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Table 3 The relationship between ailment and taste of some medicinal plant species

From: Ethnomedicinal plants used by traditional healers in Phatthalung Province, Peninsular Thailand

Ailment Tastes of plant species Example Pharmacological activity
Gastrointestinal system    
- flatulence, peptic ulcer hot, aromatic Acorus calamus L. anti-ulcer activity [43]
   Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. anti-ulcerogenic property [44]
   Cyperus rotundus L. cytoprotective effects [45]
   Kaempferia galanga L. against gastric mucosal [46]
   Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex. Baker anti-Helicobacter pylori [47]
   Ocimum basilicum L. anti-ulcer activity [48]
   Ocimum tenuiflorum L. antimicrobial activity [49]
   Zingiber officinale Roscoe anti-ulcerogenic effect [50]
- intestinal infections astringent Curcuma longa L. antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities [51], antibacterial activity [22] antibacterial and mycobacterial activities [20]
   Curcuma zedoaria (Berg) Roscoe antimicrobial activity [51], anti-inflammation [52]
- diarrhea, dysentery bitter Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Sm. antimicrobial activity [53], antinociceptive [54]
  astringent Punica granatum L. antidiarrheal activity [55], anti-inflammatory effect [56]
- laxative, constipation sour Tamarindus indica L. antioxidative effect [57]
  sweet Cassia fistula L. pediatric functional constipation [58], laxative effect [59]
  hot Croton tiglium L. gastrointestinal effect [59]
- hemorrhoids nauseating Cissus quadrangularis L. efficacy and side effects of acute hemorrhoids [60] analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities [61]
- toothache hot Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb.) DC. anti-inflammation [62, 63] antibacterial activity [62], analgesic activity [64]
Fever, malaria bitter Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees antimalarial activity [65], antibacterial activity [66], anti-inflammation [67], antiviral activity [68]
   Brucea javanica (L.) Merr. antimalarial activity [69], antiplasmodial activity [70]
   Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity [71], anti-allergic activity [72]
   Clerodendrum petasites S. Moore antipyretic activity [61]
   Eurycoma longifolia Jack antiplasmodial activity [73], antiparasitic activity [74]
   Momordica charantia L. Antibacterial and antifungal activities [75]
   Phyllanthus urinaria L. anti-inflammation [76], anti-HSV [77]
   Tinospora crispa crispa (L.) Miers ex Hook. f. & Thomson antimalarial activity [78], antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities [79]
  bland Tiliacora trianda (Colebr.) Diels antimycobacterial activity [80]
   Vernonia cinerea (L. ) Less. antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities [81], antibacterial activity [82], antimalarial activity [83]
Skin conditions    
- eczema, scabies, abscess itching, measles, skin diseases, poisonous animal bites, nauseating Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson anti-inflammatory activity [84]
   Datura metel L. antimicrobial activity [85], antimycotic activity [86]
   Mitragyna speciosa (Roxb.) Korth. antioxidant and antibacterial activities [87], anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities [88]
   Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz antimicrobial activity [89], antiallergic activity [90], antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities [91]
   Senna alata (L. ) Roxb. antiallergic activity [92], antifungal activity [93]
   Senna tora (L. ) Roxb. antioxidant and antibacterial activities [94] antibacterial activity
   Stemona tuberosa Lour. antibacterial activity [95]
- burns, skin swelling bland Aloe vera (L.) Burn. f. antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities [96] wound healing property [97]
- stop bleeding nauseating Chromolaena odoratum (L.) R. M. King & H. Roxb. hemostatic and wound healing properties [98]
Respiratory system    
- eliminates sputum, cough, sour Abrus precatorius L. anti-inflammatory and antiallergic activity [99]
sore throat   Albizia myriophylla Benth. antibacterial activity [100]
   Phyllanthus emblica L. anti-inflammatory activity [101], anti-Coxsackie Virus B3 [102]
   Tamarindus indica L. antimicrobial activity [103]
  bitter Solanum trilobatum L. antimicrobial activity [104], anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities [105]
Female problems fat Sida rhombifolia L. antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities [106]
Nephrological system    
- diuretic bland Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq.c anti-inflammatory activity [107]
   Pluchea indica (L. ) Less. anti-inflammatory activity [108], antimicrobial activity [109]