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Table 4 Ethnoveterinary practices in the study area compared with earlier records in Romania and some European countries

From: Ethnoveterinary practices of Covasna County, Transylvania, Romania

Diseases treated in ethnoveterinary practice Ethnomedicinal treatments in the studied villages * Earlier reported data in Romania Data in other countries
  Used ingredients Parts used and preparation Used ingredients Parts used and preparation Used ingredients Parts used and preparation
“hotness” (stomach heat, inflammation, ache) Artemisia absinthium herb1,4 [cattle] Centaurium erythraea Rafn. (Gentianaceae) herb as tea [pig] [47] Achillea millefolium flowers as infusion [53]
  Plantago lanceolata leaf with the herb of A. absinthium 1 [cattle] Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch (Apiaceae) herb with rancid pork fat and bitter salt [48] Matricaria chamomilla flowers as infusion [calves] [51]
  Gentiana asclepiadea (Figure 3) root with P. lanceolata as a tea12 [cattle] Peucedanum oreoselinum Moench (Apiaceae) herb as fodder [48] Potentilla erecta (L.) Raeusch. (Rosaceae) root as a tea [51]
  Salix alba leaf as fodder12 [cattle] Rumex crispus L. (Polygonaceae) seed soaked in brandy for digestive problems [48] milk [7]
  milk [cattle]5     
  oil [cattle]5,9     
inflamed udder, mastitis Calendula officinalis flower as a cream2 [cattle, horse] Brassica oleracea sour leaf sap with human urine and dung of horse as a cream [47] Brassica oleracea roasted leaf as an embrocation [14]
  Eryngium planum herb as a tea2 or washing12 [cattle, horse] Calendula officinalis flower as a cream [47] Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi (Lamiaceae) leaf as a wash [15]
  Matricaria chamomilla flower as a tea and wash12 [cattle] Digitalis grandiflora Mill. (Plantaginaceae) herb [26] Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. (Rosaceae) cider vinegar of fruit with grain as fodder [11]
  Mustela nivalis skin as an embrocation by itself2,6,9,11 or soaked in milk7 [cattle] Malus sylvestris vinegar of fruit on slate as impregnant, as an embrocation [cattle] [28,47] Malva sylvestris fresh leaf boiled and placed into sack using as a warm compress [15]
  cold water as a wash1,2,6,12; with vinegar2,3 and salt7 as a wash2,7 or embrocation3 [cattle] Mustela nivalis as a rubber [49] Olea europaea L. var. europaea (Oleaceae) fruit as an ointment [16]
  clay by itself or with salt as an embrocation7 [cattle] Papaver somniferum L. (Papaveraceae) seed as fodder for “reszfug” (= mastitis) [cattle, sheep] [26] Sambucus nigra L. (Adoxaceae) flower in fumigation [cattle] [16]
    Scrophularia nodosa L., részfugburján (Scrophulariaceae) as a wash [26], mixed and cooked with salt and flour of Zea mays [19] dried and mixed into the flour as fodder [20] Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) decoction of flowering stem as a wash [cattle, dog, sheep] [8]
    Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. (Pinaceae) resin by itself, or with sour cream or tallow as an embrocation [Papp, unpublished data, Uz-valley] Zea mays L. (Poaceae) seed as a decoction in water and/or milk as a washing [cattle] [8]
    flour with salt [26]   
    water with vinegar and salt as a washing and an embrocation [34]   
    yellow mud smeared onto the udder [cattle] [28]   
respiratory diseases: roaring (“kehesség”), cold, cough, pneumonia Armoracia rusticana root as fodder1–12 [horse] Allium cepa L. (Amaryllidaceae) 3 slices of the bulb grated and soaked in brandy, and mixed with saltpetre [29] Allium cepa bulb [16]
    Armoracia rusticana root by itself [34,47], or with Avena sativa and urine for “száraz kehe” (dry cough) of horse [28,29], or in boiled milk with one spoon of honey, tallow, yeast, 7 slices of Allium sativum, and 9 fruits of Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr., Myrtaceae and Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry, Myrtaceae and Piper nigrum L., Pipeaceae [horse] [29], or with “büdöskővirág” (sulphur powder) [34] Atropa belladonna L. (Solanaceae) leaf [horse, dog] [8]
  Juniperus communis pseudofruit as fodder7 [horse] Avena sativa L., Poaceae warmed by itself [28], or with urine, turpentine or “büdöskővirág” put into a sac and pull onto the head of horse as a steaming Avena sativa aerial part [horse] [10]
  injection [horse] 1 Brassica oleracea leaf sap dropped into the nostrils with dried and ground rat snake [horse] [19] Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (Myrtaceae) leaf [16]
  “szénamurha” by itself1,5,12 or poured with urine7 [horse] Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae) leaf [30] Helleborus bocconei Ten. (Ranunculaceae) petiole inserted into the ear or the neck for bronchitis [cattle] [13]
  turpentine [horse]1 Helleborus purpurascens Waldst. & Kit. (Ranunculaceae) leaf soaked in whey [19], or pulled into the breast [horse, cow], and into the ears [pig] [20,48,50] for dry and purulent cough [34] Helleborus foetidus L. (Ranunculaceae) [cattle][12] leaf inserted into the ears for bronchitis and pneumonia [cattle] [12]
    Hordeum vulgare L., H. vulgare convar. vulgare (Poaceae) steaming with warmed seed [27,31], flour with honey and water [29] Juniperus phoenicea L. (Cupressaceae) leaf [cattle, sheep, dog, horse] [8]
    Juniperus communis as a tea [horse] [25] Mercurialis annua L. (Euphorbiaceae) root as a tea [dog] [8]
    Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch (Apiaceae) aerial part as a tea [21,48] Origanum heracleoticum L. (Lamiaceae) aerial part [4]
    Matricaria chamomilla flower as a tea [pig] [47] Sugar on hot coal as a fumigant [4]
    Malus sylvestris vinegar of the fruit as an embrocation [47] tin melted and inserted into the nose [horse] [10]
    Pulmonaria officinalis L. (Boraginaceae) flower for pneumonia [pig] [19,20]   
    Secale cereale L. (Poaceae) flour for “fojókehe” for steaming [28,29]   
    Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae) bran by itself [29]   
    bear, goose and pork fat for “csikókehe, fojtókehe” [horse] [29]   
    salt sprinkled onto the nose [33]   
    sulphur powder for “csikókehe, fojtókehe” [horse] [29]   
    venesection [33]   
rumination Achillea millefolium herb as a tea [cattle]12 Allium sativum bulb with bread [28,29], or with wine and egg [33] Achillea millefolium aerial part [cattle] [54,56]
  Cucurbita pepo ground seed and seed oil [cattle]2 Angelica sylvestris L. (Apiaceae) leaf [21] Artemisia absinthium aerial part as a tea [10]
  Petroselinum crispum leaf [cattle]2 Armoracia rusticana roasted fruit [29] Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiaceae) fruit as an elixir [10]
  Salix alba leaf, leafy branches and bark [cattle]3 Artemisia dracunculus herb as a tea [29] Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) aerial part as a tea [16]
  Symphytum officinale L. root as fodder with bran [cattle]12 Avena sativa roasted fruit [29] Salix purpurea L., (Salicaceae) branches [10]
  bread [cattle]3,4 Beta vulgaris L. convar. crassa (Amaranthaceae) grated root [21] Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz Bip. (Asteraceae) aerial part as a tea [16]
  Toast [cattle] 7 Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) seed in oil [29] Beer [cattle] [10]
  Oil [cattle] 7 Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae) fruit [21] Buttermilk [cattle] [10]
    Cucurbita maxima Duchesne (Cucurbitaceae) seed with bran [22] soda (sodium bicarbonate) [cattle] [10]
    Cucurbita pepo ground seed with milk [28,30] whey [cattle] [10]
    Daucus carota ssp. sativus Hoffm. root [21,47]   
    Euonymus europaeus L. (Celastraceae) fruit [21]   
    Equisetum sylvaticum L. (Equisetaceae) herb [27,31]   
    Fragaria vesca L. (Rosaceae) fruit [30] or root as a tea [28]   
    Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) pressed seed coat [21,47]   
    Iris germanica L. (Iridaceae) root [20]   
    Juniperus communis pseudofruit with milk, roasted on bread [28], or woth the leaf of Salix alba, rusty fat, oil and bulb of Allium cepa [30,47]   
    Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch (Apiaceae) herb [21]   
    Linum usitatissimum L. (Linaceae) seed as a tea [21,24,31,34]   
    L. usitatissimum convar. Transitorium (Linaceae) ground seed with the seed of Helianthus annuus [29]   
    Malus domestica Borkh. vinegar with yeast and Artemisia dracunculus [29]   
    Matricaria chamomilla flower as a tea [20]   
    Petroselinum crispum leaf with bran and oil [22]   
    Peucedanum oreoselinum Moench (Apiaceae) herb [21]   
    Prunus domestica L. ssp. Rotunda (Rosaceae) leafy branches [28]   
    Raphanus sativus L. cv. niger f. subglobosa (Brassicaceae) tuber [21,24,31,34], or with cooking soda [22]   
    Rumex stenophyllus Ledeb.(Polygonaceae) herb [31]   
    Rubus idaeus L. convar. hortensis provar. inermis (Rosaceae) fruit as a syrup [29]   
    Sambucus nigra lower layer of the bark [30]   
    Salix alba leafy branches [28,30]   
    Salix spp. leafy branches [31]   
    Satureja hortensis L. (Lamiaceae) herb [28]   
    Sisymbrium strictissimum L. (Brassicaceae) root [28]   
    Triticum aestivum fruit [29]   
    Zea mays stem [29]   
    copper sulphate [34]   
    white wine with egg [sheep] [33]   
wounds, skin injuries Aristolochia clematitis leaf as an embrocation [cattle, horse, pig, sheep]1,2,4,6–11 Achillea millefolium herb cut and mixed with rancid fat [25] Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindaceae) decoction of the bark as a wash [9]
  Eryngium planum herb as a tea [cattle, horse]2 Aristolochia clematitis decoction of the stem and leaf as a wash, or the leaf as an embrocation [21,28,30] Althaea officinalis L. (Malvaceae) root [9]
  Euphorbia amygdaloides herb as a tea [horse, pig]12 Betula pendula Roth. (Betulaceae) leaf for bruised skin (“pecsendzsia, pokolszökés”) as a tea [50] Agave americana L. (Asparagaceae) leaf [9]
  Polygonum minus as a washing [cattle, horse]10 Chelidonium majus L. (Papaveraceae) leaf sap [47] Artemisia absinthium aerial part with honey [horse] [10]
  cobweb as an embrocation [horse]5 Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (Rosaceae) fruit or leafy branches as a decoction [ox] [25] Bovista dermoxantha Pers. (Lycoperdaceae) old fruiting body [horse] [10]
    Daphne mezereum L. (Thymelaeaceae) bark [sheep] [20], flower as an infusion [horse] [Papp, unpublished data, Uz-valley] Cardopatum corymbosum (L.) Pers. (Asteraceae) leaf [sheep,cattle, dog] [8]
    Euphorbia amygdaloides (Euphorbiaceae) ground herb ss an embrocation [26], or as a wash ([28,30,47] Papp, unpublished data, Uz-valley) Carpinus orientalis Mill. (Betulaceaeae) bark as a decoction [3]
    Euphorbia cyparissias (Euphorbiaceae) herb as a wash [28,30] Centaurea alba L. ssp. tartesiana Talavera (Asteraceae) leaf [horse] [8]
    Euphorbia palustris L. (Euphorbiaceae) herb as a wash [28,30] Daphne gnidium L. (Thymelaeaceae) stem as a liniment [9]
    Polygonum lapathifolium L. (Polygonaceae) leaf as an embrocation [26] Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich. (Cucurbitaceae) fruit [4]
    Symphytum officinale root [20] Euphorbia hirsuta L. (Euphorbiaceae) [sheep, cattle, horse, dog] [51]
    Veronica beccabunga L. (Plantaginaceae) herb as a wash [19] Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae) root as a bath [9]
    cobweb [19] Geranium rotundifolium L. (Geraniaceae) aerial part [9]
    hot fat [19] Hypericum perforatum aerial part [3,8,51]
    lime [19] Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Cupressaceae) pseudofruit as an ointment [9]
    urine [19] Lilium pyrenaicum Gouan (Liliaceae) bulb as a liniment and a poultice [9]
      Malva neglecta Wallr. (Malvaceae) aerial part [3], leaf [51]
      Marrubium vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) aerial part [sheep, cattle] [8]
      Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanaceae) leaf [sheep] [9]
      Peucedanum ostruthium (L.) W.D.J.Koch (Apiaceae) root as an ointment and bath [51]
      Prunus domestica fruit by itself [8], or in fermented and distilled form [7]
      Pulicaria odora Rchb. (Asteraceae) flowering top in alcohol or as a decoction [cattle, sheep, dog, horse] [8]
      Quercus ilex L. ssp. ilex, Q. petraea (Matt.) Liebl. (Fagaceae) bark as a bath [9]
      Ruta chalepensis aerial part as an embrocation and liniment [9]
      Sambucus nigra leaf as a decoction [14]
      Symphytum officinale root as an ointment and bath [51]
      Valeriana officinalis L. (Caprifoliaceae) root or leaf in mules [14]
      fat fox fat for pimples [horse], hen fat for sores [oxen] [2]
      Sulphur in water for burns [10]
      Cobweb [7]
anthelmintics Allium sativum bulb of by itself1,3–6,8–12 or soaked in milk [pig]2,12 Allium sativum bulb by itself [28,30,34] or in milk [34] Allium sativum bulb mixed with oil [dog] [8,14], or in water [3]
  Cucurbita pepo seed [pig]3,12 Armoracia rusticana root with the pseudofruit of Juniperus communis [30] Artemisia absinthum leaf as a decoction [dog] [8]
  Daucus carota ssp. sativus root [horse]7 Avena sativa roated fruit [28] Artemisia herba-alba Asso (Asteraceae) aerial part [sheep] [8]
  Quercus petraea, Q. robur nut [pig, cattle]3 Cannabis sativa seed with lime-water, or with Allium cepa, goose fat and milk [28] Chelidonium majus L. (Papaveraceae) leaf in water [3]
  Secale cereale fruit as fodder [horse]7 Cucurbita pepo seed with the seed of Ricinus communis L., (Euphorbiaceae) Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Amaranthaceae) aerial part [3,16]
  whey powder [pig]2 Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott, (Dryopteridaceae) dried rhizome [poultry] [29,41] Daphne gnidium bark [swine, cattle, sheep, dog, horse] [8]
    Hordeum vulgare roasted seed [27,29,31] Hypericum maculatum Crantz (Hypericaceae) aerial part as a tea [7]
    Phaseolus vulgaris L. Fabaceae fruit as a decoction without salt [29] Mentha suaveolens Ehrh.(Lamiaceae) aerial part as a tea [16]
    Quercus petraea, Q. robur ground nut or bark as a tea [28] Ruta chalepensis aerial part [3,16]
    Sambucus nigra bar kin milk [25,30] Scabiosa columbaria L. (Caprifoliaceae) aerial part as a tea [16]
    Secale cereale fruit or flour [30] Simethis mattiazzi (Vand.) Sacc. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) root as a decoction [3]
    Triticum aestivum bran with butter, fat, salt and soap as a decoction [29] Teucrium scorodonia L. (Lamiaceae) aerial part [3,16]
    bran with ash [33]   
    dove dung dried dung mixed into the fodder [34]   
    petroleum [33]   
diarrhea Artemisia absinthium herb as a tea [cattle, horse]3 Achillea collina (Becker ex Rchb. f.) Heimerl, A. millefolium (Asteraceae) aerial part as a tea [22,26] Achillea millefolium aerial part [calf] [10]
  Potentilla anserina leaf as a tea [cattle, horse, pig, sheep]1,2,4–6,9–12 Alchemilla vulgaris L. (Rosaceae) aerial part as a tea [41] Achillea ptarmica L. ssp. pyrenaica (Sibth. ex Godr.) flower with the flower of Sambucus nigra as a tea [16]
  Rumex acetosella, R. obtusifolius, Rumex spp. fruit as a tea [cattle, horse, pig, sheep]1–12 Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. (Betulaceae) bark as a decoction [48] Agrimonia eupatoria L. (Rosaceae) aerial part as a tea [16]
  Quercus petraea, Q. robur bark as tea [pig]3 Artemisia absinthium aerial part as a tea [28] Brassica oleracea ssp. oleracea aerial part [16]
  “hótszén” as fodder [pig]2 Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Sapindaceae) seed [cattle, pig] [28,29,34] Ceratonia siliqua L. (Fabaceae) grain [51]
    Chelidonium majus aerial part as a tea [26] Chelidonium majus leaf as a tea [3]
    Equisetum arvense L. (Equisetaceae) aerial part as a tea [48] Citrus limon (L.) Burm. (Rutaceae) epicarp of the fruit with the seed of Oryza sativa L. (Poaceae) as a soup [51]
    Fagus sylvatica L. (Fagaceae) bark as a decoction [cattle] [34,47] Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. (Rosaceae) leaf as a tea [16]
    Hordeum vulgare roasted seed [pig, horse] [22,33], or with salty flour with the seed of Secale cereale [29] Daphne gnidium stem [16]
    Juniperus communis pseudofruit as a tea [cattle] [25] Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Apiaceae) aerial part [16]
    Quercus cerris L. ground bark as a tea [47] Hypericum maculatum aerial part as a tea [7]
    Quercus petraea ground bark in fodder [22] Lythrum salicaria L. (Lythraceae) aerial part [16]
    Rumex acetosa L., R. confertus Willd., R. crispus seed as a decoction [19,20,22,28,30,48] Phlomis purpurea L. (Lamiaceae) aerial part [sheep, horse, dog] [8]
    Rumex acetosella seed as a decoction [47] Quercus rubra L. (Fagaceae) branch [rabbit] [8]
    Rumex patientia L., R. stenophyllus Ledeb. [cattle, horse, pig] [31] Polygonum aviculare L. (Polygonaceae) aerial part as a tea [8]
    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) aerial part as a tea [cattle] [29] Potentilla reptans L. (Rosaceae) aerial part as a tea [rabbit] [8]
    Sambucus racemosa L. (Adoxaceae) fruit as a tea [48] Rosmarinus officinalis L. aerial part as a tea [16]
    Sisymbrium strictissimum L. (Brassicaceae) root as a decoction [cattle] [30] Rumex acetosella aerial part [cattle] [5]
    Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae) tuber with the leaf of Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabacaeae) [48] Rumex sp. boiled seeds in water [pig] [64]
    Sorbus domestica L. (Rosaceae) bark as a decoction [20] Thymus serpyllum L. ssp. nervosus (Willk.) Nyman (Lamiaceae) aerial part as a tea [16]
    Triticum aestivum bran by itself [calf] [21] Vaccinium myrtillus L. (Ericaceae) raw or dried fruit [51]
    ash [horse] [33] Verbascum sinuatum L. (Scrophulariaceae) flower as a tea [16]
    salt [sheep] [48]   
    vinegar [sheep] [48]   
diuretics Petroselinum crispum leaf [horse]3 Allium cepa bulb as a decoction [cattle, horse] [34], or into the urethra [horse] [19-21] Daphne laureola L. aerial part [3]
  ammonia to smell in the stable [horse]5,6 Capsicum annuum convar. longum, (Solanaceae) fruit [29] Herniaria hirsuta L. ssp. cinerea (DC.) Coutinho (Caryophyllaceae) aerial part [16]
  lice put into the urethra [horse]5 Fragaria vesca L. (Rosaceae) root as a tea [20] Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek, (Brassicaceae) as a decoction [pig] [8]
  water poured beside the animals [horse]7, or put into the shed to vaporize and induce urination [sheep]7; animals guided to the edge of rivers to hear the sound of water [horse]5 Narcissus stellaris Haw. (Amaryllidaceae) flower [cattle] [30] Simethis mattiazzi (Vand.) Sacc. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) root [3]
    Petroselinum crispum leaf or root with saltpeter as a decoction [cattle, horse] [19-21,34] Zea mays stigma as a decoction [3]
    Peucedanum sp. (Apiaceae) boiled herb as fodder [sheep] [48]   
    Polygonum bistorta L. (Polygonacaeae) rhizome [26]   
    Sambucus nigra flower as a decoction [cattle] [33]   
    Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) root as a tea [19]   
cataract powdered sugar blown into the eyes [cattle]1–12 Anagallis arvensis L. ssp. phoenicea Vollmann (Primulaceae) dried and ground petals mixed with powdered sugar [22]   
  powdered glass blown into the eyes [cattle]1–12 Capsicum annuum dried and ground pungent fruit [cattle] [21,48]   
    Malus sylvestris vinegar of the fruit as an embrocation [47]   
    Matricaria chamomilla tea of the flower as a wash [22]   
    Nicotiana tabacum ground leaf spit with saliva into the eyes [47]   
    Tilia cordata Mill. (Malvaceae) yellow part under the bark with milk as an embrocation [47]   
    “szentgyörgybéka” (Bombina variegata L., Bombinatoridae) put into the eyes [19,49]   
    ash blown into the eyes [cattle] [49]   
    salt blown into the eyes [horse] [19,33]   
    sugar blown into the eyes [cattle] [19,33,49]   
    powdered glass blown into the eyes [horse] [19,33]   
    powdered porcelain blown into the eyes [33]   
after delivery Petroselinum crispum leaf to promote expulsion of the placenta as fodder [cattle]3 Hordeum vulgare convar. vulgare roasted seed as fodder [cattle] [29]   
antiparasitic, repellent, and insecticide effect; for scab Juglans regia leaf against flies as a rub [horse]6 Aconitum moldavicum Hacq. (Ranunculaceae) root against lice and ticks [26] Capsicum annuum fruit in oil [16]
  Veratrum album ground root as a rub against lice, flies and mosquitos [horse]6 Artemisia absinthium aerial part strewed against lice, spray with lime in the chicken pen [33] Cestrum parqui L 'Hér. (Solanceae) herb [52]
    Ballota nigra L. (Lamiaceae) aerial part put under hen against lice [31] Juglans regia leaf against flies as a decoction [horse] [16]
    Brassica oleracea, B. oleracea var. capitata sour sap of the leaf against scab [sheep] [19,20], salty leaf sap against ox warble fly [28] and lice [29] Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae) fruits in olive oil [52]
    Cucurbita pepo runner against flies as a rub [29] Matricaria chamomilla flowering top against fleas [cattle, sheep, dog] [8]
    Dryopteris filix-mas leaf as bed of straw [pig] [25] Olea europaea var. europaea seed oil as a repellent poultice [16]
    Euonymus europaeus L. (Celastraceae) dried and ground fruit against lice [cattle, hen, pig] [28,29] Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn (Dennstaedtiaceae) leaf against fleas [16]
    Helianthus annuus seed oil smeared onto the animals against lice [cattle, hen, pig] [28,29] Ruta chalepensis aerial part against flies as a rub [horse] [8], and against fleas [16]
    Helleborus purpurascens root as a decoction against scab [30] Sonchus oleraceus aerial part in oil and as a poultice against flies [horse, cattle] [14], leaf and root as a decoction against lices, and as a bath against scabs [17], root as a decoction and wash against lice and scabs [sheep] [9]
    Juglans regia leaf against flies as a rub [29] Urginea maritima (L.) Baker (Asparagaceae) bulb in oil [16], or placed in shed as a repellent [cattle] [13]
    Nicotiana tabacum leaf as a wash against lice, scabs and moths [20,33] Veratrum album aerial part as a tea [sheep] [16], root [calves] [55]
    Persica vulgaris Mill. (Rosaceae) sap of the ground leaf smeared onto the body against flies [pig] [33]   
    Polygonum lapathifolium leaf as a wash against lice, scabs and moths [26,30]   
    Rumex crispus root against scab as a decoction [26]   
    Tussilago farfara L. (Asteraceae) leaf against scab as a decoction [26]   
    Veratrum album root dried and smeared onto the hair [19,20,22,25,33,41,48], or boiled with the leaf sap of Brassica oleracea against lice [sheep, cattle], or with goose fat [hen] [30]   
    cart-grease as a rub against lice [34]   
    copper sulphate in water with vinegar as a wash [sheep] [34]   
    fat rancid fat against lice [hen], or with mercury [34]   
    lye-ashes smeared onto the body [pig, sheep] [33]   
    petroleum smeared onto the body [pig, sheep] [33]   
    potash-lye in water as a bath [poultry] [33]   
  1. *Number superscipts refere to the specific villages studied in Covasna: Biborţeni1, Bodoş 2 , Filia3, Racoşul de Sus4, Băţanii Mici5, Băţanii Mari6, Herculian7, Tălişoara8, Aita Seacă9, Ozunca-Băi10, Vârghiş11, Valea Zălanului12. Full botanical citations for plants documented in this study are provided in Table 2.