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Table 1 List of medicinal plants used by Ehotile people

From: Medicinal plants and traditional healing practices in ehotile people, around the aby lagoon (eastern littoral of Côte d'Ivoire)

Species Voucher number Family Informant Fq Smiths’ S Indication Part used and administration mode
Abrus precatorius L. Malan 758 Leguminosae LP 0.04 0.015 Ophtalmia Eye drops with leaf juice
Palpitations Leaf juice swallowed
Adenia lobata (Jacq.) Engl. Malan 504 Passifloraceae LP 0.04 0.032 Ophtalmia Eye drops with sap
Ageratum conyzoides L. AD 128 Compositae LP 0.04 0.016 Headache Nose drops with leaf juice
Albertisia cordifolia (Mangenot & Miège) Forman Malan 638, 718 Menispermaceae LP, KI 0.07 0.04 Oedema Topical application with crushed leaves
Albizia zygia (DC.) J. F. Macbr. Malan 596 Leguminosae LP, KI 0.02 0.018 Rheumatism Topical application with crushed leaves
Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Müll.Arg. AD 224 Euphorbiaceae LP, KI 0.05 0.047 White discharge Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Malaria Leaves decoction drunk and taken as enema
Wound Topical application with crushed leaves
Sexual asthenia Leaves decoction drunk
Alstonia boonei (DC.) Willd. Malan 630 Apocynaceae LP, KI 0.35 0.294 Malaria Leaves and bark decoction drunk and taken as enema
Alternanthera pungens Kunth AD 132 Amaranthaceae LP, KI 0.05 0.038 Convulsion Body smeared with leaves mashed
Infant diarrhoea Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Anchomanes difformis (Blume) Engl. Malan 570 Araceae LP 0.04 0.023 Dysmenorrhoea Enema with tuber mashed and diluted in water
Pregnancy care
Anthocleista nobilis G.Don AD 63 Gentianaceae LP, KI 0.04 0.034 Malaria Body smeared with mashed bark
Rheumatism Topical application with crushed roots
Antiaris toxicaria (Engl.) C.C. Berg Malan 600 Moraceae LP, KI 0.04 0.016 Hydrocephalus Bathing with bark decoction
Azadirachta indica A.Juss.   Meliaceae LP, KI 0.07 0.053 Malaria Body smeared with mashed leaves, leaves decoction drunk
Bambusa vulgaris Wendel. ex Nees Malan 447 Poaceae LP, KI 0.09 0.06 Malaria Leaves decoction drunk
Baphia nitida Lodd. AD 166 Leguminosae LP, KI 0.11 0.08 Bubo Topical application with crushed leaves
Bad breath Roots as chewing stick
Boil Topical application with crushed leaves
Lumbar pain Enema with mashed roots diluted in water
Bidens pilosa L. AD 112 Compositae LP, KI 0.09 0.061 Hydrocephalus Body smeared with mashed leaves Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Diarrhoea
Malaria
Giddiness
Blighia sapida Koenig AD 196 Sapindaceae LP 0.04 0.026 Lumbar pain Enema with bark mashed and diluted in water
Malaria
Rheumatism Topical application with crushed bark
Blighia welwitschii (Hiern) Radlk. Malan 968 Sapindaceae KI - - Malaria Enema with bark mashed and diluted in water Topical application with crushed bark
Rheumatism
Oedema  
Bridelia micrantha (Hochst.) Baill. AD 89 Phyllanthaceae LP 0.04 0.031 Malaria Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. AD 240 Leguminosae LP, KI 0.05 0.045 Malaria Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Sexual asthenia
Cajanus cajan (L.) Roxb. AD 13 Leguminosae LP, KI 0.02 0.012 Malaria Bathing with leaves decoction
Capsicum frutescens L.   Solanaceae KI 0.04 0.018 Serious disease of unknown origin Ocular instillations with leaf juice
Contraception Enema with fruits mashed and diluted in water
Carica papaya L.   Caricaceae LP, KI 0.05 0.028 Contraception Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Malaria Leaves decoction drunk
Carpolobia lutea G.Don AD07 Polygalaceae LP, KI 0.05 0.037 Sexual asthenia Roots decoction drunk
Cassia alata L. AD 15 Leguminosae LP, KI 0.18 0.1 Dry patch Topical application with crushed leaves
Malaria Body smeared with leaves mashed
Constipation Leaves decoction drunk
Cassia occidentalis L. Malan 618 Leguminosae LP, KI 0.07 0.04 Headache Nose drops with leaf juice
Malaria Leaves decoction drunk
Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don   Apocynaceae LP 0.02 0.015 Inguinal hernia Enema with mashed roots diluted in water
Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. Malan 1001 Malvaceae LP, KI 0.02 0.009 Diarrhoea Enema with mashed leaves or bark diluted in water
Chassalia koly (Schumach.) Hepper Malan 717 Rubiaceae LP, KI 0.02 0.011 Headache Eye drops with juice from roots
Cleistopholis patens (Benth.) Engl. & Diels AD 68 Annonaceae LP, KI 0.11 0.07 Rheumatism Elokposan Topical application with crushed bark
Cnestis ferruginea Vahl ex DC. Malan 395 Connaraceae LP, KI 0.05 0.037 Hydrocephalus Bathing with leaves decoction
Pregnancy care Enema with roots mashed and diluted in water
Cocos nucifera L.   Arecaceae LP 0.02 0.017 Raging toothache Mouthwash with roots decoction
Butumanklan Enema with roots mashed and diluted in water
Cola lateritia var. maclaudi (A.Chev.) Brenan & Keay AD 176, Malan 812 Malvaceae LP 0.02 0.014 Malaria Body smeared with mashed leaves
Cola nitida (Vent.) Schott & Endl. AD 163 Malvaceae LP 0.02 0.009 Whitlow Chickenpox Topical application with crushed bark
Costus afer Ker-Gawl. Malan 1118 Costaceae LP, KI 0.02 0.008 Palpitations Oral instillations with crushed leaves
Dacryodes klaineana (Pierre) Lam. Malan 777, 898 Burseraceae LP, KI 0.02 0.007 Dysmenorrhoea Enema with bark mashed and diluted in water
Daniellia thurifera Benn. Malan 697 Leguminosae LP, KI 0.05 0.026 Post-partum care Bathing with leaves decoction
Desmodium adscendens (Sw.) DC. Malan 443 Leguminosae LP, KI 0.05 0.04 Pregnancy care Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Diarrhoea
Wound Topical application with crushed leaves
Digitaria horizontalis Willd. Malan 874 Poaceae LP, KI 0.05 0.04 Oedema Body smeared with mashed whole plant
Dioclea reflexa Hook.f. Malan 994 Leguminosae LP, KI 0.02 0.009 Infant fortification Entire seed soaked in infant bathing water
Diospyros sanza-minika A.Chev. Malan 809 Ebenaceae LP, KI 0.02 0.003 Giddiness Topical application with crushed bark
Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. Malan 752 Compositae LP, KI 0.07 0.041 Hydrocephalus Body smeared with leaves mashed
Asema Bathing with leaves decoction
Giddiness Eye drops with leaf juice
Pregnancy care Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Malaria
Diarrhoea
Elaeis guineensis Jacq.   Arecaceae LP, KI 0.02 0.01 Abortion Enema with mashed roots diluted in water
Erythrina senegalensis DC. Malan 856 Leguminosae LP 0.02 0.006 Rheumatism Topical application with crushed bark
Oedema Body smeared with mashed leaves
Dysmenorrhoea Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Euadenia trifoliolata (Schumach. & Thonn.) Oliv. Malan 695 Capparaceae LP, KI 0.02 0.009 Haemorrhoids Enema with mashed roots diluted in water
Eugenia whytei Sprague Malan 897 Myrtaceae LP, KI 0.05 0.021 Bad breath Roots as chewing stick
Infant diarrhoea Enema with mashed leaves diluted in water
Nausea Leaves chewed
Euphorbia hirta L. AD 25 Euphorbiaceae LP, KI 0.11 0.048 Measles Body smeared with mashed leaves
Pregnancy care Enema with whole plant mashed and diluted in water
Diarrhoea
Ficus exasperata Vahl AD 48 Moraceae LP 0.02 0.009 Injury Topical application with crushed roots
Flagellaria guineensis Schumach. AD 04 Flagellariaceae LP, KI 0.04 0.005 Malaria Bathing with leaves decoction
Delay of motor function Enema with roots mashed and diluted in water
Garcinia kola Heckel AD 45 Clusiaceae LP 0.04 0.025 Bad breath Roots as chewing stick
Sexual asthenia
Glyphaea brevis (Spreng.) Monachino AD 206 Malvaceae LP 0.02 0.011 Pregnancy care Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Gossypium barbadense L. AD 177 Malvaceae LP, KI 0.02 0.008 Dysmenorrhoea Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Hallea ledermannii (K.Krause) Verdc. Malan 787, AD 227 Rubiaceae LP, KI 0.04 0.013 Malaria Bathing with bark decoction
Convulsion Body smeared with mashed bark
Harungana madagascariensis Lam. ex Poir. Malan 719 Hypericaceae LP, KI 0.53 0.38 Malaria Bark decoction drunk, taken as enema and for bathing, Body smeared with mashed bark
Heterotis rotundifolia (Sm.) Jacq.-Fél. Malan 552 Melastomataceae LP, KI 0.05 0.04 Diarrhoea Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Hoslundia opposita Vahl Malan 953 Lamiaceae LP 0.02 0.016 Convulsion Eye drops with leaf juice
Icacina mannii Oliv. Malan 1042 Icacinaceae LP, KI 0.15 0.083 Dysmenorrhoea Tuber decoction drunk
Sexual asthenia
Haemorrhoids
Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel Malan 458 Poaceae KI - - Convulsion Body smeared with mashed leaves
Jatropha curcas L. AD 58 Euphorbiaceae LP 0.02 0.009 Abortion Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Jatropha gossypiifolia L. AD 139 Euphorbiaceae LP 0.02 0.004 Dysmenorrhoea Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Khaya ivorensis A.Chev. Malan 419 Meliaceae LP 0.04 0.019 Haemorrhoids Enema with bark mashed and diluted in water
Sexual asthenia Bark soaked in local alcohol and drunk
Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. AD 201 Bignoniaceae LP, KI 0.07 0.048 Swollen breasts Topical application with fruits, leaves and bark crushed
Sterility Enema with bark mashed and diluted in water
Lannea nigritana (Scott-Elliot) Keay AD 95 Anacardiaceae LP 0.02 0.006 Ophtalmia Eye drops with leaf juice
Toohtache Mouthwash with leaves decoction
Lophira alata Banks ex Gaertn. f. Malan 340 Ochnaceae LP 0.04 0.012 Bad breath Roots as chewing stick
Elokposan Bathing with bark decoction
Malaria
Mallotus oppositifolius (Geisel.) Müll.Arg. AD 278 Euphorbiaceae LP 0.02 0.007 Asema Bathing with leaves decoction
Mangifera indica L.   Anacardiaceae KI - - Malaria Bathing with bark decoction
Manihot esculenta Crantz   Euphorbiaceae LP, KI 0.09 0.022 Headache Nose drops with leaf juice
Ophtalmia Eye drops with leaf juice
Infant diarrhoea Enema with roasted fruits mashed and diluted in water
Diarrhoea
Gonorrhoea Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Manotes longiflora Baker Malan 886 Connaraceae LP 0.04 0.006 Ophtalmia Eye drops with leaf juice
Dysenteria Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Mareya micrantha (Benth.) Müll.Arg. Malan 734 Euphorbiaceae KI - - Childbirth Leaves decoction drunk
Microdesmis keayana Léonard Malan 659 Pandaceae LP, KI 0.05 0.014 Bad breath Roots as chewing stick
Dysmenorrhoea Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) O.Ktze AD 92 Compositae LP, KI 0.07 0.044 Hydrocephalus Bathing with leaves decoction, body smeared with mashed leaves, leaves decoction drunk
Asema Bathing with leaves decoction
Convulsion Nose drops with leaf juice, body smeared with mashed leaves
Pregnancy care Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Dysmenorrhoea
Microgramma owariensis (Desv.) Alston AD 39 Polypodiaceae LP, KI 0.05 0.028 Sterility Enema with whole plant mashed and diluted in water
Dysmenorrhoea
Microsorum scolopendria (Burm.f.) Copel. AD 57 Polypodiaceae LP, KI 0.04 0.014 Dysmenorrhoea Enema with whole plant mashed and diluted in water
Milicia excelsa (Welw.) C.C.Berg Malan 785 Moraceae KI - - Hydrocephalus Bathing with bark decoction, body smeared with mashed bark
Dysenteria Enema with mashed bark diluted in water
Butumanklan
Mitracarpus scaber Zucc. AD 156 Rubiaceae LP 0.01 0.018 Dry patchs Topical application with crushed leaves
Lumbar pain Enema with mashed leaves diluted in water
Momordica charantia L. Malan 1011 Cucurbitaceae LP, KI 0.11 0.029 Malaria Bathing with leaves decoction, body smeared with mashed leaves
Chickenpox
Abortion Body smeared with mashed leaves, Enema with seeds mashed and diluted in water
Monodora myristica (Gaertn.) Dunal Malan 780 Annonaceae LP, KI 0.01 0.029 Haemorrhoids Seeds added to enema preparation
Morinda lucida G.Don AD 175 Rubiaceae KI - - Infant diarrhoea Enema with bark mashed and diluted in water
Musa paradisiaca L.   Musaceae KI - - Malaria Bathing with leaves decoction
Ophtalmia Eye drops with sap
Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw.) Schott Malan 599 Nephrolepidaceae LP, KI 0.05 0.009 Remove splinters Topical application with crushed leaves
Dysmenorrhoea Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Newbouldia laevis (P. Beauv.) Seem. ex Bureau Malan 1027 Bignoniaceae LP, KI 0.05 0.024 Dysmenorrhoea Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Hoarseness Bark decoction drunk
Raging toothache Mouthwash with bark decoction
Dysmenorrhoea Enema with mashed bark diluted in water
Remove splinters Topical application with crushed leaves
Fracture Topical application with crushed bark
Nymphaea lotus L. Malan 925 Nympheaceae LP 0.04 0.008 Pregnancy care Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Delay of motor function
Ocimum americanum var. americanum L. AD 16 Lamiaceae LP, KI 0.04 0.014 Lumbar pain Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Swollen breasts Topical application with crushed leaves
Convulsion Eye drops with leaf juice
Ocimum gratissimum L. Malan 1009 Lamiaceae LP, KI 0.38 0.245 Convulsion Eye drops with leaf juice
Headache Nose drops with leaf juice
Cough Nose or eye drops with leaf juice
Fever attack Enema with mashed leaves diluted in water
Malaria
Dysmenorrhoea
Pregnancy care
Infant diarrhoea
Stomachache
Palisota hirsuta (Thunb.) Engl. Malan 984 Commelinaceae KI - - Delay of motor function Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Dysmenorrhoea
Parinari excelsa Sabine AD 148 Chrysobalanaceae KI - - Sexual asthenia Bark soaked in local alcohol and drunk
Haemorrhoids Enema with bark mashed and diluted in water
Dysmenorrhoea
Paullinia pinnata L. AD 124, Malan 853 Sapindaceae LP, KI 0.2 0.122 Hydrocephalus Bathing with leaves decoction
Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth. Malan 1110 Leguminosae LP, KI 0.05 0.03 Hydrocephalus Bathing with bark decoction, body smeared with mashed bark
Malaria Body smeared with mashed bark
Phaulopsis ciliata (Willd.) Hepper Malan 954 Acanthaceae KI - - Colic Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn. AD 144 Phyllanthaceae LP, KI 0.13 0.037 Chickenpox Body smeared with whole plant mashed
Pregnancy care Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Malaria Whole plant decoction drunk
Picralima nitida (Stapf) T. & H.Durand AD 237 Apocynaceae LP, KI 0.09 0.082 Inguinal hernia Enema with seeds mashed and diluted in water
Piptadeniastrum africanum (Hook.) Brenan Malan 1108 Leguminosae KI - - Inguinal hernia Enema with bark mashed and diluted in water
Pleioceras barteri Baill. Malan 700 Apocynaceae KI - - Boil Topical application
Oedema
Plumbago zeylanica L. Malan 873 Plumbaginaceae LP, KI 0.04 0.004 Inguinal hernia Enema with leaves and roots mashed and diluted in water
Psidium guajava L.   Myrtaceae KI - - Butumanklan Enema with roots mashed and diluted water
Pterocarpus santalinoides DC. AD 09, AD 59 Leguminosae KI - - Malaria Body smeared with mashed bark
Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw.) Warb. AD 212 Myristicaceae LP, KI 0.05 0.022 Haemorrhoids Enema with bark mashed and diluted in water
Anaemia Bark decoction drunk
Rauvolfia vomitoria Afzel. AD 36 Apocynaceae LP, KI 0.07 0.018 Malaria Body smeared with mashed roots, enema with roots mashed and diluted in water
Sexual asthenia Roots soaked in local alcohol and drunk
Inguinal hernia Enema with mashed roots diluted in water
Rheumatism Topical application with crushed bark
Rhizophora racemosa G.F.W.Mey. Malan 806 Rhizophoraceae KI - - Hydrocephalus Bathing with bark decoction and body smeared with mashed bark
Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill.) Pierre ex Heckel Malan 669 Euphorbiaceae LP 0.04 0.004 Dysmenorrhoea Enema with bark mashed and diluted in water
Haemorrhoids
Ricinus communis L.   Euphorbiaceae KI - - Headache Topical application with mashed bark
Lumbar pain Massage with warm leaves
Saccharum officinarum L.   Poaceae KI - - Abortion Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Secamone afzelii (Schultes) K.Schum. AD 375 Apocynaceae KI - - Lumbar pain Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Asthma Leaves decoction drunk
Smeathmannia pubescens Soland. ex R.Br. AD 171, Malan 863 Passifloraceae KI - - Bad breath Roots as chewing stick
Solanum lycopersicum L.   Solanaceae LP, KI 0.07 0.018 Serious disease of unknown origin Eye drops with leaf juice
Injury Topical application with crushed leaves
Contraception Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Solanum nigrum L. Malan 1022 Solanaceae LP 0.04 0.002 Malaria Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Solenostemon monostachyus (P.Beauv.) Briq Malan 982 Lamiaceae KI - - Laryngitis Leaf juice swallowed
Haedache Nose drops with leaf juice
Mental illness
Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv. AD 116 Bignoniaceae LP 0.05 0.035 Malaria Bark decoction drunk, taken as enema and for bathing, body smeared with mashed bark
Spondias mombin L. AD 217 Anacardiaceae LP 0.04 0.017 Diarrhoea Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Post-partum care
Strombosia pustulata var. lucida (Léonard) Villiers Malan 816 Olacaceae KI - - Bad breath Roots as chewing stick
Syzygium guineense var. littorale Keay AD 140, AD 158 Myrtaceae LP 0.05 0.011 Butumanklan Enema with bark mashed and diluted in water
Diarrhoea
Stomachache
Tetracera alnifolia Willd. AD 232 Dilleniaceae KI - - Inner ear cleanning Ear drops with sap
Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schumach. & Thonn.) Taub. AD 143 Leguminosae KI - - Impotence Enema with bark mashed and diluted in water
Tiliacora dinklagei Engl. Malan 884 Menispermaceae KI - - Sexual asthenia Roots soaked in local alcohol and drunk
Trema guineensis Schumach. & Thonn. Malan 676 Cannabaceae LP 0.04 0.005 Stomachache Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Pregnancy care
Uvaria afzelii Scott-Elliot Malan 793, AD 62 Annonaceae LP, KI 0.22 0.123 Hydrocephalus Bathing with decoction of roots and leaves, body smeared with leaves and roots mashed
Pregnancy care Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Colic Decoction of leaves drunk
Uvaria chamae P.Beauv. Malan 703, AD 106 Annonaceae LP, KI 0.09 0.068 Diaper dermatitis Body smeared with roots mashed
Measles Topical application with crushed roots and leaves
Chickenpox Body smeared with mashed roots
Uvariastrum insculptum (Engl. & Diels) Spargue & Hutch. Malan 912 Annonaceae KI - - Bad breath Roots as chewing stick
Sexual asthenia Roots soaked in local alcohol and drunk
Vernonia amygdalina Delile AD 131 Compositae LP, KI 0.11 0.051 Diarrhoea Enema with leaves mashed and diluted in water
Helminthiasis
Malaria Bathing with leaves decoction, body smeared with mashed leaves
Chickenpox
Vernonia conferta Benth. AD 187 Compositae LP, KI 0.07 0.059 Malaria Leaves decoction drunk
Vitex oxycuspis Baker AD 234 Lamiaceae KI - - Haemorrhoids Enema with bark mashed and diluted in water
Xylopia acutiflora (Dunal) A.Rich. Malan 916 Annonaceae LP 0.04 0.016 Bad breath Roots as chewing stick
Sexual asthenia Roots soaked in local alcohol and drunk
Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A.Rich. Malan 711 Annonaceae LP, KI 0.29 0.225 Post-partum care Enema with fruits mashed and diluted in water
Zanthoxylum gilletii (De Wild.) Waterman Malan 742 Rutaceae LP, KI 0 0.111 Fever attack Body smeared with mashed bark
Sexual asthenia Bark soaked in local alcohol and drunk
Laryngitis Bark decoction drunk
Malaria Body smeared with mashed bark
Cough Bark decoction drunk
Colic Enema with bark mashed and diluted in water
Haemorrhoids
Post-partum care
  1. Frequency of citation (Fq) and Smith’ index (Smith’ S), only for the survey with laypeople (LP). KI: key informant.