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Table 4 Comparison of the local plant uses recorded in the Germanasca Valley in 1900 and 1984 with those collected in the current study

From: Isolated, but transnational: the glocal nature of Waldensian ethnobotany, Western Alps, NW Italy

Botanical taxon and family Local uses recorded in 1900 [ 27 , 28 ] Local uses recorded in 1984 [ 29 ] * Local uses nowadays (current study)
Allium cepa L. (Amaryllidaceae) NR Decoction of the bulbs a diuretic NR
Amelanchier ovalis Medik. (Rosaceae) Fruits consumed as a snack by boys NR =
Anemone hepatica L. (Ranuncolaceae) Leaves externally applied on women breast for treating inflammations NR NR
Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) NR Infusion of the dried roots, as a depurative
Arnica montana L. (Asteraceae)   Alcoholic macerate of the flowers externally applied for treating cuts, rheumatism, and muscle pains
Artemisia genipi Weber ex Stechm. (Asteraceae) NR Aerial parts in infusion or alcoholic macerate (liquor) as a digestive =
Beckwithia glacialis (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve (Ranuncolaceae) Flowers in decoction, drunk as a diaphoretic Decoction for treating toothaches NR
Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) NR Infusion of the dried flowers as a depurative
Campanula spicata L. (Campanulaceae) NR Fresh leaves, crashed, externally applied for treating cuts NR
Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach. (Parmeliaceae) NR Decoction of the thallus as a digestive and expectorant =
Chelidonius majus L. (Papaveraceae) Latex externally applied on warts NR =
Crataegus rhipidophylla Gand. (Rosaceae) Fruits consumed NR
Gentiana acaulis L. (Gentianaceae) NR Whole plant or roots in infusion/decoction or wine macerate as appetizing and digestive =
Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) Hung behind the house door, to prevent witcheries Oil macerate of the fresh flowers as a cicatrizing = (as in 1984)
Laburnum anagyroides Medik. (Fabaceae) Bark decocted and externally used for treating lice in cows and calves NR
Laricifomes officinalis (Vill.) Kotl. & Pouzar (Fomitopsidaceae) NR The fruiting body, powdered, in infusion as a digestive NR
Lathyrus sylvestris (Fabaceae) Remedy (?) for cows when they calve NR NR
Lilium candidum L. (Liliaceae) NR Oil macerate of the fresh flowers as a cicatrizing NR
Linum usitatissimum L. (Linaceae) The seeds (in compresses?) as anti-rheumatic NR =
Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae) Infusion of the leaves (?) as emollient, both for humans and animals NR
Nasturtium officinale R.Br. (Brassicaceae) Leaves consumed raw in salads Leaves consumed raw in salads or in soup, as a depurative NR
Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. (Fabaceae) Fodder NR =
Oxalis acetosella L. (Oxalidaceae) Leaves consumed raw in salads NR =
Papaver rhoes L. (Papaveraceae) Flowers in decoction, drunk for treating toothache NR NR
Parietaria officinalis L. (Urticaceae) NR Decoction of the dried aerial parts, as a diuretic and depurative
Polygonum aviculare L. (Polygonaceae) NR Infusion of the dried aerial parts (?) as an astringent NR
Rosa canina L. (Rosaceae) Flowers consumed as a snack by boys Infusion of the flowers externally applied for treating eye inflammations = (as in 1984)
Rosa centifolia L. (Rosaceae) Petals (not clarified how) for treating eye inflammations NR
Rubus ideaus L. (Rosaceae) Fruits consumed; leaves as fodder NR =
Rubus ulmifolius Schott (Rosaceae) Fruits consumed NR =
Sorbus aria (L.) Crantz (Rosaceae) Fruits consumed as a snack by boys NR
Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae) NR Fresh aerial parts consumed in salads as a depurative
Thymus serpyllum L. (Lamiaceae) NR Infusion of the flowering tops as a digestive and anti-tussive
Tilia x europea L. (Malvaceae) Flowers in diaphoretic decoctions; leaves as fodder NR =
Trifolium spp. (Fabaceae) Fodder NR
Tussilago farfara L. (Asteraceae) NR Crashed fresh leaves, externally applied, as a suppurative
Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) NR Young aerial parts consumed in soups as a depurative; dried roots and leaves, decocted, for treating alopecia; dried leaves used as fodder for hens for increasing the egg production
Verbascum phlomoides L. (Scrophulariaceae) NR Decoction of the flowers for treating catarrhs =
Verbena officinalis L. (Verbenaceae) NR Fresh aerial parts, crashed and mixed with pork fat, externally applied for treating cuts
Veronica prostrata L. (Plantaginaceae) NR Infusion for treating catarrhs and inflammations
Viola biflora L. (Violaceae) NR Infusion of the dried flowers for treating coughs and as an intestinal anti-inflammatory; mixed with milk and bread, externally applied, as a suppurative NR
Viola calcarata L. (Violaceae) Leaves consumed in soups Infusion of the dried flowers for treating coughs and as an intestinal anti-inflammatory; mixed with milk and bread, externally applied, as a suppurative = (as in 1984)
Viola tricolor L. (Violaceae) Not specified, the resulting preparation (decoction of the aerial parts?) considered good for those women, who had given a baby Infusion of the dried flowers for treating coughs and as an intestinal anti-inflammatory; mixed with milk and bread, externally applied, as a suppurative
  1. *We considered folk uses referred only to those plant taxa, for which local names were reported.
  2. (?): hypothesized plant use details.
  3. NR: not recorded; = same use; ≈ similar use; ≠ different uses.