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Table 5 Summary of plants used for ticks and other ecto parasites control, how they are used and status of availability

From: Ethnoveterinary plants and practices used for ecto-parasite control in semi-arid smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe

Scientific name & Voucher number Family name Local names Shona-S Ndebele-N Shangani-C Part used Preparation methods Target parasites Availability status Comments & precautions
Acacia karroo Hayne. Fabaceae Muzunga (S) Root Leave root in fowl run Fleas and mites Always Safe to use
Nyahangare E 11
Monadenium lugardiae N.E. B. Euphorbiaceae Chisvosve (S) Whole plant Crush and mix with water 24 h Ticks, fleas Always Handle with care
Nyahangare E 15
Albizia amara (Roxb.)Boiv. Fabaceae Umbola (N) Leaves Crush leaves + water + spray Ticks, fleas Seasonal Effective
Nyahangare E 38
Aloe excelsa A. Berger. Aloaceae Gavakava, Mhangani(S) Stemmy leaves Crush leaves, mix with water for 24 h & spray Fleas, ticks Seasonal Safe to use
Nyahangare E 29
Aloe chabaudii Schoenland. Aloaceae Inhlaba (N) Succulent leafy stems Grind and soak and smear the bird with sticky water Lice Always Very effective
Nyahangare E 37
Bauhinia petersiana Bolle. Fabaceae Mutyatyambe (S) Leaves Crush leaves, mix with water Ticks, Goats Always Safe to use
Nyahangare E23
Capsicum annuum L. Solanaceae Mhiripiri (S) Fruits Crush the fruits and mix with soot in water and spray Ticks Always Causes eye irritation
Nyahangare E 69
Carissa edulis (Forssk.) Vahl. Nyahangare E39 Apocynaceae Umlugulu (N) Leaves Grind leaves, mix with water in the ratio 1:4 and spray Lice and ticks Seasonal Wash hands after use
Cucumis anguria L. Cucurbitaceae Mujachacha (S) Amagaka (N) Fruits Collect ripe fruits (yellow), crush and mix with water and spray Ticks Seasonal Have an itching effect on animals
Nyahangare E47
Ornithogalum sp Asparagaceae Chihanyanisi (S) Roots Crush and mix with water Ticks Always but scarce Very effective
Nyahangare E59
*   Chimwamaruka (S) Leaves and branches Crush the leaves and branches and mix with water Fleas and ticks Always but scarce Very effective
Cissus quadrangularis L. Vitaceae Chiololo (C), Murunjurunju (S) Stems Crush and mix with water to spray Ticks Always Handle with care, has an itchy effect
Nyahangare E6
Psydrax livida (Hiern) Bridson Rubiaceae Muvengahonye (S) Umhlahlampethu (N) Leaves Crush, mix with water and spray or crush leaves and put on wound or tick infestation site Ecto parasites Always  
Nyahangare E20
Rotheca eriophylla Lamiaceae Umnukanja (N) Munukanja (S) Leaves Macerate, soak with water and spray Ticks, Lice and tsetse fly Always Very effective and safe to use
Nyahangare E35
Colophospermum mopane (J. Kirk ex Benth.) J. Kirk ex J. Leonard. Fabaceae Mopani (S) Branches and twigs Burn and apply ashes on animal skin Ticks, fleas, mites Always Safe to use
Nyahangare E41
Combretum imberbe Wawra. Combretaceae Muchenarota/Mutsviri (S) Bark Ash of the bark and twigs dusted on infestation sites Ticks Always Very effective
Nyahangare E55
Croton gratissimus Burch. Euphorbiaceae Inkiza emhlope (N) Leaves and twigs Use as bedding in the fowl run Lice Always Very effective
Nyahangare E48
Scientific name & Voucher number Family name Local names Shona-S Ndebele-N Shangani-C Part used Preparation method Target parasites Availability status Comments & precautions
Ptaeroxylon obliquum (Thunb.) Radlk. Rutaceae Umpahla, Umpandula N, Leaves Crush leaves, soak in water and spray Ticks, Fleas, Lice Always but scarce Very effective
Nyahangare E27
Euphorbia cooperi L. Euphorbiaceae Umhlonhlo (N) Branches Smoke the walls of the fowl run with the branches Fleas Always Handle with care
Nyahangare E71
Euphorbia ingens E.Mey.ex Boiss. Euphorbiacaea Mukondekonde (S) Stems Mix milk sap with water and place on infested sites Fleas, ticks Always Avoid contact with the eyes
Nyahangare E43
Gnidia kraussiana Meisn. Thymelaeaceae Chitupatupa (S) Whole plant Crush and mix with water to spray Ticks Always Very effective
Nyahangare E70
Lippia javanica (Burm.f.) Spreng. Verbenaceae Zumbani (S) Umsuzwane (N) Leaves and branches Crush leaves mix with water and spray, twigs can also be used as bedding in fowl runs Ticks, fleas, lice Always Safe to use
Nyahangare E46
Maerua edulis Gilg&Gilg-Ben. DeWolf Capparidaceae Katunguru (S) Roots mix M. edulis roots and S. incanum fruits with water and spray Ticks Always Very effective
Nyahangare E5
Ornithogalum sp Alliaceae Masimbe (S) Bulb crush bulb, soak in water and spray Ticks Always Very effective
Nyahangare E59
Datura stramonium L. Solanaceae Iyoyi (N), Chowa (S) Leaves Crush leaves mix with water and spray on animal Ticks and Lice Always but scarce Safe to use
Nyahangare E51
Euclea divinorum Hiern. Ebenaceae Muchekesani(S) Roots Crush leaves soak in water and spray Fleas, cattle Always  
Nyahangare E15
*   Mundorani (S) Roots Crush dry roots and mix with water (50 g in 300 ml for 3 days) Ticks Always but scarce Very effective
Vernonia colorata (Willd.) Drake. Compositae/ Asteraceae Munyatera (S) Roots Crush mix with water for an hour and spray Ticks Always but scarce Very effective
Nyahangare E16
*   Muvuwavuwa (S) Whole plant Just put the plant in the fowl run Fleas and lice Always but scarce Very effective
Neorautanenia brachypus Fabaceae Zhombwe (S) Bulb Crush the bulb, mix with water and spray Fleas, ticks Always Avoid water contamination
(Harms) C.A. Sm.
Nyahangare E65
Nicotiana tabacum L. Solanaceae Tobacco (E) Water Break and mix with water Ticks Always Safe to use
Nyahangare E68
Spirostachys africana Sond. Euphorbiaceae Mutovhoti (S) Barks Cut barks break and mix with water Ticks Seasonal Very effective
Nyahangare E63
Strychnos spinosa Lam. Strychnaceae Matamba (S) Unripe fruits Crush unripe fruits, mix with water and spray Ticks Always Very effective
Scientific name & Voucher number Family name Local names Shona-S Ndebele-N Shangani-C Part used Preparation method Target pests Availability status Comments & precautions
Nyahangare E10
Tagetes minuta L. Compositae/ Asteraceae Munyakambanje (S) Whole plant Crush and mix with water Ticks, fleas, mites Always Safe to use
Nyahangare E66
Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC. Combretaceae Mususu (S) Leaves Crush mix with water for spray Ticks Always Very effective
Nyahangare E36
Strychnos cocculoides Baker. Strychnaceae Ubuhlali (N) Fruit Squash the fruit and smear contents on animal infested Lice Seasonal Very effective
Nyahangare E45
Vigna unguiculata L. Leguminosae - Papilionoideae Cowpea (E) Pods Empty pods burnt and ash applied on tick sites Ticks Always Very effective
Nyahangare E67
Xeroderris stuhlmannii Papilionaceae Murumanyama (S) Barks Crush stems and spread on infestation sites Fleas, ticks Always Very effective
(Taub.)Mendonca &E.P.Sousa Nyahangare E7
Zantedeschia albomaculata (Hook.) Baill. Araceae Mufanawembudzi (S) Stem Crush, mix with water and drench Ticks Always Very effective
Nyahangare E62
Zanthoxylum capense (Thunb.)Harv. Nyahangare E22 Rutaceae Mukundanyoka (S) Stems Crush stems and spread on infestation sites Fleas, ticks Always Safe to use
Xanthocercis zambesiaca (Baker) Dumaz-le-Grand Nyahangare E8 Fabaceae Muturufuwa (S) Bark Crush the bark and soak in water to form a soapy solution for spraying Fleas and ticks Available Safe to use
Pterocarpus angolensis DC. Nyahangare E32 Papilionoideae Umvagazi (N) Mubvamaropa Barks, branches Mix with water Ticks Always Safe to use
Sansevieria hyacinthoides (L.) Druce. Nyahangare E58 Asparagaceae Chikwenga (S)/Bushfibre (E) Mashamhanda (S) Stemmy rhizomes Squash the stems, mix with water and spray on ticks Ticks Always Handle with care
Senna singueana (Del.) Lock Nyahangare E13 Fabaceae Mudyamhungu Mukundanyoka (S) Bark Crush bark and mix with water Ticks Always User friendly
Solanum incanum L. Nyahangare E61 Solanaceae Nhundurwa (S) Fruits Crush fruits and mix with water Ticks Seasonal Handle with care
Solanum panduriforme E.Mey. Nyahangare E60 Solanaceae Nhundurwa (S) Fruits Crush fruits and mix with water Ticks Seasonal Handle with care
*   Chinyaride (S) (fibre like) Roots and the bulb Crush the roots/bulb and mix with water Ticks Always but scarce Handle with care
Kleinia sp Nyahangare E50 Asteraceae Iphunja (N) Leaves Crush leaves, mix with water and rub on affected areas Ticks Scarce Very effective
Ricinus communis L. Nyahangare E42 Euphorbiaceae Umtshafuto (N) Leaves Grind leaves and paste on tick infested site Ticks Always Very effective
Osyris lanceolata Hochst. Nyahangare E49 Santalaceae Ingobamakhosi (N) Roots Pestle roots, soak in water and spray Ticks Always but scarce Very effective
  1. * At the time of the survey, samples of these plants could not be found and require further follow up for positive identification.