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Table 3 List of medicinal plants of the Durgapur Garo Hills reported by THPs and local knowledgeable people of three communities

From: Ethnomedicinal survey of various communities residing in Garo Hills of Durgapur, Bangladesh

Serial No. Scientific name and accession number Family Local name Plant type Parts used Ailments No. of ailment categories Use value
01 Abroma augusta (L.) L.f. MPCW-UODA 1219/2014 Sterculiaceae Ulot-kombol W,T Leaf, bark, root Juice of the leaf and root for treatment of diabetes. Decoction of bark for female sexual disorders. Sap juice to treat menstrual disorders [O]. 2 1.55
02 Acacia catechu (L. f.) Willd. MPCW-UODA 1220/2014 Fabaceae Khoyer W,T Bark, wood Decoction of bark for diarrhea [O]. Wood extract for skin diseases [T]. 2 0.33
03 Achyranthes aspera L. MPCW-UODA 1221/2014 Amaranthaceae Ubuth nangra W,H Root Root is tied to head to treat headache [T]. Root paste for hemorrhage, eczema, diarrhea and constipation [O]. 4 1.12
04 Adhatoda vasica Nees, Syn: Justicia adhatoda L. MPCW-UODA 1223/2014 Acanthaceae Bashok/Adabaush W,H Whole plant, leaf Decoction of whole plant for intestinal disorders. Leaf juice to treat pneumonia and cough [O]. Decoction of leaf for scabies and other skin diseases [T]. 3 1.65
05 Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa ex Roxb. MPCW-UODA 1225/2014 Rutaceae Bel W,T Leaf, fruit Ripe and unripe fruits are eaten for constipation. Decoction of leaves for peptic ulcer. Leaf oil to treat respiratory disorders [O]. 2 1.88
06 Aloe barbadensis Mill. MPCW-UODA 1226/2014 Xanthorrhoeaceae Ghrita-kumari W,H Leaf, Latex Leaf for skin dandruff and burns [T]. Leaf juice for stomach disorders [O]. Leaf-latex for constipation [O]. 2 1.32
07 Amaranthus spinosus L. MPCW-UODA 1230/2014 Amaranthaceae katakhuduira W,H Leaf, Stem Hot extraction for the treatment of rheumatic pain, pain in the bones, blood or pus coming out with urine [O]. 2 0.56
08 Ananas sativus Schult.f. MPCW-UODA 1231/2014 Bromeliaceae Anarosh C,H Leaf, Fruit Fruit juice is taken for fever. Young leaf is chewed for helminthiasis and jaundice [O]. 3 1.96
09 Andrographis paniculata Nees MPCW-UODA 1232/2014 Acanthaceae Kalomegh W,H Whole plant Juice of whole plant for the treatment of fever, boil, ulcer and to enhance appeal for food [O]. 3 1.16
10 Anthocephalus chinensis Hassk. MPCW-UODA 1233/2014 Rubiaceae Kodom W,T Leaf, Bark Leaf and bark decoction for ulcers, wounds, pain, constipation, and edema [O]. 4 0.66
11 Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk., Syn: Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. MPCW-UODA 1234/2014 Thymelaeaceae Agar W,T Wood Wood extract used for body pain, and skin diseases [T]. Wood decoction for ulcer, edema, and jaundice [O]. 5 0.41
12 Asparagus racemosus Willd. MPCW-UODA 1235/2014 Asparagaceae Shotomuli W,H Leaf, Root Decoction of leaf for epilepsy and stomach ulcers. Root extract with milk for physical weakness in male [O]. 3 1.27
13 Averrhoa carambola L. MPCW-UODA 1236/2014 Oxalidaceae Kamranga W,T Leaf, Fruit Ripe fruits are eaten for cough, fever, appetite stimulant and jaundice [O]. Leaf juice for ringworm and chickenpox [T]. 6 1.18
14 Azadirachta indica A. Juss. MPCW-UODA 1238/2014 Meliaceae Neem W,T Leaf Leaves are dried and powdered and taken every morning for allergy, eczema, skin diseases and diabetes [O]. 2 1.52
15 Bombax ceiba L. MPCW-UODA 1240/2014 Bombacaceae Shimul W,T Root, seed Root juice of young plants for sexual disorders. Decoction of root to arouse sexual desire. Seed oil for gonorrhoea [O]. 2 1.72
16 Brassica oleracea L. MPCW-UODA 1242/2014 Brassicaceae Patakopi C,H Leaf Cooked or salad to treat tonic, gynecological disorders [O]. 2 0.67
17 Calendula officinalis L. MPCW-UODA 1243/2014 Asteraceae Gada ful G,H Leaf, Flower Mashed leaf and flower to treat old wound, menstrual problems and itches [T]. Flowers to treat stomach upset, ulcers and inflammation [O]. 4 0.88
18 Carica papaya L. MPCW-UODA 1245/2014 Caricaceae Pepe/Pabda C,S Leaf, Latex, Fruit Ripe and unripe fruits are eaten to treat dysentery, diabetes, constipation and chronic indigestion. Latex for the treatment of peptic ulcer. Leaf paste for ringworm [O]. 3 1.65
19 Cassia alata L. Syn: Senna alata (L.) Roxb. MPCW-UODA 1246/2014 Fabaceae Daudraj W,T Leaf Leaf paste is applied to treat skin disease, and scabies [T]. 1 0.73
20 Cassia fistula L. MPCW-UODA 1247/2014 Fabaceae Sonalu W,T Leaf, Fruit, Root Ripe fruits to treat helminthiasis. Juice of leaf and root for long-term cough, nervous weakness [O]. 3 0.48
21 Cassia occidentalis L. MPCW-UODA 1249/2014 Fabaceae Jhi jhi gach W,H Root Root paste is massaged on the leg with mustard oil for leg pain [T]. 1 0.21
22 Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. MPCW-UODA 1250/2014 Apiaceae Thankuni W, H, G Leaf Leaf juice for dysentery [O]. Leaf paste applied on wounds, burns, and skin lesion [T]. 2 1.04
23 Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T.Nees & C.H.Eberm MPCW-UODA 1252/2014 Lauraceae Tejpata W,T Leaf Leaf paste to treat headache and pimples [T]. 2 0.62
24 Cinnamomum verum J. Presl. MPCW-UODA 1251/2014 Lauraceae Daruchini W, T Bark Bark for asthma and coughs [O]. 1 0.28
25 Cissus quadrangularis L. MPCW-UODA 1255/2014 Vitaceae Harjora W,H Leaf, Stem, rhizome Stem and rhizome paste for pain and bone fracture [T]. Dried leaf and stem for stomach upset, stomach ulcer, and malaria fever [O]. 4 0.75
26 Citrus acida Pers. MPCW-UODA 1257/2014 Rutaceae Lebu G,S Fruit Fruit juice for facial scars and spots [T]. Fruits increase appetite [O]. 2 1.55
27 Citrus grandis Hassk. MPCW-UODA 1258/2014 Rutaceae Jambura C,T Fruit Fruit juice for the treatment of fever [O], scabies, eczema, and itches [T]. 2 1.47
28 Clerodendrum viscosum Vent. MPCW-UODA 1259/2014 Verbenaceae Bhati W,H Leaf, Fruit Juice from crushed leaf and fruit for helminthiasis and dysentery [O]. 2 0.93
29 Coccinia cordifolia (L.) Cogn. MPCW-UODA 1261/2014 Cucurbitaceae Telakucha W,H Whole plant, Leaf Juice is produced from whole plant to treat diabetes, gonorrhea and constipation [O]. Leaf for wounds [T]. 4 1.20
30 Cocos nucifera L. MPCW-UODA 1262/2014 Arecaceae Narikel C,T Fruit The inner portion of unripe fruit is used to treat skin disease and to remove skin spots [T]. Coconut water for diarrhea [O]. 2 0.58
31 Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott MPCW-UODA 1265/2014 Araceae Kochu C,H Stem Stem paste to stop bleeding from cuts and wounds [T]. 1 1.02
32 Curcuma longa L. MPCW-UODA 1267/2014 Zingiberaceae Holud C,H Rhizome Rhizome juice for diarrhea and flatulence [O]. Rhizome paste to remove face spots [T]. 2 0.63
33 Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. MPCW-UODA 1268/2014 Convolvulaceae Shorno lota W,H Whole plant Juice obtained from macerated whole plant for the treatment of jaundice [O]. 1 0.89
34 Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. MPCW-UODA 1269/2014 Poaceae Durba gash W,H Whole plant, Rhizome Macerated whole plant is applied to stop bleeding from cuts and wounds [T]. Rhizome for heart failure. Whole plant extract for diabetes [O]. 3 1.45
35 Datura metel L. MPCW-UODA 1270/2014 Solanaceae Dhutura W,H Leaf, Flower, Seed Flower and seed for cold and nervous disorders [O]. Crushed leaf is applied to painful areas [T]. 2 0.51
36 Delonix regia (Bojer) Raf. MPCW-UODA 1271/2014 Fabaceae Krishnochura W,T Leaf, Fruit Fruit and leaf paste for piles and boils [O]. 2 0.38
37 Dillenia indica L. MPCW-UODA 1273/2014 Dilleniaceae Chalta W,T Fruit Fruit juice is taken for fever and cough [O]. 2 0.88
38 Diospyros peregrina Gürke MPCW-UODA 1275/2014 Ebenaceae Gab W,T Bark, Fruit Bark decoction to treat dysentery and cholera [O]. 1 0.55
39 Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton MPCW-UODA 1276/2014 Zingiberaceae Elach W,T Fruit, seed Fruit and seed for asthma and coughs [O]. 1 0.92
40 Emblica officinalis Gaertn. MPCW-UODA 1277/2014 Euphorbiaceae Amloki W,T Fruit Fruits for allergy, as food, and for gastric [O]. 2 1.62
41 Enydra fluctuans Lour. MPCW-UODA 1278/2014 Asteraceae Helencha C,H Whole plant, Fried whole plant for intestinal disorders [O]. 1 0.44
42 Feronia limonia Swingle Syn: Limonia acidissima Houtt. MPCW-UODA 1279/2014 Rutaceae Kadbael W,T Fruit Ripe fruits are eaten for flatulence, and pimple [O]. 2 0.55
43 Ficus racemosa L. MPCW-UODA 1280/2014 Moraceae Jog dumur W,S Leaf, Fruit Leaf paste to arouse sexual desire and biliary disorders. Fruits are taken for treatment of diabetes [O]. 3 0.44
44 Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. MPCW-UODA 1284/2014 Malvaceae Jaba G,S Whole plant, Leaf Whole plant for dysentery. Leaf juice is taken to treat debility [O]. 2 0.67
45 Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.MPCW-UODA 1285/2014 Lamiaceae Tokma W,H Fruit Fruits for the treatment of flatulence, acidity, gastric troubles [O]. 1 1.24
46 Ipomoea aquatic Forssk.MPCW-UODA 1287/2014 Convolvulaceae Kalmi shak W,H Leaf Fried leaf for constipation and piles [O]. 2 0.29
47 Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. MPCW-UODA 1288/2014 Crassulaceae Patharkuchi W,H Leaf, Root Leaf juice to treat cholera, diarrhea, and dysentery [O]. 1 0.37
48 Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr. MPCW-UODA 1289/2014 Anacardiaceae Jiga W,S Leaf Leaf paste for urinary problems, diabetes [O]. 2 0.24
49 Mangifera indica L. MPCW-UODA 1290/2014 Anacardiaceae Aam C,T Bark, flower, fruit Ripe and unripe fruits used to treat dysentery [O]. Decoction of bark and flower to prevent graying of hair [T]. 2 0.80
50 Mikania cordata (Burm.f.) B.L.Rob. MPCW-UODA 1292/2014 Asteraceae Refugee lota/jarmani lota W,H Leaf Macerated leaf to stop bleeding from external cuts and wounds [T]. 1 0.93
51 Mimosa pudica L. MPCW-UODA 1293/2014 Leguminosae Lajjaboti W,H Root Decoction of roots for jaundice treatment [O]. 1 0.66
52 Moringa oleifera Lam. MPCW-UODA 1295/2014 Moringaceae Sojina W,T Leaf, Fruit Leaf juice for fat control. Fruits for diabetes [O]. 2 1.06
53 Musa paradisiaca L. MPCW-UODA 1296/2014 Musaceae Bichi kola C,S Leaf, Fruit Leaf juice for anemia. Unripe fruits to treat dysentery [O]. 2 0.78
54 Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. MPCW-UODA 1297/2014 Oleaceae Sheuly W,T Leaf, Flower, Seed Seed and flower paste for constipation. Leaf juice to treat fever [O]. 2 0.41
55 Ocimum tenuiflorum L. MPCW-UODA 1298/2014 Lamiaceae Tulsi G,H Leaf, Stem Juice from macerated leaves to treat coughs [O]. Stems are worn as garland around the neck for tuberculosis [T]. 2 1.71
56 Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb. MPCW-UODA 1299/2014 Arecaceae Khejur W,V,T Root, Fruit Root juice for treatment of nervousness, cough and fever [O]. 3 0.41
57 Piper betel Blanco MPCW-UODA 1301/2014 Piperaceae Paan W,V Leaf Juice from leaf for diabetes and acidity [O]. 2 1.48
58 Psidium guajava L. MPCW-UODA 1302/2014 Myrtaceae Peyara G,S Leaf Juice from crushed leaves for piles, indigestion, diarrhea, dysentery and menstrual disorders [O]. 3 0.86
59 Punica granatum L. MPCW-UODA 1303/2014 Lythraceae Dalim G,S Fruit Ripe fruit and leaf juice to treat diabetes, intestinal worms [O]. 2 0.91
60 Scoparia dulcis L. MPCW-UODA 1304/2014 Scrophulariaceae Dhonia C,H Leaf Leaf is taken on an empty stomach for fever [O]. 1 0.48
61 Sesamum indicum L. MPCW-UODA 1305/2014 Pedaliaceae Tiil C,S Leaf, Seed Leaf paste is used in fistula. Seed oil for the treatment of burns associated with infection, pain and blisters [T]. 3 0.69
62 Spondias pinnata (L.f.) Kurz MPCW-UODA 1308/2014 Anacardiaceae Amra W,T Bark, Fruit Unripe fruits are eaten for dyspepsia [O]. Bark juice to treat dysentery [O]. 1 0.64
63 Streblus asper Lour. MPCW-UODA 1310/2014 Moraceae Sheora W, T Leaf, Root Leaf paste for gastrointestinal disorders. Mashed root for increasing energy [O]. 2 0.42
64 Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry MPCW-UODA 1313/2014 Myrtaceae Lobongo W,T, C Flower bud Flower bud to treat asthma and coughs [O]. 1 0.71
65 Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels MPCW-UODA 1314/2014 Myrtaceae Jaam C,T Leaf, Fruit Decoction of leaf to induce vomiting. Ripe fruits to treat diabetes [O]. Bark juice is taken for excessive bleeding during menstruation and chronic dysentery [O]. 3 1.45
66 Tamarindus indica L. MPCW-UODA 1315/2014 Fabaceae Tetul W,T Leaf Decoction of leaf for the treatment of sinusitis and chronic cold [O]. 2 0.95
67 Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.). Wight & Arn MPCW-UODA 1316/2014 Combretaceae Arjun W,T Leaf, Bark Soaked water of bark for the treatment of heart problem and burning sensations. Leaf juice to treat jaundice, dysentery [O]. 3 1.85
68 Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. MPCW-UODA 1317/2014 Combretaceae Bohera W,T Fruit Fruits are eaten for helminthiasis [O] and loss of hair [T]. 2 1.71
69 Terminalia chebula Retz. MPCW-UODA 1319/2014 Combretaceae Horitoki W,T Fruit Fruits are soaked in water and then taken for constipation and vomiting [O]. 1 1.01
70 Zingiber officinale Roscoe
MPCW-UODA 1320/2014
Zingiberaceae Ada C,H Rhizome Rhizome is eaten for coughs, stomach pain and gastric [O]. 3 1.75
71 Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. MPCW-UODA 1322/2014 Rhamnaceae Boroi W,T Leaf, fruit Leaf juice for dysentery and diarrhea. Ripe fruits are eaten for constipation [O]. 1 1.28
  1. T: Tree, H: Herb, S: Shrub, V: Vine, C: Cultivated, G: Grown in the garden, W: Wild; [O]: Oral, [T]: Topical
  2. To calculate ICFs, all the recorded 82 ailments were grouped into 16 major ailment categories (Table 4) [35, 36]. The medicinal plants were distributed according to these major categories. ICFs were calculated for the pre-recorded plants and ranged from 0.90 to 0.99 (Table 5). High ICF value refers to an increased evidence of the efficacy of a plant species to treat a given ailment [37]. The ailment category of ‘sexual stimulant’ has the highest ICF scoring (0.99). Bombax ceiba (UV 1.72) is mainly used as sexual stimulant. Although the ICF for gastrointestinal disorders (0.96) was less compared to ailment categories of sexual stimulant, heart diseases, or hematological disorders, the highest number of plant usage (36 species) was documented under this category. Use of too many plant species for a wide range of ailments can render a low ICF and may require further analysis of the results to identify the most useful plant for a given ailment. On the other hand, a high ICF signifies that the users have greater reliability with the use of the plants for the respective major ailment category. There is a higher possibility of for plants with higher ICF to contain relevant bioactive phytochemicals [35]