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Table 1 List of medicinal plants used to treat human diseases

From: Study of plants traditionally used in public and animal health management in Seharti Samre District, Southern Tigray, Ethiopia

Scientific name Family Local name Habit Parts used Disease treated Mode of preparation and administration Application route Voucher no
Achyranthes aspera L. Amaranthaceae mechelo Herb Root Arthritis Roots chopped into pieces; seven pieces are put on clean thread and tied on the waist until recovered from the disease Dermal SA01303
Leaf Herpes zoster Leaves roasted on metal plate, pounded into powder , mixed with pure butter and smeared on affected part Dermal  
Acokanthera schimperi (A.DC.) Schweinf. Apocynaceae Mebtie (merez) Tree Leaf Jaundice Leaves are boiled in water for an hour and the patient takes a cup of the solution per day for seven days oral SA01333
Wound Leaves are crushed and paste smeared on affected part Dermal  
Allium sativum L. Alliaceae Tsa’da shegurti Herb Bulb Gastritis Bulb is eaten with flatbread locally known as ‘enjera’ oral SA01368
Evil eye Smelling aroma of bulb Nasal  
Wound Bulbs are crushed, squeezed and wound washed with the liquid until healed Dermal  
Ring worm Rubbing affected area with bulb dermal  
Malaria Bulb of Allium sativum, Artemisia afra, Ruta chalepensis and Lepidium sativum are crushed together and paste taken for five-seven days oral  
Aloe megalacantha Baker Alloaceae Ere Shrub Exudate Malaria Exudate, mixed with honey, is taken orally with coffee cup for three days oral SA01384
Diabetes Coffee cup of exudate taken every morning for long period of time oral  
Impotence Smearing penis with exudate Dermal  
Dandruff Exudate smeared on head skin for a week Dermal  
wound Exudates smeared on wound   
Alysicarpus ferrugineus Hochst. & Steud. ex A. Rich. Fabaceae Hambo hambo bita Herb Root Jaundice Root chewed for five days oral SA01336
Argemone mexicana L. Papaveraceae Medafe tilian Herb Leaf wound Fresh leaves are collected, crushed and paste applied on affected part Dermal SA01381
eczema Argemone mexicana leaves crushed and powder sprayed on affected part. After two days, leaves of Dodonaea angustifolia roasted on iron sheet, pounded into powder are again sprayed on affected part Dermal  
Artemisia afra Jacq. ex willd. Asteraceae Chena baria Herb Leaf Evil eye Aroma of the leaves help in expelling evil eye nasal SA01309
Evil eye Leaves of Artemisia afar and Ruta chalepensis and bulb of Allium sativum are crushed and aroma sniffed nasal  
Asparagus africanus Lam. Asparagaceae Kasta ansti Shrub Root impotence Roots are pounded into powder, mixed with meat soup and vegetable and taken every evening for a month oral SA01340
Evil eye Root of Carissa spinarum and leaves of Ruta Chalepensis, Artemisia afra, Cucumis ficifolius and Asparagus africanus are crushed and fumigated indoor nasal  
Boscia salicifolia Oliv. Capparidaceae Shesha Shrub Leaf Ear infection Leaves are crushed, squeezed and liquid filtered with clean cotton and three drops are applied on infected ear ear SA01329
Cadaba rotundifolia Forssk. Capparidaceae Mora Shrub Leaf toothache Chew leaves and hold paste on affected tooth oral SA01328
Calotropis procera (Ait.) Ait. Asclepiadaceae Ginda Shrub Flower Kidney stone Dry flower crushed into powder and mixed with dough of wheat and medicine prepared tablet form is baked on iron plate and three to four tablets are taken for long period of time oral SA01375
Latex Haemorrhoids Latex is smeared on affected area Dermal  
Wart Cover the first appearing wart with latex Dermal  
Scabies smear whole affected area with latex Dermal  
wound Dress wound with latex Dermal  
Root Tuberculosis Roots of C. procera is crushed into powder and mixed with pounded bark of Croton macrostachyus and leaves of Ficus palmata and sniffed nasal  
Calpurnia aurea (Alt.) Benth. Fabaceae Hetsawets Tree Seed Gonorrhoea, syphilis Seeds are roasted on iron sheet, ground into powder, mixed with honey, prepared in the form of tablet and three tablets are taken every day for five days. As a side effect, it causes headache oral SA01345
Amoebiasis Seeds are roasted on iron sheet, ground into powder, mixed with honey, dissolved in cup of water and taken for three days oral  
Capparis tomentosa Lam. Capparidaceae Andiel Shrub Root Evil eye Patient fumigates himself with smoke of burning root   SA01337
Carissa spinarum (Forssk.) Vahl. Apocynaceae Agam Shrub Root Evil eye Crushed root is fumigated on a clay plate to expel evil eye Nasal SA01316
Leaf Febrile illness Leaves are crushed, squeezed and liquid taken with coffee oral  
Fruit Wound Fruits are crushed, dried, pounded into powder and sprayed on wound skin  
Chenopodium murale L. Chenopodiaceae Hamedmado, hamlikebbo Herb Leaf Tetanus Leaves are crushed, mixed with butter, roasted on metal plate and smeared on affected area before covering it with cotton cloth. Application is repeated three to four times within a week Dermal SA01332
Vitiligo Leaves are crushed and pasted applied on affected area Dermal  
Citrus lemon (L.) Burm. f. Rutaceae Lomin Shrub Fruit Haemorrhoids Fruits and leaves are pounded, mixed with butter and applied on affected area anal SA01369
Blood pressure Fruit juice is added into cup of water and drunk every morning oral  
cough Fruit decoction with sugar added into it is taken orally oral  
Tetanus Crushed fruit is mixed with butter and applied on affected area and is covered with clean cotton Dermal  
Clerodendrum myricoides (Hochst.) R.Br. Ex Vatke Verbenaceae    Leaf Arthritis/rheumatism Apply butter on patient’s head and let him/her fumigated with leaves of the plant nasal SA01347
Conjunctivitis and trachoma Leaves are crushed and added into boiling water and the patient steam baths himself ophthalmic  
Root Evil eye Roots are pounded into powder and sprinkled on fire to expel evil eye   
Coffea arabica L. Rubiaceae Buna Shrub Seed Amoebiasis Seeds are roasted, pounded into powder, mixed with honey and taken orally oral SA01397
wound Seeds are roasted, and pounded into powder and paste applied on affected part Dermal  
Fire burn Seeds are roasted, pounded into powder and paste applied on affected area after mixing it with sap of Aloe megalacantha Dermal  
Colutea abyssinica Jaub. and Spach. Fabaceae Qaqata Shrub Leaf wound Leaves are pounded into powder and sprayed on wound Dermal SA01342
Commicarpus grandiflorus (A. Rich.) Standl. Nyctaginaceae Ezni Tawa Herb Leaf Furunclosis Leaves are crushed and paste smeared on affected area Dermal SA01354
Commiphora schimperi (Berg) Engl. Burseraceae Anqa Tree Latex wound Latex smeared on wound Dermal SA01323
Cordia africana Lam. Boragenaceae Awhi Tree Leaf febrile illness Leaves are crushed, squeezed and liquid taken with coffee oral SA01367
Croton macrostachyus Del. Euphorbiaceae Tanbuk Tree Leaf diarrhoea Leaves are crushed squeezed and a cup of juice taken with honey Oral SA01373
Bark Bloat A bark is dried, pounded into powder and one to two spoons of powder are added into coffee or tea and taken for a week oral  
Root jaundice Root bark is dried, pounded into powder and two to three spoons of powder are added into a cup containing water. Treatment is taken for 21 days oral  
Leaf, bark Sudden stomach ache Dried bark/leaves are pounded into powder, one to two tea spoon of powder are added into skimmed milk and served once oral  
Bark
Leaf Malaria Dried bark is pounded into powder, two to three spoons of powder added into local beer and taken for a week once per day. The medicine could cause diarrhoea and vomiting oral  
scabies Leaves are crushed, mixed with butter and dressed on affected part Dermal  
Leaf sap Tinea versicolor Sap of leaves are applied on affected area Dermal  
Leaf
Urine retention Leaves are added onto boiled water with sugar. Solution is then taken every morning for seven days oral  
Cucumis ficifolius A. Rich. Cucurbitaceae Ramboramb, lomin bita Herb Leaf Anthrax Leaves are either ground into powder or crushed, squeezed, filtered, mixed with coffee and taken with a coffee cup for two days oral SA01321
Root Eye disease Roots are chewed oral  
Jaundice Roots are chewed oral  
Stomach ache Roots are chewed oral  
Stomach ache following delivery Roots are chewed oral  
Snake bite Roots are chewed oral  
Fruit Ear infection Three drops of fruit juice are applied into ear for five days ear  
  Tuberculosis Roots are chewed oral  
Root Teeth ache Roots are chewed oral  
Fruit Asthma Fruits are washed, dried, ground into powder, added onto boiled coffee and drunk oral  
Root, leaf Eczema Roots and leaves are ground into powder, mixed with honey and dressed on affected area Dermal  
Fruit/leaf Tetanus Fruits and leaves are crushed, mixed with butter, heated on fire and applied on affected area and covered with clean cotton cloth. This is repeated for three days dermal  
Cucurbita pepo L. Cucurbitaceae Duba Herb Seed Tapeworm Seven roasted seeds are taken orally, followed by three hours of fasting oral SA01390
Fruit Urine retention Fruits are cooked and taken as soup oral  
Cynoglossum coeruleum Hochst. ex A.DC. Boraginaceae Teng Begie Herb Leaf Febrile illness (michi) Leaves are crushed, squeezed and liquid taken with coffee or its lotion is applied on skin Oral or dermal SA01359
Cyphostemma adenocaule (steud.ex A. Rich) Descoings ex Wild and Drummond vitaceae Aserkuka fetahkuka Climber Root Skull wound Dried roots are ground into powder, mixed with butter and dressed on affected area Dermal SA01346
Snake bite Half of finger-sized root is chewed to detoxify poison oral  
Datura stramonium L. Solanaceae mestenager Herb Leaf Tetanus Fresh leaves are crushed, mixed with butter, heated and smeared on affected area before covering it with clean cotton cloth Dermal SA01312
Dandruff Leaves are crushed and creamed on shaved head Dermal  
Seed Teeth ache Seeds are roasted on iron sheet and the patient inhales smoke Oral/nasal  
abortion Half tea spoon of seeds are ground into powder, mixed with water and half of cup is drunk oral  
Leaf Brain sharpness Leaves are crushed, squeezed, filtered and a cup of juice is taken for some days oral  
Leishmaniasis Leaves are crushed and pasted on affected area dermal  
Furunculosis Leaves are crushed and pasted on affected area Dermal  
Herpes zoster Leaves are roasted on iron sheet, pounded into powder, mixed with butter and smeared on affected area Dermal  
Scabies Leaves are roasted on iron sheet, pounded into powder, mixed with butter and smeared on affected area Dermal  
eczema Leaves are roasted on iron sheet and pounded in to powder. After mixed with pure butter smeared on affected area Dermal  
Dodonaea angustifolia L. f. Sapindaceae Tahsos Tree Leaf Herpes zoster Leaves are roasted, ground into powder, mixed with butter and smeared on affected area Dermal SA01327
wound Leaf powder is sprayed on wound Dermal  
Erucastrum arabicum Drummond and Hemsely Brassicaceae Hamli gudible Herb Leaf Ring worm Leaves are rubbed on skin Dermal SA01317
Erythrina abyssinica Lam. ex DC. Fabaceae Zuwabue, enqui hebey Tree Bark Evil eye Put bark on fire and let patient to fumigate himself with smoke nasal SA01322
Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Myrtaceae Tsada Kelamitose Tree Leaf Febrile illness (michi) The patient baths himself with steam of boiled leaves Oral/nasal SA01376
Tinea pedis Leaves are boiled in water and the patient washes his feet with the decoction dermal  
Euclea divinorum Hiern. Ebenaceae Kuliew Shrub Root Scorpion bite Roots are chewed to relieve pain oral SA01379
Root, stem Rheumatism and arthritis The patient spreads animal butter on his/her head, burn roots and stems on fire and baths him/herself with smoke Dermal  
Root Urine retention Roots are chewed oral  
Euphorbia cactus Boiss Euphorbiaceae Kolqual hamat Shrub Latex Leishmaniasis Latex is smeared on affected area Dermal SA01386
wound Add few latex drops on wound Dermal  
Gonorrhoea and syphilis Add three to four drops of latex on a piece of ‘enjera’ and eat it. Medicine is taken for five consecutive days. Overdose may cause diarrhoea and vomiting oral  
Root Jaundice Roots are ground into powder, mixed with honey and taken for seven days oral  
Latex Ascariasis Four drops of latex are mixed with sugar solution and taken once before diet oral  
leprosy Latex smeared on affected area Dermal  
Euphorbia petitiana A. Rich. Euphorbiaceae Demaito demu Herb Latex Ring worm Latex smeared on affected area Dermal SA01348
Ficus palmata Forssk. Moraceae Beless Tree Latex Wart Latex smeared on the first growing wart Dermal SA01304
haemorrhoids Latex smeared on affected area Dermal  
Wound Dress wound with latex Dermal  
Foeniculum vulgare Miller Apiaceae shelan Herb Whole plant Urine retention Take solution of the plant boiled in water oral SA01362
Gomphocarpus fruticosus (L.) Aiton f. Asclepiadaceae Demaito bereka Herb Latex Ringworm Dress latex on affected area Dermal  
Leaves, stem Arthritis Ground leaves and stems, mix powder with butter and apply on affected body. Patient needs to expose himself to sunlight for an hour Dermal SA01343
Root Abortion Chew the root oral  
Gossypium herbaceum L. Malvaceae Tut Shrub Root Snake bite Roots are chewed to detoxify poison oral SA01363
Hibiscus micranthus L.f Malvaceae Segot Hamat Shrub Whole plant typhus House is fumigated with smoke to protect oneself from the disease nasal  
Hypoestes forskaolii (Vahl) R. Br. Acanthaceae Gerbia Herb Leaf jaundice Leaves are crushed, squeezed and juice taken orally   SA01315
Jasminum granditlorum L. subsp. floribundum (R.Br. ex Fresen.) P.S. Green Oleaceae habitselim Shrub Leaf Ascariasis Leaves are crushed, squeezed and cup of juice with sugar is taken orally oral SA01326
tapeworm Leaves are crushed, squeezed and cup of juice with sugar is taken orally oral  
wound Leaves are roasted on iron sheet ground into powder and are sprayed on wound Dermal  
vomiting Leaves are chewed to stop vomiting oral  
Justicia schimperiana (Hochst. ex A.Nees) T. Anders Acanthaceae Shemeza Shrub Leaf Jaundice Seven leaves of J. schimperiana and seven leaves of Croton mycrostachyus roasted on iron sheet, crushed into powder are eaten with ‘enjera’ daily for twenty-one days oral SA01301
A cup of leaf juice of the plant is taken daily for twenty-one days oral  
Klinia odora Forssk. Asteraceae Berier Shrub Whole plant Snake bite, evil eye, evil spirit House is fumigated to repel snakes and expel evil spirit nasal SA01378
Leonotis ocymifolia (Bunn. f.) Iwarsson Lamiaceae Keyh Embeba Ketater Herb Whole plant Febrile illness (michi) Fumigating oneself with smoke of plant nasal SA01371
Eye disease Fumigating oneself with smoke of plant nasal  
Lepidium sativum L. Brassicaceae Shenfa Herb Seed Amoebiasis and diarrhoea Seeds are ground into powder, mixed with honey and then taken for three days Dermal SA01310
Gland TB Open swelling/wound, add small amount of sulphur and covered it with seed paste of L. sativum and latex of C. procera Dermal  
Evil spirit Grind seeds, add powder into water and spray solution indoor to expel evil sprit Dermal  
malaria L. sativum seeds are crushed with leaves of R. chalepensis and A. Sativum and then taken orally for seven days Dermal  
Premna oligotricha L. Lamiaceae Sasa hadima Shrub Leaf Ascariasis Leaves are crushed and squeezed and a cup of juice is taken once orally   SA01325
Linum usitatissimum L. Linaceae Entatie   Seed Placental retention Seeds roasted on iron sheet and grinding into powder, then cooked in the presence of honey and taken for a month before delivery oral SA01386
amoebiasis Seeds are ground, mixed with water and a cup of juice drunk in the morning oral  
Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Solanaceae Tsebhi Awun Herb Leaf Anthrax Leaves are crushed, mixed with honey and swallowed oral SA01352
Maesa lanceolata Forssk. Myrsinaceae Saira Tree Leaf Scabies Leaves are crushed and juice smeared on affected part Dermal SA01302
Seed Tapeworm Seeds are ground, powder mixed with water and a cup of juice taken orally once oral  
Malva verticillata L. Malvaceae Enkeftiha Herb Leaf Anthrax Leaves are crushed, mixed with honey and swallowed oral SA01330
Melia azedarach L. Meliaceae Neem Tree Leaf Tonsillitis Crush leaves, filter and drunk the juice oral SA01382
Seed, leaf Dandruff Seeds and leaves are crushed and paste applied on head skin Dermal  
Leaf Malaria Leaves are crushed and squeezed, and a cup of solution taken orally daily for five days oral  
Tooth decay Leaves are chewed and spat
Meriandra dianthera (Roth, ex. Roem. & Schult.)Briq. Lamiaceae Mesaguh Tree Leaf Blood pressure Leaves are boiled in water and solution taken daily for a month by cup of tea until improvement oral SA01339
Diarrhoea Leaves are ground, powder is mixed with water and a cup of solution taken orally oral  
malaria Leaves are crushed, squeezed and a cup of juice taken daily for five days   
Nicotiana tabacum L. Solanaceae Tunbako Herb Root Snake bite Roots are chewed or crushed and paste applied on wound oral SA01308
Ocimum lamiifolium. Hochst.Ex Benth. Lamiaceae Dem akher (demekasie) Shrub Leaf Febrile illness (michi) Leaves are crushed and solution drunk with coffee. Juice is also smeared on skin oral/dermal SA01311
Olea europaea L subsp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) Cif. Oleaceae Awlie Tree Leaf Asthma Leaves are boiled in water and a cup of solution drunk every evening with skimmed milk to arrest vomiting oral SA01374
vomiting Leaves are chewed to stop vomiting oral  
Amoebiasis Leaves are crushed, squeezed and a cup of taken orally oral  
Eye infection Leaves are crushed, squeezed, filtered and two to three drops are added daily into the eye for five days ophthalmic  
Teeth ache Leaves are crushed and paste applied on affected area Dermal  
Ascariasis Leaves are crushed, squeezed and a cup of juice taken orally for one day oral  
Ormocarpum pubescence (Hochst.) Cuf. ex Gillett Fabaceae Alendia Shrub Stem rheumatism Stems burned on prepared place at home and females bathing the smoke putting butter on their head nasal SA01320
Orobanche minor Smit. Orobanchaceae Selmi Herb Whole plant Eye disease Burn the plant on clay dish and let the patient fumigate himself with smoke nasal SA01338
Otostegia integrifolia Benth. Lamiaceae Chendog Shrub Leaf Blood pressure Leaves are boiled boiling in water and a cup of solution drunk every morning until recovery oral SA01357
Oxalis anthelmintica A. Rich Oxalidaceae Habachego Herb Leaf Heart failure leaves are eaten for long period of time (about a year) oral SA01318
Tapeworm Patient eats some and remains on diet for next three hours oral  
Pavonia burchellii (DC.) Dyer. Malvaceae Neger negarito Shrub Leaf Stomach ache Leaves are crushed, squeezed and a cup of juice taken orally   SA01388
cough A cup of leaf juice is taken orally   
Phytolacca dodecandra L’Herit. Phytolacaceae Shebti Shrub Root Rabies Dried root of the plant is powdered and mixed with local alcohol and a cup of solution drunk daily for twelve days. vomiting is its side effect and, therefore, restricted to children and pregnant women oral SA01387
Leaf Gonorrhoea Leaves of P. dodecandra and roots of C. macrostachyus are ground, powdered mixed with water and solution drunk with one to two cups of coffee oral  
Jaundice Leaves are crushed, squeezed and one cup of juice taken daily for 21 days oral  
scabies Crushed leaves are rubbed on the skin. Skin is then washed in half –hour time Dermal  
Plantago lanceolata L. Plantaginaceae Melhas kelbi Herb Leaf Tinea corperis Leaves are rubbed on affected area Dermal SA01358
wound Leaves are crushed, squeezed and solution applied on wound Dermal  
Plumbago zeylanica L. Plumbaginaceae Aftihi Shrub Root Evil eye, evil spirit, magic Roots are fumigated in the house nasal SA01324
Polygala abyssinica Fres. Polygalaceae Etselebona Herb Root Snake bite Roots are chewed oral SA01314
Sharpen mind Finger-sized root is chewed. Overdose may causes madness oral  
Sever stomach ache Roots are chewed oral  
Rhamnus prinoides L’Herit. Rhamnaceae Gesho Shrub Leaf Tonsillitis Mothers chewing the leaves and spit to mouth of their children where as young ones chew it for themselves Dermal SA01350
Eczema Leaves crushed, mixed with pure butter and dressing the affected part Dermal  
Rhoicissus tridentata (L. f.) Wild & Drummond Vitaceae Hareg temen (etsezewie) Climber Root Snake bite Less than a finger-sized root is chewed and swallowed. Overdose causes severe stomach ache and vomiting oral SA01344
Rumex abyssinicus Jacq. Polygonaceae mokemoko Herb Root Blood pressure Roots are ground, powder mixed with water and solution drunk with tea every morning until improvement oral SA01398
Cancer Root powder is mixed in spicy stew to increase its power of curing the disease oral  
Tooth ache Chew root and apply paste on affected tooth oral  
Rumex nervosus Vahl. Polygonaceae Huhot Shrub Stem gastritis Young stems are chewed with salt and swallowed oral SA01394
Root Snake bite Roots are chewed to detoxify poison oral  
Leaf Skin rash Leaves are crushed and paste rubbed on affected area Dermal  
Breast cancer Leaves are crushed and paste applied on affected area Dermal  
Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae Gulie Shrub Seed Amoebiasis Crushed seeds are mixed with water and taken with a cup of tea once oral SA01377
Ruta chalepensis L. Rutaceae Chena adam Herb Leaf Evil eye Rub the leaves and Smell nasal SA01380
cough Leaves boiled in milk are taken orally oral  
Malaria Crushed the leaves of the plant with bulb of A. sativum in by adding and take medicine orally for three days oral  
Flue Leaf of R. chalepensis is pounded with bulb of A. Sativum, mixed with soup and used as a drink oral  
Sansevieria erythraeae Mattei Dracenaceae Eka termo Shrub Leaf Ear infection Leaves are heated on fire, juice squeezed into tea cup and three to four drops are added into the infected ear inner SA01365
Schinus molle L Anacardiaceae Tselim berbere Tree Stem Blood pressure Chewing the stem oral SA01364
Leaf Eye infection Boil leaves in water and let the patient bath himself with steam oral  
Solanum hirtulum Steud. ex A. Rich. Solanaceae Alalemo kelbi Herb Root Stomach ache Chewing the root oral SA01393
Solanum incanum L. Solonaceaee Neshtey engule Shrub Leaf Anthrax Seven leaves are crushed, mixed with honey and taken orally oral SA01372
Root Arthritis Roots are ground, powder mixed with animal butter and cream applied on affected body part and let the patient expose himself to sun light for five days Dermal  
Stomach ache Chewing the root Dermal  
Gonorrhoea Roots are ground, powder mixed with honey and paste taken for five days oral  
Solanum marginatum L. f. Solanaceae Abyiengule Shrub Seed Tuberculosis Seeds are dried, crushed and added into milk or coffee and solution taken every morning for 21 days oral SA01313
Solanum nigrum L. Solanaceae Alalemo Wezero Shrub Leaf Epistaxis Leaves crushed and pasted on the nasal openings Dermal SA01360
Bleeding after delivery Leaves are crushed and inserted into vagina Dermal  
Tagetes minuta L. Asteraceae Etsefaruos Herb Whole plant Evil eye Smoking the plant and let the patient fumigate himself nasal SA01389
Tragia uncinata M. Gilbert Euphorbiaceae Amae Herb Root Impotence Roots are ground and taken orally with local soup for a week oral SA01361
Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Fabaceae Aba’ke Herb Seed Urticaria Grind seeds , mix powder with butter and apply cream on affected part dermal SA01392
Stomach ache Boil powder in water, add sugar and given to babies oral  
Verbascum sinaiticum Benth. Scrophulariaceae Trnaka Herb Leaf Bleeding Leaves are crushed and paste applied on affected area dermal SA01366
Haemorrhoids Leaves are crushed, packed in a piece of cloth and inserted through rectum rectal  
Fire burn Leaves are crushed, squeezed and juice applied on the damaged part using clean cotton dermal  
Swelling Rub the swelling using fresh leaves dermal  
Verbena officinalis subsp. africana R. Fernandes & Verdc. Verbenaceae Atush Herb Whole plant Ascariasis Plant is crushed, squeezed and juice taken with cup of coffee for three days   SA01307
Diarrhoea Plant is crushed, squeezed and juice taken with cup of coffee for two to three days oral  
Leaf Ear infection Leaves are crushed, squeezed, juice filtered with clean cotton cloth, juice mixed with goat butter and three drops are added into the infected ear auricular  
Herpes zoster Leaves are crushed and paste applied on affected area Dermal  
Root Snake bite Chewing the root oral  
Tonsillitis Adults chew the root and spit paste into the mouth of their sick child oral  
Whole plant abdominal pain and febrile illness Plant is crushed, squeezed and solution taken with the cup of tea oral  
Vernonia amygdalina Del. Asteraceae Grawa Tree Leaf, root Devil sickness Rub body with crushed leaves or smoke root and inhale the smoke. Crushed young twigs and leaves may also be spread in a house Dermal/nasal SA01306
Leaf Malaria Crushed leaves of this plant and R. Chalepensis are boiled and three tablet- sized medicine prepared by mixing paste with honey is served every morning for seven days oral  
Root Snake bite Chewing the root oral  
Leaf Teeth ache Leaves are chewed with bulbs of A. sativum oral  
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal Solanaceae Agoal Shrub Leaf, stem michi Leaves and stems of the plant are decocted with leaves of E. globulus and C. africana and patient takes steam nasally nasal SA01356
Zehneria scabra (Linn.f.) Sond. Cucurbitaceae Haregressa Herb Whole plant Febrile illness The plant together with E. globulus and J. schimperiana is boiled in water and patient takes steam nasally Nasal SA01305
Zingiber officinale Rosc. Zingiberaceae gengible Herb Rhizome Blood pressure Chewing the rhizome Oral SA01399
Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. Rhamnaceae geba Shrub Whole plant Dandruff Leaves are crushed and paste applied on head skin Dermal SA01370