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Table 6 Use of medicinal herbs in the Kortkeros (Russia)

From: From economic survival to recreation: contemporary uses of wild food and medicine in rural Sweden, Ukraine and NW Russia

Family Species English name Local names Part used Mode of preparation Medicinal use Food Level of use
BETULACEAE Betula spp. Birch Берёза bd, sa Liquids with alcohol, tincture Panacea (‘100 diseases’) e.g., small scratches, flu -  ++
CAPRIFOLIACEAE Viburnum opulus L. Guelder rose Калина обыкновенная калина b Infusion, tincture Vitamins, cough Fruits +
COMPOSITAE Achillea millefollium L. Yarrow Тысячелистник обыкновенный l, fl Infusion Blood coagulation -  +
Arctium lappa L. Greater burdock Лопух r Decoction For strengthening hair (conditioner) -  +
Artemisia absinthium L. Wormwood Полынь l, fl Tea Stomach ailments -  +
Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert Chamomile Ромашка аптечная, ромашка l, fl Infusion Good for health -  +
Taraxacum officinale Weber ex Wiggers Dandelion Одуванчик лекарственный, одуванчик l, fl Infusion, tincture Vitamins, headache -  +
Tussilago farfara L. Coltsfoot Мать-и-мачеха fl, l Infusion Cough -  +
Tanacetum vulgare L. Tansy Пижмо l, fl Tincture Stomach ailments, diarrhea -  +
CRASSULACEAE Rhodiola rosea L. Golden root Золотий корінь r Tincture (d) General ‘for good health’ -  +
CUPRESSACEAE Juniperus communis L. Common juniper Можжевельник r Tincture For good health -  +
EQUISETACEAE Equisetum spp. Horstail Хвощ l Infusion Kidneys and urinary tract -  +
ERICACEAE Ledum palustre L.  Wild rosemary Трава богульник ap Tincture (must be stored for 3 years, otherwise poisonous) Asthma -  +
Vaccinium myrtillus L. Bilberry Черника b Tincture Vitamins, eyes disease, problems with stomach Fruits  +++
Vaccinium oxycoccos L. Cranberry Клюква b Eaten fresh, jams, frozen High blood pressure, vitamins Fruits  +++
Vaccinium vitis-idaea (L.) Avror Cowberry Брусника b, l Infusion Vitamins, flu, kidneys, diuretics Fruits  +++
GRAMINEAE Elymus spp. Couch grass Пырей r Tincture Kidneys, breathing problems, reproductive system -  +
GROSSULARIACEAE Ribes spp. Blackcurrant, redcurrant Смородина b, l F: infusion, juice Rich in vitamins - ++ 
GUTTIFERAE Hypericum perforatum L. St John’s worth Зверобой l (d) Tea, tinctures Problems with stomach -  +
LABIATAE Mentha spp. Mint Мята l, fl Tincture, infusion Nervousness, stomach Leaves  +
Thymus spp. Thyme Тимьян l, fl Infusion (f, d) For strong health, immunostimulant -  +
LILIACEAE Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce Angular Solomon’s seal Купина l, fl Tincture Rheumatism, diabetes -  +
MENYANTHACEAE Menyanthes trifoliata L. Bog-bean Трилисник l Tea Stomach, gastritis -  +
ONAGRACEAE Epilobium angustifolium L. Fireweed Иван-чай l Infusion Cancer treatment -  +
ORCHIDACEAE Cypripedium calceolus L. Lady’s slipper orchids Венерин башмачок r Tea Headache -  +
PAEONIACEAE Paeonia anomala L. Paeonia Сибірський піон r Tincture For good health - + 
PINACEAE Abies alba Mill. Silver fir Пихта bd Brooms for sauna, steam bath Immunostimulant - + 
PLANTAGINACEAE Plantago major L. Greater plantain Подорожник l Tincture Small scratches -  +
ROSACEAE Comarum palustre L. Purple marshlocks Сабельник l, fl Tincture Arthritis, rheumatism, cancer -  +
Filipendula vulgaris Moench Dropwort  Таволга fl, l Infusion, tincture Antiseptic, arthitis, heart, skin disease -  +
Prunus padus L. Hackberry Черёмуха обыкновенная, черёмухa fr Dried fruits, infusion from dried fruits Pain in stomach, diarrhoea Fruits ++ 
Rubus ideaus L. Raspberry Малина br, fr, l Tincture Vitamins, flu, high temperature Fruits ++ 
Rosa spp. Dog rose Шиповник fr Infusion Flu, vitamins, rich in vitamin C, for immunity Fruits +++ 
Rubus chamaemorus L. Cloudberry Морошка b, fl se Infusion Vitamins, flu, cough Fruits +++ 
Sorbus aucuparia L. Rowan Рябина обыкновенная, рябина fr Juice, dried fruits High blood pressure, stomach problems Fruits +++ 
SALICACEAE Salix spp. Willow Ива ba Infusion Natural aspirin, rheumatism, ostheochondrosis - + 
SCROPHULARIACEAE Euphrasia officinalis L.  Eyebright Очанка r Infusion (d) For eyes disease - +
  1. ap aerial parts (herb), b berries, ba bark, bd buds, br branches, fl flowers, fr fruit, l leaves, r root, sa sap, se sepals, f fresh, d dried
  2. - No use, + used by up to 10 respondents, ++ 10–20 respondents, +++ more than 20 respondents. Listed illnesses refer to emic categories