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Table 1 Medicinal plant used in the study area

From: A cross-cultural comparison of folk plant uses among Albanians, Bosniaks, Gorani and Turks living in south Kosovo

Botanical taxon, family and voucher specimen code Status Folk name(s) a Part(s) used Administration Treated disease(s) or folk medical uses(s) Alb N uc b Bo/Go N uc b Tur N uc b UV Alb c UV Bo/Go c UV Tur c Q d
Abies alba Mill. (Pinaceae) 14/Pz/2013 W BredhiALB Wood Resin, mixed with fat Anti-fungal 2 0 0 0.033 0 0 I
Agrimonia eupatoria L. (Rosaceae) 08/Pz/2013 W PetrovacBOG Aerial parts Infusion Anti-allergic, 0 3 1 0 0.219 0.065 I
Kezell japrakTUR Earache, 0 1 0
Anti-inflammatory, 0 2 2
Anti-diarrheal 0 1 0
Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. (Poaceae) 07/Pz/2013 W Bari i magaritALB Aerial parts Infusion Anti-hemorrhoidal, 2 0 0 0.049 0.125 0.065 I
PriovinaALB Respiratory system disorders, 0 3 0
PriovinaBOG
Urinary tract disorders 1 1 0
Alchemilla vulgaris L. (Rosaceae) 05/Pz/2013 E AlhemılaALB Aerial parts Infusion Improve fertility in women 2 0 0 0.033 0 0 I
Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) 03/Pz/2013 W BarëpezmatimiALB Aerial parts Infusion Anti-cholesterolemic, 0 4 0 0.557 2.656 0.652 I
Hajdutska travaBOG Anti-coagulant, 3 6 0
Hajdut otiTUR Appetizing, 5 3 6
Anti-microbial, 12 28 8
Antiemetic, 2 0 0
Carminative and spasmolytic, 7 31 11
Anti-diabetic, 0 4 1
Antacid, 0 1 0
Menstrual pains, 0 1 0
Influenza, 2 5 3
Stomachache 3 2 1
Allium cepa L. (Amaryllidaceae) 11/Pz/2013 C KepaALB Bulbs Eaten raw, Anti-cholesterolemic 3 7 1 0.656 1.125 0.5 I
Cerveni lukBOG Topically in wound Anti-bacterial 37 29 22     
KepiTUR
Allium porrum L. (Amaryllidaceae) 09/Pz/2013 C PurriALB Leaves Eaten Thyroid disorders 2 4 0 0.033 0.125 0 I
PrazıllukBOG
Allium sativum L. (Amaryllidaceae) 10/Pz/2013 C HudraALB Bulbs Eaten Anti-hypertensive, 16 24 11 1.361 3.188 1.63 II
Beli llukBOG SarimsakTUR Anti-fungal, 11 8 3
Anti-ageing, 0 3 5
Urinary tract infections, 2 5 3
Anti-hypertensive, 18 14 12
Bronchitis
12 6 8
Mixed with honey Bronchitis, 14 7 7     
Anti-tussive, 2 8 3
Skeletal system enhancement, 0 2 2
Immunostimulant, 0 5 3
Anti-anemic, 0 2 1
Respiratory system disorders, 8 17 13
Skin regeneration 0 1 4
Althaea officinalis L. (Malvaceae) W MullagaALB Flowers Infusion Anti-tussive/expectorant 12 18 9 0.197 0.563 0.196 I
Beli slezBOG
Gul hatemTUR
Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) 06/Pz/2013 C AloaALB Leaves Eaten fresh with honey Anti-tumor 3 0 0 0.049 0 0 I
Amanita caesarea (Scop.) Pers. (Amanitaceae) W KërpurdhaALB Fruiting body Topically applied Skin infections 2 0 0 0.033 0 0 I
Apium graveolens L. (Apiaceae) 12/Pz/2013 C KerevizTUR Aerial parts Infusion To treat sterility 0 0 2 0 0 0.109 I
Roots Infusion Diuretic, appetizing 0 0 3     
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. (Ericaceae) 02/Pz/2013 W Çaj uvinALB Leaves Infusion Urinary tract infections 12 16 0 0.344 1 0 I
Rrush arusheALB Aerial parts Infusion Urinary tract infections and pains 9 16 0     
Medvegje ushiBOG
Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae) 01/Pz/2013 W FshisaALB Leaves Infusion Anti-anemic, Anti-malarial 2 3 0 0.377 1.25 0 I
PeliniALB 0 2 0
Divli pelinBOG Aerial parts Infusion Anti-diabetic, 0 2 0     
Appetizing, 4 5 0
Improve hormonal balance in women, 0 2 0
Anti-parasitic, 1 1 0
Relaxant, stomachache 12 16 0
Fruits Infusion Lithontriptic, 0 1 0     
Anti-asthmatic, 2 3 0
Anti-diabetic
2 5 0
Avena sativa L. (Poaceae) 15/Pz/2013 C TheknaALB Aerial parts Infusion Skeletal system enhancement 2 0 4 0.033 0 0.087 I
Jullaf TUR
Betula alba L. (Betulaceae) 16/Pz/2013 W MështeknaALB   Infusion Diuretic, 0 1 0 0.164 0.563 0.217 I
Plep i bardhëALB Edema, 0 2 2
BrezaBOG Urinary disorders 2 4 2
Hush agagjiTUR Infusion used for hair wash Alopecia 8 11 6     
Brassica rapa L. (Brassicaceae) C RrepaALB ShalgamTUR Taproot Eaten Eye disorders, Immunostimulant 4 0 3 0.066 0 0.065 I
Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) 27/Pz/2013 C Lule dukatiALB NevenBOG Aerial parts Extracted with different oils Anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, 0 14 0 0 0.938 0 I
Vulnerary for burn wounds and sunburns 0 16 0
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. (Brassicaceae) 28/Pz/2013 C Më do s’më donALB TarqushakBOG Aerial parts Infusion Anticoagulant 2 5 0 0.033 0.156 0 I
HoqunequBOG
Castanea sativa Mill. (Fagaceae) 19/Pz/2013 W/C GështajaALB Flowers Infusion Anti-anemic, 3 0 0 0.131 0 0 I
Bronchitis, 2 0 0
Anti-tussive 2 0 0
Cortex Infusion Anti-tussive 1 0 0     
Centaurium erythraea Rafn (Gentianaceae) 29/Pz/2013 W Kantarioni i kuqALB Aerial parts Infusion Anticoagulant, 0 2 0 0.426 1.063 0.391 I
Bari i etheveALB Anti-pyretic, 13 18 9
KicicaBOG Anti-malarial, 9 12 6
Appetizing, 2 1 0
Anti-anemic, 0 1 0
Antacid, 0 0 1
Immunostimulant 2 0 2
Centaurea cyanus L. (Asteraceae) 20/Pz/2013 W KokoçeliALB Flower Infusion Respiratory disorders 3 1 0 0.049 0.031 0 I
KicicaBOG
Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert (Asteraceae) 43/Pz/2013 W Lule qeniALB Aerial parts Infusion Antimicrobial, 31 37 25 3.115 5.5 2.543 VI
KamomilALB Infections of the digestive tract, 12 10 0
KamilicaBOG Urinary tract infections, 20 6 13
Eye infections 11 8 2
BabunecBOG 25 15 17
PapatjaTUR
Sari çiçekTUR
    Flowers Infusion Anti-tussive, 14 26 22     
Anti-bacterial, 31 35 12
Influenza, 11 9 9
Oral cavity infections, 9 3 4
Anti-hemorrhoidal, 1 0 7
Alopecia, 2 0 0
Wound healing, 20 23 6
Relaxant 3 4 0
Chelidonium majus L. (Papaveraceae) 30/Pz/2013 W TamelqakALB Latex Topically used Skin infections, warts 11 0 7 0.18 0 0.152 I
Kena qıqegıTUR
Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae) 21/Pz/2013 W CikorjaSHQ Aerial parts Infusion Hepatic disorders 2 0 4 0.033 0 0.087 I
Mavi çiçekTUR
Satali bitki TUR
Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) 31/Pz/2013 C LimunBOG Fruits Lemon juice mixed with sugar Anti-tussive, bronchitis 0 6 3 0 0.188 0.065 I
LimonTUR
Cornus mas L. (Cornaceae) 23/Pz/2013 W ThanaALB Fruits Infusion Anti-anemic, 0 5 1 0.148 0.656 0.304 I
DreniljeBOG Anti-hypertensive, 5 3 6
DirninaTUR Anti-diarrheal, 0 4 2
Anti-malarial,   1 1
Anti-emetic in early stage of 2   
pregnancy (for morning sickness),   5 2
Improve immunity, 2   
Anti-hemorrhoidal 0 2 1
  1 1
Corylus avellana L. (Betulaceae) 24/Pz/2013 W LejthıALB Leaves Infusion Anti-tussive, 0 2 1 0 0.18 0.022 I
Adi findikTUR Antacid, 0 3 0
Hepatic disorders 0 1 0
Cotinus coggygria Scop. (Anacardiaceae) 64/Pz/2013 W RujTUR Leaves Infusion Stomach disorders, 0 0 2 0 0 0.174 I
Boyaci sumakTUR Kidney disorders, 0 0 1
Anti-diarrheal 0 0 4
Fruits Infusion Anti-diarrheal 0 0 1     
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (Rosaceae) 18/Pz/2013 05/Pz/11 W MurriziALB Fruits Infusion Improve blood circulation, 27 21 18 1.279 2.406 1.174 I
GllogBOG Anti-hypertensive, 22 20 12
Adi aliçTUR Neurorelaxant 2 6 1
  Leaves and flowers Infusion Anti-hypertensive, 12 20 12     
Anti-diabetic, 2 6 2
Anti-cholesterolemic 13 4 9
Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitaceae) 26/Pz/2013 C KastravecALB Fruits and seeds Eaten fresh Kidney disorders, 4 3 0 0.131 0.375 0 I
KastravacBOG Improve blood circulation, 3 7 0
Improve skin vitality, 1 1 0
Eye disorders 0 1 0
Cucumis melo L. (Cucurbitaceae) 25/Pz/2013 C PjepniALB Fruits Eaten fresh Infection of digestive system 4 0 0 0.066 0 0 I
Cydonia oblonga Mill. (Rosaceae) C FtuaALB Leaves Infusion Anti-diarrheal 7 4 0 0.115 0.125 0 I
DunjaBOG
Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott (Dryopteridaceae) W PapratBOG Leaves Infusion Anti-parasitic 0 2 0 0 0.063 0 I
Equisetum arvense L. (Equisetaceae) 07/Pz/11 W Konksi repBOG Aerial parts Infusion Hepatic disorders, 0 2 0 0 0.281 0 I
Kidney infections and pain 0 7 0
Euphorbia amygdaloides L. (Euphorbiaceae) W Mali mleqBOG Latex Topically used Warts 0 3 0 0 0.094 0 I
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae) 32/Pz/2013 W KopërALB RezeneBOG Fruits Infusion Eye disorders, 0 2 0 0.197 0.375 0.130 I
AnasonTUR Galactogogue, 0 1 1
Spasmolytic 12 9 5
Fragaria vesca L. (Rosaceae) W DredhzaALB Fruits Infusion Digestive, Spasmolytic 2 0 3 0.082 0 0.174 I
Divla jagodaBOG 3 0 5
Fumaria officinalis L. (Papaveraceae) 33/Pz/2013 W ShatereTUR Aerial parts Infusion Diuretic, 0 2 3 0 0.188 0.087 I
Relaxant, 0 1 1
Anti-hypertensive 0 3 0
Galium verum L. (Rubiaceae) 35/Pz/2013 W / Aerial parts Infusion Kidney disorders, 0 0 2 0 0 0.130 I
Skin regeneration 0 0 4
Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae) 34/Pz/2013 W GecianaALB Roots Infusion Digestive disorders, 5 12 0 0.180 0.375 0 I
LincuraBOG Flavor additive for alcoholic beverage 6 0 0
Geranium sanguineum L. (Geraniaceae) W ZdrvacBOG Aerial parts Infusion Respiratory disorders, laryngitis 0 3 0 0 0.094 0 I
Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) C Lule djellıALB Seeds Extracted with animal fat Skin infections 6 5 0 0.098 0.156 0 I
SuncokretBOG
Hordeum vulgare Jess. (Poaceae) C ElbiALB Seeds Flour, mixed with oil Wound healing 5 0 2 0.082 0 0.043 I
JeçmenikTUR
Arpa elbiTUR
Humulus lupulus L. (Cannabaceae) 37/Pz/2013 W Bari sherbetitALB Aerial parts Infusion Insomnia, 3 3 1 0.180 0.563 0.217 I
Amel brumitTUR Appetizing, 2 5 2
AmelTUR Neurorelaxant 0 2 2
  Fruits Infusion Insomnia, 6 5 3     
Diuretic, 0 3 1
Prostate disorders 0 0 1
Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) 36/Pz/2013 08/Pz/11 W KantarioniALB Aerial parts Infusion Anti-anemic, Wound healing, Anticoagulant, Neurorelaxant, Antacid 0 4 0 0.475 1.844 0 I
KantarionBOG 12 32 0
0 1 0
16 21 0
1 1 0
Inula sp. (Asteraceae) W OmaniTUR Roots Infusion Anti-tussive, Bile simulation, Diuretic 0 0 2 0 0 0.130 I
Safra otiTUR 0 0 3
0 0 1
Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae) 40/Pz/2013 C ArraALB Fruits Eaten Anti-parasitic, Thyroid disorders 3 0 0 0.115 0 0 I
4 0 0
Juncus effusus L. (Juncaceae) W XukllaTUR Aerial parts Infusion Urinary tract disorders 0 0 3 0 0 0.065 I
Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae) 39/Pz/2013 W GëllijaALB Wood Extracted with oil, topically used in skin Anti-fungal, Skin depigmentation 6 17 5 0.623 2.094 0.696 I
KlekaBOG 2 11 2
ArdeqTUR
  Fruits Extracted with alcohols Anti-rheumatic 5 3 0     
Infusion Tuberculosis, 6 2 9     
Anti-rheumatic, 3 11 5
Lithontriptic, 9 21 11
Anti-asthmatic, 4 1 0
Anti-diabetic 3 1 0
Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae) 41/Pz/2013 C SallataALB Aerial parts Eaten fresh Headache, 0 0 2 0 0 0.043 I
MarrolliTUR Galactogogue 0 0 4
Leonurus cardiaca L. (Lamiaceae) W Ayslan kuyrguTUR Aerial parts Infusion Cardiotonic, 0 0 3 0 0 0.065 I
Improve blood circulation, 0 0 2
Memory enhancement 0 0 4
Lycoperdon sp. (Agaricaceae) 60/Pz/2013 W PufkaALB Powder Topically applied Wound healing, Hemostatic 4 1 0 0.066 0.031 0 I
MantariBOG 8 4 0
Lycopodium clavatum L. (Lycopodiaceae) W Bari qibrititALB Aerial parts Topically applied to skin Anti-microbial 2 0 0 0.033 0 0 I
Infusion Hepatitis 1 0 0     
Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae) 44/Pz/2013 W MullagaALB Aerial parts Extracted with fat (melhem) Wound healing, 3 5 2 0.262 0.250 0.283 I
Mali slez BOG Anti-acne 5 2 0
Ebe gumeciTUR
  Flowers Infusion Anti-tussive, 2 1 3     
Bronchitis, 2 0 4
Antimicrobial 4 0 4
Mespilus germanica L. (Rosaceae) 47/Pz/2013 C MushmollaALB Aerial parts Infusion Anti-diarrheal, 4 0 0 0.115 0 0 I
Anti-diabetic, 2 0 0
Ear disorders 1 0 0
Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) 42/Pz/2013 W Bari i bletësALB Aerial parts Infusion Neurorelaxant, 3 8 5 0.475 0.406 0.413 I
MatoqınaBOG Headache, 3 1 4
MolshvatravaBOG Anti-hypertensive, 2 0 1
Appetizing, 6 0 1
Improve blood circulation,    
Bronchitis, 3 0 1
Anti-anemic, 7 2 3
Anti-hallucinogenic, 0 1 3
Respiratory disorders 5 1 1
Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. (Lamiaceae) 45/Pz/2013 C Çaj nanaALB NanaBOG Aerial parts Infusion Stomach disorders, 0 3 0 0.311 0.75 0 I
Carminative, 3 4 0
Influenza, 2 6 0
Respiratory system infections, 8 9 0
Anti-tussive, 4 1 0
Expectorant 2 1 0
Mentha pulegium L. (Lamiaceae) 46/Pz/2013 W Divla mentaBOG Aerial parts Infusion Neurorelaxant, 0 3 0 0 0.625 0 I
Improve blood circulation, 0 7 0
Respiratory system infections, 0 9 0
Antitussive 0 1 0
Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) 50/Pz/2013 C Kudret nareTUR Fruits Mixed with oil –internal use Wound healing, 0 0 7 0 0 0.435 I
Sari kadakTUR Anti-diabetic, 0 0 1
Anti-cancer 0 0 4
  Mixed with oil - topically applied Vulnerary for burn wounds 0 0 8     
Morus alba L. (Moraceae) 49/Pz/2013 C Mani i bardheALB Leaves Infusion Anti-diabetic 0 0 4 0 0 0.087 I
AkdutTUR
Morus nigra L. (Moraceae) 48/Pz/2013 C Mani i ziALB Fruits Eaten fresh Infections of upper part of respiratory system 3 0 5 0.148 0 0.196 I
DutTUR
KaradutTUR
  Leaves Infusion Anti-pyretic, Diuretic 6 0 4     
Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) 51/Pz/2013 C BosiljakBOG Aerial parts Infusion Carminative, 0 3 0 0 0.219 0 I
Kidney infections, 0 1 0
Tuberculosis 0 3 0
Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) 15/Pz/11 C UlliniALB Fruits Eaten fresh Tuberculosis, Spasmolytic 0 1 0 0.131 0.219 0.283 I
MaslinaBOG 6 5 2
Zejtın tanesiTUR
  Leaves Infusion Improve blood circulation, 0 1 5     
Anti-diabetic, 1 0 3
Anti-hypertensive 1 0 3
Orchis morio L. (Orchidaceae) 53/Pz/2013 W SalepBOG Tubers Infusion Influenza, 0 2 1 0 0.219 0.043 I
SahlepTUR Stomach disorders, 0 1 1
Wound healing 0 4 0
Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) 52/Pz/2013 W Çaj maliALB Aerial parts Infusion Anti-tussive, 6 4 2 0.279 0.750 0.304 I
OriganoBOG Influenza, 2 3 1
ToqillaTUR Respiratory system infections 9 17 11
Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss (Apiaceae) 61/Pz/2013 C MajdanozALB Aerial parts Infusion Anti-cholesterolemic 2 0 4 0.148 0 0.304 I
MagdenozTUR Anti-diabetic, 4 0 1
Galactogogue, 2 0 5
Anticoagulant 1 0 4
Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) 62/Pz/2013 C PasulALB Aerial parts Infusion Anti-diabetic 2 0 3 0.033 0 0.065 I
Jer pasulTUR
Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiaceae) C Bati i gjinitALB AnasonTUR Aerial parts Infusion Spasmolytic, 0 0 5 0 0 0.283 I
Carminative, 0 0 5
Anti-ageing, 0 0 2
Galactogogue 0 0 1
Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold. (Pinaceae) W/C PishaALB Resin Extracted with oil Skin infections 3 0 6 0.049 0 0.130 I
Kara qamTUR
Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae) 54/Pz/2013 W DejziALB Leaves Infusion Wound healing 0 6 0 0 0.313 0 I
BokvicaBOG Arial parts Infusion Skin infections 0 3 0     
Zenska bokvicaBOG Flowers Infusion Digestive and urinary disorders 0 1 0     
Polygonum aviculare L. (Polygonaceae) W BarthekALB Aerial parts Infusion Urinary system disorders, 2 0 4 0.082 0 0.109 I
KusekmeziTUR Anti-coagulant 3 0 1
TroketTUR
Populus alba L. (Salicaceae) W PlepiALB Aerial parts Topically uses Wound healing 0 0 3 0 0 0.087 I
Ak kavakTUR Leaves Infusion Urinary tract disorders 0 0 1     
Beyaz kavakTUR
Primula veris L. (Primulaceae) 56/Pz/2013 W Myzhdja e pranverësALB Flowers Infusion Headache, 0 2 1 0.508 1.094 0.543 I
JaglikaBOG Anti-tussive, 11 14 9
Zuti vetBOG Respiratory system disorders, 14 7 9
JagorcevinaBOG Improve blood circulation 3 1 1
Quha çicegiTUR
Aerial parts Infusion Anti-tussive, 2 4 0     
Expectorant, 1 6 4
Bronchitis 0 1 1
Prunus avium L. (Rosaceae) C QershiaALB Fruits Decoction Anti-hypertensive, 2 0 0 0.262 0 0 I
Improve blood circulation, 5 0 0
Anti-bacterial, 3 0 0
Digestive tract disorders 1 0 0
Resin Topically used Scabies 5 0 0     
Prunus domestica L. (Rosaceae) 55/Pz/2013 C SljivaBOG Fruits Decoction Hepatic disorders, 0 1 0 0 0.438 0 I
Anti-hemorrhoidal, 0 5 0
Anti-parasitic, 0 2 0
Constipation 0 6 0
Prunus spinosa L. (Rosaceae) W KulumrijaALB Flowers Infusion Constipation 0 3 1 0.131 0 0.065 I
TerninaBOG Fruits Infusion Anti-diabetic, 7 2 4     
KurumliaTUR Hepatic disorders 0 1 1
  Leaves Infusion Improve digestion, 1 1 2     
Appetizing 0 2 1
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. (Dennstaedtiaceae) W FiriALB Leaves Extracted with oil Wound healing 0 0 3 0 0 0.065 I
Qiban otuTUR
Pulmonaria officinalis L. (Boraginaceae) W Bar ı mushkerıveALB PluqnjakBOG Aerial parts Infusion Anti-tussive, 1 3 0 0.016 0.125 0 I
Bronchitis 0 1 0
Pyrus communis L. (Rosaceae) 58/Pz/2013 W DardhaALB Fruits Infusion Cardiotonic, 0 3 0 0 0.125 0.043 I
Dardha egerALB Hepatic disorders 0 1 2
ArmutTUR
Raphanus sativus L. (Brassicaceae) 63/Pz/2013 C RotkvaBOG Taproot Infusion Digestive system infections, 0 2 0 0 0.375 0 I
CveklaBOG Bronchitis, 0 4 0
Anti-anemic, 0 1 0
Anti-rheumatic 0 5 0
Ribes rubrum L. (Grossulariaceae) C RibizlaBOG Fruits Infusion Anti-rheumatic, 0 3 0 0 0.344 0 I
Anti-malarial, 0 1 0
Anti-allergic, 0 2 0
Heart disorders 0 5 0
Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabaceae) 68/Pz/2013 W BagremiALB Flowers Infusion Skin infections 3 0 2 0.049 0 0.043 I
AkasyaTUR
Rosa canina L. (Rosaceae) 67/Pz/2013 W KaçaALB Fruits Infusion Improve immunity, 3 1 0 0.328 0.594 0 I
ShipakBOG Hepatic disorders, 1 2 0
SipurakBOG Anti-anaemic, 1 5 0
Influenza, 6 3 0
Digestive tract disorders. 9 8 0
Rubia tinctorum L. (Rubiaceae) W CrvenkaBOG Aerial parts Infusion Kidney disorders, 0 3 0 0 0.281 0 I
Skeletal disorders, tuberculosis 0 1 0
Saraxha” (cutaneous tuberculosis) 0 5 0
Rubus fruticosus L. (Rosaceae) 65/Pz/2013 W ManaALB Aerial parts Infusion Anti-anemic, 0 3 0 0 1.031 0 I
KupinaBOG Improve blood circulation, 0 1 0
Anti-hypertensive, 0 4 0
Wound healing 0 3 0
Anti-diabetic, 0 4 0
Antimycotic 0 1 0
Fruits Infusion Anti-anemic, 0 4 0     
Anti- diarrheal, 0 1 0
Kidney infections, 0 2 0
Oral cavity infections, 0 5 0
Hypertensive, 0 2 0
Anti-parasitic, 0 1 0
Anti-tussive 0 2 0
Rubus idaeus L. (Rosaceae) 66/Pz/2013 W MjedraALB Leaves Infusion Improve blood circulation, 0 5 0 0 1.188 0 I
MalinaBOG Anti-hypertensive, 0 5 0
Anti-diarrheal, 0 3 0
Anti-tussive, 0 2 0
Anti-pyretic, 0 1 0
Oral cavity infections 0 5 0
Roots Infusion Anti-hypertensive, 0 3 0     
Wound healing 0 4 0
Fruits Infusion Dysentery, 0 1 0     
Tonsillitis, 0 3 0
Digestive disorders 0 2 0
Flowers Extracted with olive oil To treated skin wounds caused by insects and snakes 0 4 0     
Salix alba L. (Salicaceae) 70/Pz/2013 W VrbaBOG Leaves Infusion Hepatic disorders 0 3 0 0 0.313 0 I
Cortex Infusion Antipyretic, 0 5 0     
Analgesic 0 2 0
Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) C ZalfijaBOG Aerial parts Infusion, then added honey Tonsillitis and other infection of respiratory system, 0 7 0 0 0.344 0 I
Anti-diabetic 0 2 0
Antiperspirant 0 2 0
Sambucus nigra L. (Adoxaceae) 69/Pz/2013 W ShtoguALB Flowers Infusion Bronchitis, 14 7 15 0.787 1.250 0.891 I
ZovaBOG Anti-tussive, 8 5 3
Bos zovaBOG Expectorant, Antiperspirant, 3 7 8
MurverTUR Anti-halitosis, 2 1 4
ForbozTUR Influenza, 0 1 4
Anti-asthmatic, 6 8 2
Stomach disorders, 9 4 1
Urinary tract disorders 4 1 1
  1 1 1
Extracted with fish oil Anti-anemic, Improve immunity 0 3 1     
Extracted with oil – topically used Vulnerary for burns, skin infections 1 2 1     
Satureja montana L. (Lamiaceae) 19/Pz/11 W CubarTUR Aerial parts Infusion Spasmolytic, 0 5 0 0 0.563 0 I
CurbiceBOG Anti-diabetic, 0 2 0
Anti-parasitic, 0 2 0
Respiratory tract infections, 0 5 0
Anti-tussive, 0 2 0
Expectorant 0 2 0
Scrophularia nodosa L. (Scrophulariaceae) W / Aerial parts Topically applied Saraxha” (cutaneous tuberculosis), Tuberculosis 0 3 2 0 0.094 0.043 I
Sempervivum tectorum L. (Crassulaceae) 71/Pz/2013 W Bar veshiALB Leaves Extracted with fat (cow or pig fat) - topically applied Wound healing 6 3 0 0.279 0.531 0 I
CuvarkucaBOG
Juice from fresh leaves, 2–3 drops Earache, ear infections 11 14 0     
Symphytum officinale L. (Boraginaceae) 73/Pz/2013 W Crni gavezBOG GanezTUR Roots Extracted with fat Wound healing 0 4 2 0 0.188 0.109 I
Extracted with wine Anticoagulant 0 2 3     
Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae) 75/Pz/2013 W Pire otuTURR Seeds Infusion Anti-parasitic (intestinal parasites), 0 0 3 0 0 0.304 I
Anti-rheumatic 0 0 2
Flowers Powder Insect repellent, anti-parasitic 0 0 4     
Aerial parts Infusion Digestive tract disorders, 0 0 2     
Anti-hemorrhoidal, 0 0 1
Eczema 0 0 2
Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. (Asteraceae)84/Pz/2013 W Tamëlçak i Flowers Infusion Hepatitis 2 1 0 0.295 0.375 0.304 I
livadhitALB Aerial parts Infusion Improve blood circulation, 7 4 9     
MaslacakBOG
KaraındıbaTUR Digestive tract disorders, 3 5 1
Urinary tract disorders, 1 1 1
Anti-anemic. 5 1 3
Teucrium chamaedrys L. (Lamiaceae) 79/Pz/2013 W MamudiaBOG Aerial parts Infusion Appetizing, 0 2 0 0 0.250 0 I
Stomachache, 0 4 0
Anti- diarrheal, 0 1 0
Anti-hemorrhoidal 0 1 0
Teucrium polium L. (Lamiaceae) 78/Pz/2013 W Bar saraxhaALB Aerial parts Mixed with fat Tuberculosis, 2 2 0 0.131 0.281 0 I
Bar majasiliALB Saraxha” (cutaneous tuberculosis) 4 2 0
PodobicaBOG
Infusion Anti-hemorrhoidal, 1 1 0     
igestive tract disorders, 1 3 0
Stomachache 0 1 0
Thymus serpyllum L. (Lamiaceae) 76/Pz/2013 W Majcina dusicaBOG Aerial parts Infusion Improve blood circulation, 3 5 2 1.525 2.5 1.087 I
Qeklik otiTUR
Anticholesterolemic, 1 2 0
Respiratory inflammations, 21 26 16
Immunostimulant, 4 0 2
Neurorelaxant, 11 5 3
Carminative, 19 22 13
Spasmolytic, 13 9 12
Bronchitis, 16 6 1
Anti-asthmatic, 2 4 1
Expectorant 3 1 0
Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) 77/Pz/2013 W Majcina dusicaBOG Aerial parts Infusion Anti-tussive, 0 3 0 0 0.281 0 I
Anti-cholesterolemic 0 6 0
Typha latifolia L. (Typhaceae) 82/Pz/2013 W ShavarALB Fruits Infusion Respiratory system inflammations 0 0 3 0 0 0.065 I
HubaboTUR
Tilia platyphyllos Scop. (Malvaceae) 80/Pz/2013 W/C BliniALB Flowers Infusion Respiratory system inflammations, 8 13 8 0.689 1.469 0.804 I
LipaBOG
FlamurTUR Anti-anemic, 2 5 4
IlhamurTUR Stomach infections, 9 3 5
  Headache, 1 0 1
Anti-tussive 2 0 1
Leaves and Flowers Infusion Anti-tussive, 2 4 6     
Expectorant, 1 3 1
Respiratory system inflammations 17 19 11
Trifolium arvense L. (Fabaceae) W/C TërfojaALB Aerial part Infusion Anti-rheumatic 0 6 0 0 0.188 0 I
DeklinaBOG
Triticum vulgare L. (Poaceae) 74/Pz/2013 W GruniALB Flour Mixed with hot water – topically used Skin inflammation and ulcers 0 0 4 0 0 0.087 I
BogdayTUR Mixed with hot water – internal used Anti-diarrheal 0 0 2     
Tussilago farfara L. (Asteraceae) 83/Pz/2013 W PotbelBOG Aerial parts Infusion Expectorant, 0 7 0 0 0.313 0 I
Anti-tussive 0 3 0
Ulmus minor Mill. (Ulmaceae) 86/Pz/2013 W VidhiALB Leaves Extracted with fat Anti-mycotic, 11 0 7 0.197 0 0.217 I
KarragaqTUR Anti-bacterial, “Saraxha” (cutaneous tuberculosis). 1 0 3
Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) 85/Pz/2013 W HithiALB Aerial parts Infusion Anti-hemorrhoidal, 3 1 5 1.820 3.094 1.652 II
KoprivaBOG Anti-anemic, 32 21 11
YakiciTUR Influenza, 12 10 6
Anti-cancer, 1 0 0
Eczemas, 3 7 9
Bronchitis, 11 19 14
Headache, 1 3 1
Anti-rheumatic, 9 4 6
Anti-bacterial, 12 19 13
Alopecia, 5 1 1
Anti-dandruff, 18 12 9
Digestive disorders 2 1 1
Urinary disorders 2 1 0
Vaccinium myrtillus L. (Ericaceae) 87/Pz/2013 W BoronıcaALB Fruits Juice of fresh fruits Digestive tract infections, 6 9 5 0.984 1.563 1.152 I
BorovnicaALB
Anti-anemic, 25 21 11
Eye inflammations, 1 0 5
Hepatitis, 0 0 3
Digestive disorders, 0 1 3
Urinary disorders 1 1 1
Fruits and leaves Infusion Lithontriptic, 4 2 7     
Respiratory inflammations, 6 5 3
Anti-anemic 17 11 15
Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. (Ericaceae) W BrusnicaBOG Leaves Infusion Urinary inflammations 0 14 0 0 2.094 0 I
Anti-rheumatic 0 3 0
Fruits Infusion Urinary tract infections 0 21 0     
Fruits and leaves Infusion Lithontriptic, 0 11 0     
Diuretic, 0 6 0
Anti-rheumatic, 0 1 0
Wound healing, 0 3 0
Antipyretic, 0 1 0
Anti-diabetic, 0 6 0
Anticonvulsant 0 1 0
Veratrum album L. (Melanthiaceae) W ShtaraALB Aerial parts Infusion Anti-hypertensive. 3 5 0 0.049 0.156 0 I
CemenikaBOG
Verbascum sp. (Scrophulariaceae) 89/Pz/2013 W DivizmaBOG DivizaTUR Aerial parts Infusion and Mixed with fat “mehlem” Anti-tussive, 0 2 1 0 0.250 0.087 I
Bronchitis, 0 5 2
Sigir kuyruguTUR Digestive tract disorders 0 1 1
Veronica officinalis L. (Plantaginaceae) 88/Pz/2013 W Paskalya otuTUR Leaves Infusion Anticoagulant, 0 0 3 0 0 0.196 I
Yavshan otuTUR Respiratory system inflammations, 00 0 2
Wound healing   0 4
Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) 90/Pz/2013 C RrushıALB Leaves Infusion Increase immunity, 4 1 0 0.311 0.438 0.435 I
GrozhgjeBOG Hepatitis 2 1 3
Siyah üzümTUR
  Fruits Eaten fresh Anti-anemic, 3 4 2     
Hepatic disorders, 1 2 3
Urinary system inflammations 6 2 1
Juice of fruits (semi fermented) Internal used Anti-anemic, 1 1 10     
Anti-cholesterolemic 2 3 1
Zea mays L. (Poaceae) 92/Pz/2013 C MisriALB Female flower Infusion Urinary tract inflammations, 2 0 3 0.115 0 0.152 I
KollomoqALB
Edema, 1 0 1
KollomoqiTUR Stomach disorders, 2 0 0
Anti-parasitic 1 0 0
Ripe seeds Infusion Anti-parasitic 1 0 3     
  1. a Folk Names. ALBfolk name(s) recorded among Albanians; BOGfolk name(s) recorded among Bosniaks/Gorani; TURfolk name(s) recorded among Turks
  2. b Alb N uc : Number of use citations provided by Albanian informants; Bo/Go N uc : Number of use citations provided by Bosnian and Gorani informants; Tur N uc : Number of use citations provided by Turkish informants.
  3. c UV Alb : Use-value for one species by the Albanian group; UV Bo/Go : Use-value for one species by the Bosniaks and Gorani; UV Tur : Use-value for one species by the Turkish group. This index measures the relative importance of each species based on its reported use by informants from each cultural group under study.
  4. d Q: Quadrant assignments are based on adjusted use-values (UVadj), which were calculated by dividing the use-value (UV) of each group by the maximum use-value (UVmax) for medicinal citations (UVadj not shown).