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Table 1 Plants whose leaves are used for preparing sarma in the studied areas and considered countries

From: Of the importance of a leaf: the ethnobotany of sarma in Turkey and the Balkans

Botanical taxon and English common name Botanical family Status Local name(s) Area(s) of use Source(s)
Alcea flavovirens (Boiss. and Buhse.) Iljin Yellow-Green Hollyhock Malvaceae W hero, hiro Turkey: East Anatolia [78]
Alcea hohenackeri (Boiss. and Huet.) Boiss. Hohenacker’s Hollyhock Malvaceae W fatma gülü, gül hatmi, hero, hiro Turkey: East Anatolia [94]
Alcea kurdica (Schlecht) Alef Kurdish Hollyhock Malvaceae W hero, heru Turkey: East Anatolia [78,95]
Alcea rosea L. Common Hollyhock Malvaceae W ружа Bulgaria: Osogovo Mt. AN
Allium ampeloprasum L. Leek Amaryllidaceae C pırasa Turkey: Izmir YD
    prasa Bosnia and Herzegovina: Northern Bosnia AM
Allium ursinum L. Ramsons Amaryllidaceae W левурда Bulgaria: Lovech area AN
Amaranthus viridis L. Green Amaranth Amaranthaceae W delisirken, hoşguran, kızılca mancar, semlik Turkey: Şırnak [76]
Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. Lesser Burdock Asteraceae W dulavratotu, galabah Turkey: Erzurum [72]
Arctium platylepis (Boiss. & Bal.) Sosn. ex Grossh. Halemhort Asteraceae W baldikeni, deve tabanı Turkey: NW Anatolia [103]
Armoracia rusticana P.Gaertn., B.Mey & Scherb. Horseradish Brassicaceae C хрян Bulgaria: Plovdiv area AN
    hrean, hrinUK, tormaHU Romania: Dobruja, Transylvania, MaramureșUK AN, AP, YD, CD, ŁŁ
    hren, kren, рeн Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia: diverse areas AM, JF, ZDS
Arum conophalloides Kotschy ex Schott Araceae W yılan bıcağı, yılan yastığı Turkey: South Anatolia [77]
Arum dioscorides Sm. Araceae W sarmalık, yılan bıçağı, yılan ekmeği, yılan pancarı Turkey: South and South-Eastern Anatolia [72,77]
Arum maculatum L. Snakeshead Araceae W yılan ekmeği, yılan yastığı Turkey: West and Central Anatolia [22]
Atriplex hortensis L. Garden Orache Amaranthaceae C градинска лобода Bulgaria: all over the country [47], AN
Atriplex rosea L. Red Orache Amaranthaceae W/C розова лобода Bulgaria: all over the country [8,47]
Beta trigyna Waldst. and Kit. Amaranthaceae C mancar, süt mancar, Turkey: Ankara [26]
Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris convar. cicla Beet/Chard Amaranthaceae C pazı Turkey: Duzce, Turhal, Malatya [93], YD
    blitva/блитвa Bosnia Herzegovina and Serbia: diverse areas AM, ŁŁ, ZDS
Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris convar. vulgaris var. altissima Sugar Beet Amaranthaceae C şekerpancarı, cukorrépaHU Turkey: Afyon Romania: Szekely Land NP, YD
Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris convar. vulgaris var. vulgaris Beetroot Amaranthaceae C burakUK, céklaHU Romania: Moldaviaomania: Szekely Land Romania: Moldavia Maramureș area [64], ŁŁ
    цвекло Bulgaria: Bansko, Pirin Mt., Karlovo [47], AN
    цвeклa Serbia: diverse areas ZDS
    pancar Turkey: Izmir, Malatya YD
Brassica oleracea Acephala group Kale Brassicaceae C kara lahana Turkey: Black Sea Region, Duzce, Izmit [81,88,97]
Brassica oleracea Capitata Group (both fresh and lacto-fermented [sauerkraut]) Cabbage Brassicaceae C lahana Turkey: all over the country YD
    прясно зеле, кисело зеле Bulgaria: all over the country [46,47,50], AN
    kupus/купуc Bosnia Herzegovina, Croatia, and Serbia: all over the country (in Serbia quite exclusively used only lacto-fermented) AM, JF, ŁŁ, ZDS
    зелка, расол, купус Macedonia: all over the country GS
    lakna, liakra Kosovo and Albania: all over the country AH, AP
    curechi, kábosztaHU, káposztaHU, varză Romania: all over the country CD, NP
Brassica oleracea L. var. gongylodes Kohlrabi Brassicaceae C алабаш, гулия Bulgaria: Rhodopes Mt., Dobrostan [46,47], AN
Brassica rapa L. var. rapa Turnip Brassicaceae C kırmızı çükündür Turkey: Düzce [97]
Caltha palustris L. Marsh Marigold Ranunculaceae W bulbuci de baltă, calcea calului Romania: Moldavia [59,67]
Campanula sclerotricha Boiss. Bellflower Campanulaceae W büyük köklü, çançiçeği, nermedenk Turkey: Hakkari [78]
Centaurea haradjianii Wagenitz Asteraceae W kaputkulak Turkey: South Anatolia [96]
Cercis siliquastrum L. Judas Tree Fabaceae W/C Erguvan Turkey: diverse areas [103]
Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Creeping Thistle Asteraceae W köygöçüren, köygöçerten Turkey: West and Central Anatolia [22]
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott Taro Araceae C göleğez Turkey: Adana, Antalya YD
Convolvulus stachydifolius Choisy Convolvulaceae W sermaşık, sarmaşık Turkey: Cizre [76]
Corylus avellana L. Hazelnut* Betulaceae C fındık Turkey: Duzce, Malatya [97], YD
   W/C leithi Kosovo: Pristina area BM, HA
Corylus maxima Mill. Filbert Betulaceae C fındık Turkey: Duzce, Malatya [97], YD
Cydonia oblonga Mill. Quince Rosaceae C ayva Turkey: Malatya YD
    ftoi Albania: Mt. Korab [9]
Heracleum trachyloma Fisch. & C.A. Mey. Downy cow-parsnip Apiaceae W baldırgan Turkey: East Anatolia [103]
Lactuca sativa L. Lettuce Asteraceae C marul Turkey: West Anatolia, Malatya YD
    маруля Bulgaria: Sofia area, Plovdiv area AN
Malva neglecta Wallr. Dwarf Mallow Malvaceae W ebegümeci, ebemgümeç, ebemövmeci, tolık, tolk Turkey: all over the country [95], YD
Malva nicaeensis All. French Mallow Malvaceae W develik, ebegümeci Turkey: Çanakkale [75]
Malva sylvestris L. Mallow Malvaceae W develik, ebegümeci Turkey: West Anatolia [22,75]
Morus alba L. White Mulberry Moraceae C akdut, dut, tuye Turkey: East, West and Central Anatolia [22,99], YD
Morus nigra L. Black Mulberry Moraceae C dut, karadut, tuye Turkey: all over the country [22,99], YD
Morus rubra L. Red Mulberry Moraceae C mordut, kırmızı dut Turkey: West and Central Anatolia [22], YD
Onopordum illyricum L. Illyrian Thistle Asteraceae W deli kenger, dolma kenkeri, eşek dikeni Turkey: Muğla [101]
Pelargonium quercetorum Agnew Turkish Pelargonium Geraniaceae W tolk Turkey: Hakkari [78]
Petasites hybridus (L.) G. Gaertner, B. Meyer and Scherb. Butterbur Asteraceae W galdirel, kaldırek, kaldirek Turkey: Manyas [98]
Phaseolus vulgaris L. Bean Fabaceae C fasülye Turkey: West and East Anatolia, Malatya [102], YD
    fasole Romania: Bacau area AP
    гравMK Albania: GollobordoMK [13]
    grah, mohune Bosnia and Herzegovina: Sarajevo area JF
Phytolacca americana L.* Pokeweed Phytolaccaceae W крмус Macedonia: Strumica area GS
Plantago lanceolata L. Narrowleaf Plantain Plantaginaceae W sinirliot Turkey: West and Central Anatolia [22,93]
Plantago major L. Broadleaf Plantain Plantaginaceae W belgheviz, damar otu, kesikotu, sinirotu, yara otu Turkey: East Anatolia, Izmit, Ordu, Samsun, [72,81,95]
Primula veris L. Cowslip Primulaceae W aguliçe, zgjerifet, lulë, lule dashi, lule deshi, lule verdhë, qingji, zgjirifet Albania: Mt. Korab [9]
Primula vulgaris Huds. Primrose Primulaceae W ak meneksen, çuha çiçeği Turkey: South Anatolia [87,77],
Prunus avium L. Cherry Rosaceae C kiraz Turkey: Malatya, Sakarya [84], YD
Raphanus raphanistrum L. Wild Radish Brassicaceae W turpotu Turkey: West and Central Anatolia, Kahrmanmaras [22,87]
Reynoutria japonica Houtt. Japanese Knotweed Polygonaceae W bambus Romania: Maramureș [64], ŁŁ
Rheum ribes L. Syrian Rhubarb Polygonaceae W işgın Turkey: East Anatolia [103]
Ribes nigrum L. Blackcurrent Grossulariaceae C coacăz negru Romania: Transylvania [67]
Rubus idaeus L. Raspberry Rosaceae C maline Bosnia and Herzegovina: Sarajevo area JF
Rubus caesius L. Dewberry Rosaceae W капина Bulgaria: Lovech area [47]
Rumex acetosa L. Sorrel Polygonaceae W ekşi labada, ekşilküçük labada Turkey: West and Central Anatolia [22]
    киселец Bulgaria: Rhodopes Mt. area [8]
    uthullaçe Kosovo: Pristina area BM, AH
    киселицa Serbia: South and Central regions ZDS
Rumex acetosella L. Red Sorrel Polygonaceae W ebem ekşisi, ekşikulak, kuzukulağı, tırşık Turkey: East Anatolia [99]
Rumex alpinus L. Alpine Dock Polygonaceae W dağ pazısı, ışgın Turkey: East Anatolia, Afyon [72,99]
    ştevia stânelor Romania: Transylvania [67]
Rumex conglomeratus Murray Sharp Dock Polygonaceae W labada, kuzukulağı, tırşo, tirşik Turkey: South, East and South-eastern Anatolia, Manyas [71,76,86,94,98]
Rumex crispus L. Curly Dock Polygonaceae W efelek, efelik, kıvırcık labada, tırşo,labada, tirşik Turkey: West and Central Anatolia, Bursa, Cizre [22,23,25,72,76,80,84,90], YD
    штавеј Macedonia: all over the country GS
    штaвaљ Serbia: all over the country ZDS
Rumex gracilescens Rech. Polygonaceae W acımancar, efelek, göylek, güyrek Turkey: Ankara [26,91]
Rumex obtusifolius L. Broad-Leaved Dock Polygonaceae W yabani labada Turkey: West and Central Anatolia [22], YD
    ştevie Romania: Transylvania [67]
Rumex olympicus Boiss. Polygonaceae W ebelek, ilabada Turkey: Bursa [72]
Rumex patientia L. Patience Dock Polygonaceae W akıllı labada, at kulağı, efelek, evelik, göbede, güylek, labada Turkey: Thrace, Anatolia [22-24,80,85,93,98], YD
    лапад Bulgaria: all over the country [8,47], AN
    atkulakTA, dragomir, măcrisul cucului, ştevie de grădină, ščavaUK Romania: Transylvania, DobrujaTA, MaramureșUK [64], AN, AP, ŁŁ, YD
    лапад Bulgaria: all over the country [8,47], AN
    зeљe Serbia: diverse areas ZDS
Rumex pulcher L. Fiddle Dock Polygonaceae W labada, ilabada Turkey: Çanakkale, Izmit [75,81]
Rumex tuberosus L. Swollen Sorrel Polygonaceae W efelek, kuzukıkırdağı Turkey: East Anatolia, Eskişehir [70,78,80,95]
Salvia forskaohlei L. Forskhal’s Sage Lamiaceae W şalba Turkey: unspecified Asia Minor [79]
Salvia poculata Náb. Lamiaceae W bareş, öküzpörçüğü, ezmangag Turkey: East Anatolia [78,95]
Salvia sclarea L. Clary Sage Lamiaceae W tüylü adaçayı, misk adaçayı, pune, ayıkulağı Turkey: East Anatolia [99]
Sinapis arvensis L. Field Mustard Brassicaceae W hardalotu Turkey: Tokat [93]
Smilax excelsa L. Smilax Smilacaceae W melevcen Turkey: unspecified Asia Minor [79]
Spinacia oleracea L. Spinach Amaranthaceae C ıspanak Turkey: West Anatolia YD
    спанак Bulgaria: Sofia area, Plovdiv area AN
    špinat, španać, cпaнaћ Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia: diverse areas AM, ZDS
Solanum tuberosum L. Potato Solanaceae C компириMK Albania: GollobordoMK [13], AP
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. Milk Thistle Asteraceae W devedikeni Turkey: diverse areas [103]
Symphytum kurdicum Boiis. and Hausskn. Kurdish Comfrey Boraginaceae W karakafesotu, ezmangag Turkey: Hakkari [78]
Tilia cordata Miller Small-Leaved Lime Malvaceae C/W blini Kosovo: Pristina area BM, AH
Tilia cordata Miller and T. platyphyllos Scop. Small- and Large-Leaved Lime Malvaceae C/W tei Romania: diverse areas [67], AP
Tilia tomentosa Moench Silver Lime Malvaceae C/W липа Bulgaria: Lovech and Tsarevo areas; Turkey: diverse areas [47,103], AN
Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don Abraham-Isaac-Jacob Boraginaceae W galdirik, hodan, ispit, kaldırık, kaldurak otu Turkey: diverse areas [83,93,97], YD
Tussilago farfara L. Coltsfoot Asteraceae W öksürükotu Turkey: West and Central Anatolia, Kastamonu [22,72]
    martilapiHU, fehérhátúHU, lapuHU, podbal, podbielinaPO tőltikeHU Romania: diverse areas [60,67-69], AP, CD, ŁŁ, NP
    podbel, podbjel, пoдбeл Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia: diverse areas (in Serbia rarely used) JF, ZDS
Urtica dioica L. Nettle Urticaceae W ısıran Turkey: South-eastern Anatolia [74]
    кoпривa Serbia: diverse areas ZDS
    hitha, hejtha Albania: Mt. Korab [9]
Vicia faba L. Fabaceae C бакла Bulgaria: Karlovo area [47]
Vitis labrusca L. Fox Grape Vitaceae C rrush me erë Albania: Mt. Korab [9]
Vitis sylvestris Gmelin Wild Grape Vitaceae W çivek, deliasma, lazüzümü Turkey: Yalova [100]
Vitis vinifera L. Grape Vitaceae C asma, tiri, jur Turkey: all over the country [78,83,87,88,90,95], YD
    лоза Bulgaria: all over the country [8,46,47,50]
    лоза Macedonia: all over the country GS
    rrushi Kosovo and Albania: all over the countries AH, AP
    viţă de vie, szőlőHU Romania: diverse areas [65,67,96], CD, NP
    loza/лoзa Serbia, Bosnia Herzegovina, and Croatia: diverse areas AM, JF, ŁŁ, ZDS
  1. C: Cultivated; W: Wild; *: only young/tender leaves; HUfolk name recorded among Hungarian minority living in Transylvania, Romania; MKfolk name and use recorded among Macedonian minority living in Gollobordo, Albania; POfolk name and use recorded among the Polish minority living in Bukovina, Romania; TAfolk name and use recorded (also) among the Tatar minority living in Dobruja, Romania; UKfolk name and use recorded (also) among the Ukrainian minority living in the Maramureş area, Romania; data arising from field studies conducted by the authors in the period 2011–2014: AH: Avni Hajdari; AM: Aida Maglajlic; AN: Anely Nedelcheva; AP: Andrea Pieroni; BM: Behxhet Mustafa; CG: Constantin Drăgulescu; GS: Gjoshe Stefkov; JF: Jonathan Ferrier; ŁŁ: Łukasz Łuczaj; NP: Nora Papp; YD: Yunus Dogan; ZDS: Zora Dajić-Stevanović.