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Table 1 List of major uses of medicinal plants cited by more than five traditional healers

From: Ethnomedicinal plants used by traditional healers in Phatthalung Province, Peninsular Thailand

Scientific name/voucher number Local name Taste Ailments treated / uses Parts used / form of administration
Magnoliids     
Annonaceae     
1. Goniothalamus macrophyllus (Blume) Hook. f. & Thomson (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 096) Chingdokdiao hot alleviates body pain, flatulence, suffers from general fatigue root / decoction / int
Piperaceae     
2. Piper chaba Hunt (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 099) Di pli hot flatulence, strengthens the body elements fruit / decoction / int
3. Piper sarmentosum Roxb. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 048) Cha phlu hot flatulence, strengthens the body elements, paralysis root / decoction / int
Eudicots     
Acanthaceae     
4. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees/(N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 008) Fa thalai chon bitter fever whole plant/juice, decoction/int
5. Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 006) Phaya yo bland poisonous animal bites, antidote, canker leaf/ juice, decoction / ext
6. Justicia adhatoda L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 024) Sa niat bitter eliminates sputum, cough, fever leaf /juice, decoction / int
7. Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 004) Thongphanchang nauseating skin diseases, eczema, scabies leaf/ paste / ext
8. Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. Rang chuet bland antidote, skin irritation leaf / juice / int, ext
Amaranthaceae     
9. Alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel) G. Nicholson (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 090) Phak pet daeng bland arthritis, improves blood circulation, emmenagogue, menstrual cramps whole plant/ decoction / int
Apiaceae     
10. Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 063) Bua bok bitter thirst, fever, skin swelling whole plant / paste / int, ext
Asteraceae     
11. Acmella oleracea (L.) R. K. Jansen (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 010) Phak khrat hua wan hot toothache fruit / juice / int
12. Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 014) Nat yai aromatic promotes blood flow, flatulence, itching leaf/ decoction / int
13. Chromolaena odoratum (L.) R. M. King & H. Rob. (W. Wongwiwat & S. Pinsook 008) Sap suea nauseating stops bleeding, peptic ulcer leaf/paste, decoction /int, ext
14. Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 088) Ka meng nauseating stops bleeding, skin diseases, cervical diseases whole plant /paste, decoction / int
15. Elephantopus scaber L. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 097) Do mai ru lom bland tonifies the muscles whole plant / decoction / int
16. Pluchea indica (L.) Less. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 025) Khlu bland diuretic leaf/ decoction / int
17. Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 009) Ya dok khao bland smoking cessation, alleviates body pain, fever whole plant /smoking, decoction / int
Capparidaceae     
18. Capparis micracantha DC. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 019) Chingchi bitter fever, strengthens the body elements root / decoction / int
Clusiaceae     
19. Garcinia mangostana L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 020) Mang khut astringent skin diseases, intestinal infection pericarp / juice, decoction / ext, int
Cucurbitaceae     
20. Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 111) Tamlueng bland poisonous animal bites, fever leaf / juice / ext
21. Gymnopetalum chinense (Lour.) Merr. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 094) Kadom bitter fever, tonifies the liver fruit / decoction / int
22. Momordica charantia L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 095) Mara khinok bitter fever, appetizer, tonifies the liver fruit / decoction / int
Euphorbiaceae     
23. Croton roxburghii N. P. Balakr. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 102) Plao yai hot alleviates body pain, flatulence, prevention of fever after parturition wood / decoction / int
24. Croton tiglium L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 071) Salot hot diuretic, hemorrhoids, constipation root, seed oil / decoction / int
25. Croton stellatopilosus Ohba (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 011) Plao noi hot flatulence, peptic ulcer, stomachache wood / decoction / int
26. Excoecaria oppositifolia Griff. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 023) Fai duean ha hot menstrual problems wood / decoction / int
27. Shirakiopsis indica (Willd.) Esser (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 025) Samo thale sour constipation fruit / decoction / int
Fabaceae     
28. Abrus precatorius L. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 026) Ma klam khruea sour fever, sore throat root / decoction / int
29. Albizia myriophylla Benth. (W. Wongwiwat & S. Pinsook 096) Cha em thai sweet strengthens the body in general, sore throat root, wood / decoction / int
30. Cassia fistula L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 100) Ratcha phruek sweet fever, constipation, eliminates sputum (mixed with bitter salt for constipation) fruit, pulp / decoction / int
31. Caesalpinia major (Medik.) Dandy & Exell (W. Wongwiwat & S. Pinsook 126) Sa wat nauseating expels worms leaf / decoction / int
32. Derris scandens (Roxb.) Benth. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 027) Thaowanpriang nauseating alleviates body pain wood / decoction / int
33. Mimosa pudica L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 014) Maiyarap bland fever, measles, chickenpox whole plant / decoction / int
34. Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 028) Chumhet thet nauseating skin diseases, constipation leaf / paste / ext; inflorescence / decoction / int
35. Senna tora (L.) Roxb. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 029) Chumhet thai nauseating constipation, skin diseases, appetizer, insomnia whole plant / decoction / int
36. Tamarindus indica L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 147) Ma kham sour eliminates sputum, improves blood flow, constipation, cold in children fruit / decoction / int
Gentianaceae     
37. Fagraea fragrans Roxb. Kan krao bitter fever wood / decoction / int
Lamiaceae     
38. Clerodendrum petasites (Lour.) S. Moore (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 137) Mai thoa yai mom bitter fever, constipation root / decoction / int
39. Clerodendrum serratum (L.) Moon (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 022) Ak khi thawan bitter hemorrhoids, itching leaf / decoction / int
40. Ocimum americanum L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 116) Mang lak aromatic flatulence, increases milk production leaf / decoction / int
41. Ocimum basilicum L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 117) Horapha aromatic flatulence, increases milk production leaf / decoction / int
42. Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 115) Ka phrao daeng aromatic flatulence, dizziness, asthma in children leaf / decoction / int, ext
43. Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 152) Ya nuat maeo bland diuretic whole plant / decoction / int
Lythraceae     
44. Punica granatum L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 139) Thap thim astringent dysentery, diarrhea pericarp / decoction / int
Malvaceae     
45. Sida rhombifolia L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 028) Khat mon fat severe fever, liver diseases, alleviates body pain whole plant / decoction / int
Menispermaceae     
46. Tiliacora triandra (Colebr.) Diels (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 092) Yanang bland fever, antidote root / decoction / int
47. Tinospora crispa (L.) Miers ex Hook. f. & Thomson (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 016) Bora phet bitter promotes blood flow, appetizer, fever, diabetes, reduces body heat, thirst wood / decoction / int
Opiliaceae     
48. Lepionurus sylvestris Blume (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 018) Mak mok fat strengthens the body in general, promotes blood flow, alleviates body pain, cervical problems root / decoction / int
Phyllanthaceae     
49. Bridelia ovata Decne. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 076) Maka bitter constipation leaf / decoction /int
50. Phyllanthus emblica L. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 015) Ma kham pom sour promotes blood flow, eliminates sputum, cough, thirst, mixed with Terminalia chebula Retz. and Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. for body tonic (Tri pha la) fruit / decoction / int
51. Phyllanthus pulcher Wall. ex MÜll. Arg. (W. Wongwiwat & S. Pinsook 094) Thorani san bland fever root/ decoction / int
52. Phyllanthus urinaria L. Ya tai bai bitter alleviates body pain, fever whole plant / decoction / int
53. Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 030) Phak wan ban bland fever, increases milk production leaf / decoction / in
Plumbaginaceae     
54. Plumbago indica L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 120) Chetta mun phloeng daeng hot strengthens the body elements, emmenagogue root / decoction / int
55. Plumbago zeylanica L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 073) Chetta mun phloeng khao hot strengthens the body elements, emmenagogue, improves blood flow root / decoction / int
Rubiaceae     
56. Mitragyna speciosa (Roxb.) Korth. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 012) Kra thom nauseating dysentery, diarrhea, skin diseases leaf / decoction / int/ext
57. Morinda citrifolia L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 078) Yo ban aromatic dizziness fruit / decoction / int
58. Morinda elliptica Ridl. (W. Wongwiwat & S. Pinsook 024, 079) Yo pa hot flatulence, women’s diseases wood / decoction / int
59. Saprosma brunneum Craib (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 046) Phahom ton aromatic strengthens the body in general, flatulence whole plant / decoction / int
Rutaceae     
60. Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa ex Roxb. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 110) Matum fat strengthens the body elements fruit / decoction / int
61. Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 132) Manao sour cough, eliminates sputum fruit / juice / int
62. Citrus hystrix DC. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 131) Makrut aromatic flatulence, dizziness, eliminates sputum, improves blood flow pericarp / decoction / int
63. Zanthoxylum cf. nitidum (Roxb.) DC. (W. Wongwiwat & S. Pinsook 077) Phakrut aromatic expels worms, diarrhea, toothache wood / decoction / int
Sapindaceae     
64. Cardiospermum halicacabum L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 042) Khok kra om bland itching whole plant / juice / ext
Sapotaceae     
65. Mimusops elengi L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 043) Phikun aromatic tonifies the heart, dizziness flower / decoction / int
Simaroubaceae     
66. Brucea javanica (L.) Merr. (W. Wongwiwat & S. Pinsook 079) Ratcha dat bitter malaria whole plant / decoction / int
67. Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 111) Pla lai phueak bitter alleviates body pain, fever, malaria root / decoction / int
68. Harrisonia perforata (Blanco) Merr. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 037) Khontha bitter fever root / decoction / int
Solanaceae     
69. Datura metel L. var. metel (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 130) Lam phong nauseating skin diseases leaf / paste / int
70. Solanum indicum L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 149) Mawaeng ton bitter cough, eliminates sputum fruit / juice / int
71. Solanum trilobatum L. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 038) Mawaeng khruea bitter cough, eliminates sputum fruit / juice / int
Thymelaeaceae     
72. Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 001) Kritsana aromatic tonifies heart, alleviates fatigue, promotes blood flow, fever, strengthens the body in general, dizziness wood / decoction / int
Vitaceae     
73. Cissus quadrangularis L. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 003) Phet sangkhat nauseating hemorrhoids, sinusitis, intestinal infection wood / capsule / int
Monocots     
Acoraceae     
74. Acorus calamus L. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 039) Wan nam aromatic flatulence, strengthens the body elements rhizome / decoction / int
Araceae     
75. Amorphophallus cf. paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 057) Buk nauseating habitual constipation, skin diseases tuber / decoction / int
76. Lasia spinosa (L.) Thwaites (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 057) Phak nam nauseating habitual constipation, skin diseases rhizome / decoction / int
Asparagaceae     
77. Asparagus racemosus Willd. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 041) Sam sip fat strengthens the body in general root / decoction / int
Asphodelaceae     
78. Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 042) Wan hang chora khe bland peptic ulcer, poisonous animal bites, burns leaf / juice / int, ext
Cyperaceae     
79. Cyperus rotundus L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 151) Haeo mu aromatic flatulence, strengthens the body elements corm / decoction / int
Dioscoreaceae     
80. Dioscorea hispida Dennst. (W. Wongwiwat & S. Pinsook 011) Kloi nauseating tuber: strengthens the body in general; stem: sinusitis tuber, stem / decoction / int
81. Tacca chantrieri Andrê (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 017) Khang khao dam bland sexual stimulants rhizome / decoction / int
82. Tacca integrifolia Ker Gawl. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 052) Wan nang khruan bland alleviates body pain, sexual stimulants rhizome / decoction / int
Marantaceae     
83. Donax grandis (Miq.) Ridl. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 025) Khlum bland fever rhizome/ decoction / int
84. Schumannianthus dichotomus (Roxb.) Gagnep. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 018) Khla bland skin diseases, fever, reduces body heat rhizome / decoction / int
Poaceae     
85. Panicum repens L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 021) Ya khrun bland diuretic whole plant / decoction / int
Stemonaceae     
86. Stemona tuberosa Lour. (W. Wongwiwat & S. Pinsook 078) Non tai yak nauseating kill parasites root / juice / int, ext
Zingiberaceae     
87. Amomum testaceum Ridl. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 045) Krawan aromatic flatulence, promotes blood flow, asthma, menstrual problems fruit / decoction / int
88. Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 113) Kra chai aromatic strengthens the body in general, increases milk production, dysentery root / juice / int
89. Curcuma comosa Roxb. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 022) Wan chak motluk astringent discharge amniotic fluid after giving birth, treat postpartum uterine swelling fruit / decoction / int
90. Curcuma longa L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 023) Khamin chan astringent peptic ulcer, intestinal infections, skin diseases rhizome / paste / ext, int
91. Curcuma zedoaria (Berg) Roscoe (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 114) Khamin oi astringent skin diseases rhizome / paste / ext
92. Kaempferia galanga L. (W. Wongwiwat & S. Pinsook 028) Pro hom aromatic flatulence rhizome / juice / int
93. Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex. Baker (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 046) Krachai dam aromatic strengthens the body in general, sexual stimulants rhizome / extracted with alc. / int
94. Zingiber montanum (Koenig) Link ex Dietr. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 040) Phlai astringent flatulence, alleviates muscle pain, strain, skin swelling (mixed with “Ya dam”, latex of Aloe vera L.) rhizome / juice, decoction / int
95. Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 062) Khing hot flatulence, appetizer rhizome / juice, decoction / int
96. Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Sm. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 122) Kra thue bitter flatulence, dysentery rhizome / juice, decoction / int
Gymnosperms     
97. Gnetum montanum Markgr. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 071) Ma mueai nauseating alleviates muscle pain wood / decoction / int
Ferns     
Polypodiaceae     
98. Drynaria quercifolia (L.) Sm. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 032) Kratae tai mai bland diuretic rhizome / decoction / int