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Table 1 Knowledge of animal resource use among Sukuma Tribe of Busega District

From: A study on use of animals as traditional medicine by Sukuma Tribe of Busega District in North-western Tanzania

Scientific name Common name (E) Local name (S) Vernacu lar name Parts used Traditional Uses Mode of Preparation Dosage Resp onde nt Use value Conserv ation status
Mammals
Eudorcas thomsonii (Gunther, 1884) Thomson’s Gazelle Nyamela mbushi Heart Skin Tail Treat: asthma, Pneumonia Make drums Dry, grind pour hot water Inhale the smoke 1/day*4 days 145 0.80 Status: NT Trend: D
Chase away insect Mount flesh skin container
Tail is being dried and used
Hippopotamu s amphibious (Linnaeus, 1778) Hippopotamus Kiboko ngubho Blood Boost CD4 for HIV patient Blood dried for 3 days 3 spoons/day* 88 0.48 Status: VU
30 days Trend: D
Equus quagga (Boddaert, 1785) Plains Zebra Pundamilia ndolo Hooves Treat: glands Burn, grind, mix with water 2 cup/day*7 days 122 0.68 Status: LC
Trend: S
Atherurus africanus (Gray, 1842) Porcupine Nungunungu Nungu Spines Treat: abscess Rub ashes in abscess 2/day *2 days 129 0.72 Status: LC Trend: U
Crocuta crocuta (Erxleben, 1777) Spotted Hyena Fisi Mbiti Meat Skin and Feaces Treat :TB Eat dry meat Cham 3 pieces/day*3 days. 142 0.79 Status: LC
For protection Tie on waist Trend: D
Ovis aries (Linnaeus, 1778) red Maasai sheep Kondoo Ng’oro Fat Treat: burn Extract tail fat Rub everyday 105 0.58 Status: NA
Trend: U
Diceros bicornis (Linnaeus, 1778) Black Rhinoceros Faru Mhela Horn Treat: asthma, gastritis; TB Paste the horn mix with hot 2/ day* 30 days 96 0.53 Status: CR
Trend: I
Phataginus tricuspis (Rafinesque, 1821) African Pangolin Kakakuona Murhuka ge Scales Goodluck Make charms. Tie on hand 154 0.85 Status: NT
Trend: D
Atelerix albiventris (Wagner, 1841) Four-toed Hedgehog Kalunguyeye Kilungu miyo Skin; spines Stop blood discharge via nostril Burn; inhale its smoke Time of suffering 103 0.57 Status: LC
Trend: S
Loxodonta Africana (Blumenbach, 1797) African Elephant Tembo Mhole Skin Treat: hepatitis Burn; get ashes 3 spoon/day*7 days 2 .17 Status: VU
Trend: I
Mungos mungo (Gmelin, 1788) Banded Mongoose Nguchiro Ng’ara Nail Treat: cough Grind and smell 2/day 5 .13 Status: LC
Trend: S
Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766) Rock Hyrax Pimbi Membe Urine Treat: Syphilis Collect hyrax urinated soil; mix water; filter soil and then drink 1 cup/day*7 days 4 .3 Status: LC
Trend: U
Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) Brown Rat Panya Kitakilan zela Whole animal Protection of thieves Dry the dead rat. and. embed on farms center 48 .82 Status: LC
Trend: S
Kerivoula Africana (Gray, 1842) Tanzanian Woolly Bat Popo Tunge Whole animal Treat : pneumonia Burn and inhale the smoke 1/day*3 days 7 .37 Status: EN
Trend: D
Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1778) Lion Simba Shamba Adipose tissue Skin Treat ear pus For protection Rub fat on the ears Make charm 1/day *4 days Tie on neck 11 .62 Status: VU
Trend: D
Phacochoeru s africanus (Gmelin, 1788) Warthog Ngiri Ngere Tusks Treat stomach ulcers Grind, mix with hot water 2 cup/day *7 days 2 .28 Status: LC
Trend: S
Lepus capensis (Linnaeus, 1778) Cape Hare Sungura Sayayi Fur For wound healing Take the fur burn it and Rub ashes in the wound. 8 .48 Status: LC.
Trend: D
Insect
Aglais urticae (Linnaeus, 1778) Butterfly Kipepeo Parapapu Wings Treat: chest pain. Grind; Swallow powder 3/day*5 days. 5 .25 Status: NA
Trend: U
Lasius niger (Linnaeus, 1778) Black ants Chungu Sungwa Whole organism. To become intelligent and leader Take the fore ant, grind and rub on head 1/day*3 days 29 .72 Status:
LC Trend: S
Butastur rufipennis (Sundevall, 1851) Grasshopper Buzzard Panzi Ng’umbe Whole organism Treat: stomachache; heartbeat Burn, grind it into powdery form. Rub 2/day*3 days 54 .86 S tatus: LC
Trend: D
Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1778) Honey bee Nyuki Nzoke Honey Treat: burn Rub the burn 2/day*3 days 38 .76 Status: NA
Trend: U
  Beetle Kalilila Kombam wiko Whole organism Call a person to come back home Burn beetle and call the name of a person. 3/day*3 days 48 .82 Status: NA
Trend: U
Chilopoda
Scutigera coleoptrata (Linnaeus, 1778) Millipede Tandu   Whole Treat Dandruff Burn and swallow the ashes. 1/day*3 days 45 .25 Status: NA
Trend: U
Arachnida
Araneus spp (Clerck, 1757) Spider Buibui   Spider web Stop bleeding. Apply direct on fresh wound. Once/ day 99 .55 Status: LC
Trend: S
Diplopoda
Trigoniulus corallines (Gervais, 1847) Millipede Jongoo Igongoli Whole body Treat dandruff Press plasma fluid and swallow 2/day*2 days 2 .51 Status: NA
Trend: U
Reptiles
Naja siamensis (Laurenti, 1768) Cobra Cobra Kipele Skin Treat: burns fractured bone Powder the skin, mixed with water Rub 2/day*3 days 129 .72 Status: VU
Trend: D
Agama mwanzae (Loveridge, 1923) Flat-headed Rock Agama Mjusi Madhore Bile Treat dysentery. Drink flesh bile 1 spoon/day*3 days 8 .43 Status: LC
Trend:S
Python regius (Shaw, 1802) Royal Python Chatu Nsato Feaces Treat back pain Mix with little water Rub on back 2/day*3 23 .68 Status: LC
Trend: U
Crocodylus niloticus (Laurenti, 1768) Nile Crocodile Mamba Ng’wina Skin Treat TB: gastritis. Burn and swallow the ashes 2/day*7 days 78 0.43 Status: LC
Trend: S
Aves
Baleara reguloum (Bennett, 1834) Grey Crowned crane Korongo Izunya blood Treat stomach ulcers Drink flesh blood 3/day*2 days 117 0.65 Status: EN
Trend: D
Aquila rapax (Temminck, 1828) Tawny Eagle Tai Mbeshi Feathers Treat chest pain. Burn and inhale the smoke 15 minutes/day*3 days 108 0.60 Status: LC
Trend: S
Gallus domesticus (Linnaeus, 1778) chicken Kuku Ng’oko Fat Egg white Nasal congestion. Treat: dysentery Rub the fat in the nasal Drink egg white 3/day*3 days Twice a day 145 0.81 Status: NA
Trend: U
Threskiornis aethiopicus (Latham, 1790) African Sacred Ibis Nyangenyang e Nzela Blood Treat: rheumatism Drink flesh blood 1/2 cup/day*7 days 59 0.32 Status: LC
Trend: D
Ceryle rudis (Linnaeus, 1778) Pied Kingfisher Ndobhelendo bhele   Fat Treat: back pain Massaged on the back 2/day*4 days 142 0.79 Status: NT
Trend: D
Dendropicos stierlingi (Reichenow, 1901) Stierling's Woodpecker Fulubeji   Intestinal fecal content Treat: diarrhea mix hot water with fecal content 2 cup/day*3 days 45 0.25 Status: NT
Trend: S
Anas indica (Linnaeus, 1778) Duck Bata Mbata Fat Treat: Pneumonia, Chest pain Wormed and massaged on the chest 3/day*3 days 92 0.51 Status: NA
Trend: U
Fish
Mormyrus kannume (Forsskal, 1758) Elephant snout fish Domodomo Shironge Whole organism Treat: hookworms; removal poisonous Burn, grind, mix with hot water 1 cup/day*3 days. 169 0.94 Status: LC
Trend: D
Lates niloticus (Linnaeus, 1778) Nile Perch Sangara Mbuta Gills Treat: abdominal cramp Pound and mix with water 1 cup/day*7 days 85 0.47 Status: LC Trend: U
Oreochromis variabilis (Boulenger, 1906) Victoria tilapia Sato Sato Scales Treat: cough Burn and swallow the ashes Regularly. 145 0.81 Status: CR
Trend: D
Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797) Common octopus Pweza Naghala Tail Treat: Urinary retention Burn and swallow its ashes 2/day*3 days 25 0.13 Status: NA
Trend: U
Gastropod
Snail (O.F. Muller, 1774) Achatina fulica Konokono Nonga Shell Treat: leg pain; make chain Burn, grind, mix with water Rub 2/day .*3 days 132 0.73 Status: NA,
Trend: U
Oligochaeta
Lumbricus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1778) Earthworm Mnyoo   Whole Treat impotence Dry; paste mix with hot water 2 spoon/day *7 days 99 0.55 Status: NA
Trend: U
  1. LC = Least Concern, NT = Near Threatened, VU = Vulnerable, EN = Endangered, CR = critically endangered, NA = Not Assessed, I = Increasing, D = Decreasing, S = Stable, U = Unknown, * = Times, E = English, S = Swahili.