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Table 2 Medicinal plants used to treat human diseases only

From: An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Kilte Awulaelo District, Tigray Region of Ethiopia

Scientific name Family name Voucher No. Tigrigna name Habit Part used Used for Preparation and application
Abutilon bidentatum (Hochst.) A.Rich. Malvaceae AT00635 Neger negarito Shrub Leaf Michi Crush, filter and drink
      Leaf Abdominal pain Crush, filter and drink by adding milk
Acacia abyssinica Hochst.ex Benth. Fabaceae AT00700 Memona Tree Bark Herpes zoster Crush and apply on affected part
      Root Evil eye Crush and place on fire for fumigation
Acokanthera schimperi (A.DC.) Schweinf. Apocynaceae AT00649 Mebtie Tree Bark Itching/ scabies Boil it in water and wash body with it
Ajuga integrifolia Buch-Ham. Lamiaceae AT00675 Endifdif Herb Leaf Tinea capitis Crush and rub on the affected part
      Leaf Ascariasis Crush, filter and drink
      Leaf Tap worm Crush, filter and drink
      Leaf Abdominal pain Crush, filter and drink
Allium sativum L. Alliaceae AT00709 Tsaeda shingurti Herb Bulb Wound/sore Crush by mixing with leaves of Dyschoriste radicans and Lepidium sativum and tie on the affected part
      Bulb Cough Eat or smell the part or crush and eat it with honey
      Bulb Paralysis Crush and rub on body
      Bulb Toothache Chew with the affected tooth
      Bulb Itching/scabies Crush by mixing with leaves of Rumex nervosus and Withania somnifera and seeds of Lepidium sativum, soak it in water and wash body with it
      Bulb Malaria Crush and it alone or by mixing with seeds of Lepidium sativum and eat it
      Bulb Amoeba Grind and eat it with honey
      Bulb Rabies Eat the part
      Whole Michi Crush and apply the paste or place it on fire for fumigation
Amorphophallus abyssinicus (Rich.) N.E.Br. Araceae AT00637 Hambagita Herb Leaf Tinea capitis Crush and apply on affected part
Argemone mexicana L. Papaveraceae AT00615 Eshok tilian, medafe Herb Latex External wound Apply it on the affected part until cure
      Latex Leshimaniasis Apply it on affected part until cure
      Leaf Tinea capitis Crush and apply
Artemisia abyssinica Sch.Bip. ex A.Rich. Asteraceae AT00678 Chena baria Herb Whole Evil eye Mix with bulbs of Allium sativum and smell it
      Leaf Michi Crush by mixing with bulbs of Allium sativum and seeds of Lepidium sativum, add water and rub it on the skin
Asparagus africanus Lam. Asparagaceae AT00658 Kastanito Climber Root Dislocated bone Tie it on affected part
      Root Evil eye Place on fire for fumigation
      Root Leshimaniasis Crush, mix it with honey and apply on affected part
Becium grandiflorum (Lam.) Pic.Serm. Lamiaceae AT00609 Tebeb Shrub Root Black spider bite Chew and swallow the fluid
Bidens camporum (Hutch.) Mesfin Asteraceae AT00604 Tselime teneg Herb Leaf Eye infection Squeeze and apply liquid into the affected eye
      Whole Michi Crush, filter and drink the fluid.
      Whole Paralysis Dry, grind and place powder on fire for fumigation
Boscia salicifilia Oliv. Capparaceae AT00684 Awo, tetem agajen Tree Leaf Toothache Chew and hold it on diseased tooth
Capparis tomentosa Lam. Capparaceae AT00623 Andel Shrub Leaf Evil eye Place it on fire for fumigation
Carica papaya L. Caricaceae AT00710 Papaya Tree Leaf Michi Boil it in water by mixing with leaves of Eucalyptus globulus and inhale the vapour
      Latex Ring worm Apply latex on affected part
Carissa spinarum L. Apocynaceae AT00607 Egam Shrub Root Evil eye Crush it and mix it with whole part of Withania somnifera and sulphur and put it on fire for fumigation
      Root Evil sprit Crush by mixing with roots of Clerodendrum myricoides, Withania somnifera, Jasminum gratissimum and Maytenus senegalensis and place it on fire for fumigation
Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle Rutaceae AT00711 Lemon, lemin Tree Fruit Tinea capitis Rub it on affected part
      Fruit Michi Soak it in water by mixing with leaves of Rumex nervosus and whole part of Withania somnifera and wash body with it
    Fruit External wound Crush by mixing with seeds of Vicia faba and apply on affected part
      Fruit Wound/sore Rub it on the affected part
Colutea abyssinica Kunth & Bouché Fabaceae AT00674 Taetaeta Shrub Root bark Evil eye Tie around the neck
  Root Toothache Chew it
Cordia africana Lam. Boraginaceae AT00683 Awhi Tree Leaf Fire burn Place it in oven, grind, mix it with butter apply it on affected part
      Leaf Michi Crush, filter and drink it alone or by mixing it with boiled coffee
      Leaf Diarrheal Crush and drink it alone or by mixing it with boiled coffee
      Leaf Jaundice Chew and swallow the fluid in the morning before food
      Leaf Eye infection Rub on the affected part
      Leaf Tonsillitis Crush, filter and drink the fluid
Commicarpus pedunculosus (A.Rich.) Cufod. Nyctaginaceae AT00646 Ezni anchiwa Herb Leaf Leshimaniasis Crush, boil with butter and apply it on affected part
      Root Dislocated bone Tie it on the affected part
Croton macrostachyus Hochst. ex Delile Euphorbiaceae AT00671 Tambok Tree Leaf Jaundice Boil it in water and drink it alone or with milk
      Latex Tinea capitis Apply latex on affected part
      Leaf Malaria Boil it in water and drink it with mancheba (milk product)
  Bark Abdominal pain Crush with roots of Cucumis ficifolius, dry and eat it with butter
Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk. Boraginaceae AT00694 & AT00624 Ni michi, Dekik teneg Herb Leaf Michi Crush and add the fluid through the ear
        Chew and swallow the fluid
        Place it on fire for fumigation
      Root Eye infection Crush and add the fluid into the affected eye
        Boil it in water inhale the vapour
Cyphostemma oxyphyllum (A.Rich.) Vollesen Vitaceae AT00601 & AT00672 Efchiche, reno Climber Root External wound Crush and apply it the wound
      Leaf and root Snake bite Eat it with honey
        Crush or grind and eat it or drink it with mancheba (milk product)
        Chew and swallow the fluid
        Tie it on the body
Dovyalis abyssinica (A.Rich.) Warb. Flacourtiaceae AT00656 Mengolhats Shrub Fruit Infection of amoeba, tape worm or ascariasis Eat the fruit or drink its juice
Dyschoriste radicans (Hochst. ex A.rich.) Nees. Acanthaceae AT00638 Taetaeta bayta Herb Leaf Anthrax Crush it by mixing with leaves of Cucumis ficifolius, add honey and apply it affected part
      Leaf Wound/sore Crush it by mixing with saliva, salt, seeds of Lepidium sativum and bulbs of Allium sativum and apply or tie on the affected part
Erythrina abyssinica Lam. Ex DC. Fabaceae AT00602 Zibabeo Tree Root bark Tinea capitis Crush, mix it with butter and apply on the affected part
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Myrtaceae AT00673 Keyh kalamites Tree Leaf Eye infection Boil it with water and inhale its vapour
Eucalyptus globules Labill. Myrtaceae AT00657 Tseada kalamintos Tree Leaf Eye infection /michi/cough Boil it with leaves of Carica papaya in water and inhale its vapour
      Leaf Michi Place it on fire with whole part of Withania somnifera and leaves of Zehneria scabra for fumigation
        Boil it by mixing with leaves of Zehneria scabra Cynoglossum lanceolataum and whole part of Withania somnifera in water and inhale its vapour
Euphorbia sp. Euphorbiaceae AT00697 Tekeze Herb Root and leaf Abdominal pain Chew and swallow the fluid
      Root Ascariasis Chew and swallow the fluid
Ficus palmata Forssk. Moraceae AT00665 Beles adgi Shrub Leaf External wound Crush it by mixing with leaves and latex of Calotropis procera and apply paste on affected part
      Latex Ring worm Apply latex on affected part
      Leaf Ear diseases Crush and liquid through the ear
Ficus vasta Forssk. Moraceae AT00651 Daero Tree Bark Ascariasis Crush and it with honey
Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J.F.Gmel. Rosaceae AT00714 Habi Tree Leaf, fruit and flower Tape worm Crush, filter and drink the fluid alone or with milk
Heliotropium cinerascens DC. & A.DC. Boraginaceae AT00639 Amam gimel Herb Leaf Fire burn Crush and squeeze liquid onto the damaged part
      Leaf Tonsillitis Crush leaves and apply on the shaved head of the sick child
      Leaf Lip diseases Crush and spread it on the lips
      Leaf Michi Crush, filter and drink the fluid
Hibiscus micranthus L.f. Malvaceae AT00620 Shigot adgi Shrub Leaf Wound/sore Crush it by mixing with saliva apply on the wound
Jasminium gratissimum Deflers. Oleaceae AT00703 Habi tselim Climber Root Evil sprit Crush by mixing with roots of Clerodendrum myricoides, Withania somnifera, Carissa spinarum and Maytenus senegalensis and place it on fire for fumigation
Kalanchoe quartiniana A.Rich. Crassulaceae AT00693 Adeaka, dekaeta Herb Leaf Paralysis Crush, add water and wash body with it
Kniphofia pumila (Ait.) Kunth. Asphodelaceae AT00705 Shingurti zibie Herb Bulb Evil eye Soak it in water with leaves of Rumex nervosus and wash body with it
Lantana trifolia L. Verbenaceae AT00667 Tsameo Shrub Leaf Ascariasis Boil it with milk or tea and drink
      Leaf Amoeba Boil it in milk by mixing with roots of Hypoestes forskaolii and drink
Maytenus arbutifolia (A. Rich.) Wilczek Celastraceae AT00670 Atat Shrub Root Itching/scabies Boil it in water and washing body with it
Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Excell. Celastraceae AT00626 Kabkib Tree Root Evil sprit Crush by mixing it with roots of Clerodendrum myricoides, Withania somnifera, Carissa spinarum and Jasminum gratissimum and place it on fire for fumigation
      Leaf Scorpion bite Crush, filter and drink the fluid
      Leaf Tonsillitis Chew the leaves and spit juice into the mouse of the sick child
      Leaf Diarrhoea Crush it, mix it with milk and drink
Medicago polymorpha L. Fabaceae AT00644 Teneg Herb Root Abdominal pain Chew and swallow the fluid
Merendra bengalensis (Roxb.) Benth. Lamiaceae AT00605 Mesaguh Shrub Leaf Ascariasis Crush, filter and drunk the fluid
      Leaf Hypertension Crush, filter and drunk the fluid
Myrica salicifolia A.Rich. Myricaceae AT00661 Nibie Tree Root and bark Evil eye Tie it on the body
        Crush and add liquid through the nose
        Tie and place it on fire for fumigation
      Bark Headache Crush or grind and add apply liquid through the nose
Ocimum lamiifolium Hochst. ex Benth. Lamiaceae AT00645 Demekasie Herb Leaf Michi Boil and inhale the vapour
        Crush and drink it with coffee
Olea europaea L. subsp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G.Don) Cif., L'Olivicoltore Oleaceae AT00663 Awlie Tree Leaf Toothache Chew it with the affected tooth
  Bark Malaria Boil it in water and drink the fluid
      Leaf Abdominal pain Chew and swallow the fluid
Oxalis corniculata L. Oxalidaceae AT00640 Chew mirakut Herb Bulb Tap worm Peel the external part and eat it alone or mixed with enjera (local food)
Phytolacca dodecandra L’Herit. Phytolaccaceae AT00662 Shibti Climber Whole abortion Crush, filter and drink the fluid
      Whole Abdominal pain/malaria Crush, filter and drink it with water or locally made beer or milk
      Whole Bloating Crush, filter and drink the fluid
Plantago lanceolata L. Plantaginaceae AT00631 Ni likfti Herb Leaf External wound Crush and apply it on the affected part
Polygala abyssinica Fresen. Polygalaceae AT00669 - Herb Root Snake bite, Spider bite Chew and swallow the fluid
Rhamnus prinoides L’Herit. Rhamnaceae AT00666 Gesho Shrub Seed Tinea capitis Rub it on the affected part
  Leaf Itching/skin rash Burn it in oven, crush, mix it with butter and apply on the skin
Rumex abyssinicus Jacq. Polygonaceae AT00692 Mequmeqo Herb Leaf and root Headache Adding to tea and drunk
      Leaf Ascariasis Crush, filter and drink the fluid
    Root Toothache (tumour) Crush and drink it with boiled coffee or tea
Rumex nervosus Vahl. Polygonaceae AT00608 Hehot Shrub L & Stem Ascariasis Eat or chew and swallow the fluid
      Leaf Michi Soak it in water together with whole part of Withania somnifera and fruit of Citrus aurantifolia and wash body with it
      Leaf Itching /skin rash Crush by mixing with leaves of Withania somnifera, seeds of Lepidium sativum and bulbs of Allium sativum, soak it in water and wash body with it
      Leaf Evil eye Soak it in water with leaves of Rumex nervosus and wash body with it
Ruta chalepensis L. Rutaceae AT00664 Chena adam Hoot Leaf Evil eye Crush and drink it with boiled coffee
      Leaf &fruit Cough Eat it with food
Salvia schimperi Benth. Lamiaceae AT00653 Meshendedo Herb Leaf Ring worm Crush and apply on affected part
Sarcostemma viminale (L.) R.Br. Asclepiadaceae AT00647 Halengi hibey Climber Root Paralysis Crush and apply on affected part
Silene macrosolen Steud. ex A.Rich. Caryophyllaceae AT00691 Saerosaero Herb Root Snake repulsion Place it on fire for fumigation
      Root Malaria Crush and place it on fire for fumigation
Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Poaceae AT00698 Keyh leqa Herb Seed Herpes zoster Boil it in water and wash body with it
Thymus schimperi Ronniger Lamiaceae AT00660 Tesne Herb Whole Toothache Chew it with the affected tooth
    Whole Abdominal pain Boil it with milk and drink
        Chew and swallow the fluid
Trichodesma trichodesmoides (Bunge) Gurke. Boraginaceae AT00704 Ahimlto Herb Leaf Abdominal pain Crush and drink the fluid
      Leaf Bloating Crush, filter and drink the fluid
Verbena officinalis L. Verbenaceae AT00619 Atush Herb Root Tonsillitis Chew it and spit juice into mouse of the sick child
        Crush it, add boiled coffee and drink
        Crush and place it on the shaved head of the sick child
      Leaf Michi Place it on fore for fumigation
        Crush, boil, filter and drink the fluid
      Whole Evil eye Place it on fire with sulphur for fumigation
      Whole Abdominal pain Crush, filter and drink the fluid or chew and swallow the fluid
      Leaf Ear diseases Crush, add oil and apply some drops through the ear
      Root Ascariasis Crush it by mixing with roots of Zehneria scabra, filter and drink the fluid
Vernonia bipontini Asch. Asteraceae AT00616 Endigendig Shrub Root Child disease that break backbone Crush, filter and drink the fluid
      Root Snake bite Crush, filter and drink the fluid
        Chew and swallow the fluid
  Root Abdominal pain Chew and swallow the fluid
Vicia faba L. Fabaceae AT00702 Ater, alqay Herb Seed Anthrax Grind and apply the paste
      Seed External wound Crush it by mixing with fruits of Citrus aurantifolia and apply on the affected part
      Seed Swelling Grind it by mixing with seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum and apply it on the affected part
Zehneria scabra (L.f.) Sond. Cucurbitaceae AT00655 Hafaflo Climber Leaf Paralysis Crush and tie it on the affected part
      Leaf Michi Place it on fire by mixing with whole part of Withania somnifera & leaves of Eucalyptus globulus for fumigation
      Leaf External wound Crush and apply it on the affected part
      Leaf Eye infection Boiled it in water by mixing with leaves of Eucalyptus globulus, Withania somnifera, Achyranthes aspera and Bidens camporum and inhale the vapour
      Root Abdominal pain Chew and swallow the fluid before food
      Root Ascariasis Crush by mixing it with Verbena officinalis, filter and drink the juice
Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Zingiberaceae AT00715 Zingible Herb Root Abdominal pain Chew and swallow the fluid
      Bulb Vomiting and diarrhea Chew and swallow the fluid
Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. Rhamnaceae AT00622 Geba, kusra Tree Leaf Dandruff Dry, grind, mix it with butter and rub it on the affected part
      Leaf Head wound infection Crush and rub it on the affected part