.) Schltr. Subedi 200 Kansjhar Rt Dry powder used as tonic. This study Medicinal
  1. aVouchers are deposited at TUCH; bFl, flowers; Lf, leaves; Pb, pseudobulb; Ra, roots; Rz, rhizome; Tb, tubers; Ep, entire plant.