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Table 1 Invocation of Saints, Pilgrimages to sacred places, use of Holy Water/Blessed Oil, Blessings and Sacred Objects used to cure disease

From: From Disease to Holiness: Religious-based health remedies of Italian folk medicine (XIX-XX century)

Diseases Saints Pilgrimages Holy Water Blessed Oil Blessings Religious Objects
Certain infectious and parasitic diseases      
Antrax Saint Sebastiano [24].     
Cholera Vergine del Carmine; Saint Gregorio [86]. Saint Rosalia [28]. Saint Gaetano [32].     
Epidemics Saint Marta [32].     
Erysipelas Saint John; Saint Agostino [28]. Saint Irene; Saint Elisabetta [32].    Bless the part [45].  
Fever      Wear a scapular [38].
Helminthiasis     Bless the sufferer [46].  
Herpes Saint Antonio Abate [23].     Wear a scapular [23].
Malaria Beato Riziero [31]. Saint Domenico; Saint Floriano [23]. Three chapels (Basilicata) [37]. Church of Madonna delle Febbri (Sicily) [28]. Altars of Madonna delle Febbri (Calabria) [87]. Church of Saint Egidio (Abruzzi) where it hangs a pebble behind the front door [24].   Bless the sick [88].  
Plague Saint Rocco [23, 25, 29, 32, 46, 86]. Saint Osvaldo [23].     Carry in the pocket Saint Giacomo of Compostela’s Agnus Dei [32].
Rabies Saint Bellino [36]. Saint Domenico da Cucullo [32]. Church of Saint Domenico (Abruzzi) [30]. Church of Saint Vito (Basilicata) [37]. Church of Saint Vito (Sicily) where the sufferer had to exit from another door and not the one they entered in; Church of Saint Vito (Sicily) [28]. Church of Saint Bellino (Veneto) [25]. Holy Water [28]. Bless the sufferer [28]. Wear Saint Vito’s rope [28]. Put Saint Domenico, Saint Stefano, Saint Benigno and Saint Bellino’s key on [38, 43, 46, 47]. Put Papa Leone’s epistle on [89].
Scabies     Bless the part [46].  
Smallpox Saint Bonosa [32].     
Tinea Saint Galicano [32].     
Tuberculosis Saint Giacinto [30]. Saint Teresa [29]. Church of Madonna of Saint Agostino (Latium) [32].    
Typhus     Bless the sick [23].  
Warts    Holy Water [23].   
Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism      
Blood Diseases     Wear a necklace with a small-blessed sack [90].  
Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases      
Malnutrition     Bless the sick [24].  
Mental and behavioural disorders      
Fear   Church of Saint Vito (Sicily) where the sufferer had to exit from another door and not the one they entered in [28].   Bless the sick after reading the Gospel [91].  
Hysteria   Sanctuary of Canoscio (Umbria) [30]. Church of Saint Gregorio (Abruzzi) [38].   Covering the sufferer with the smoke of incense, blessed olive leaves and salt [92].  
Drunkenness Patriarca Noè [23]. Saint Quintino [29].     
Madness Saint Maturino; Saint Aventino [32]. Sanctuary of Saint Ubaldo (Umbria) [30]. Church of Saint Vito (Sicily); Church of Saint Filippo (Sicily) [28].   Wear a blessed shirt [35].  
Mutism Saint Zaccaria [32].     
Diseases of the nervous system      
Chorea   Church of Saint Filippo d’Agira (Sicily); Church of Saint Leonardo (Sicily) where the sick walked three times around the church; Church of Saint Vito (Sicily); Church of Greci (Sicily); Church of Madonna della Nunziata (Sicily) [28].    
Epilepsy Three Kings [30, 45, 93]. Saint Andrea Avellino; Saint John; Saint Vincenzo Ferrer [28]. Saint Donato [24, 26]. Saint Valentino [23]. Saint Geminiano [36]. Saint Maria in Vade [60]. Sanctuary of Canoscio (Umbria) [30]. Church of Saint Valentino (Veneto) [25]. Church of Saint Geminiano (Emilia Romagna) where the sufferer went under the crypt of Saint [36]. Church of Saint Donato (Abruzzi) where the sufferer was weighed and after offered to the saint the identical weight in grain; Church of Saint Donato (Abruzzi) where they undressed from their old clothes that they left in the church and wore new ones [24]. Church of Saint Vito (Sicily) where the sufferer had to exit from another door and not the one they entered in [28]. Holy Water [28, 32]. Wear a blessed shirt [35]. Drop on the head some blessed wax drips [30]. Tie at the wrists and the ankles some blessed leaves [64]. Covering the sufferer with the smoke of incense, blessed olive leaves and salt [92]. Put Saint Domenico da Cucullo’s medal and keys on; put Holy Spirit’s coin on; brand the skin with Saint Domenico’s iron or key [30]. Wear a necklace with Saint Donato’s silver medal [26]. Put Saint Valentino’s key on [23, 46, 47]. Wear a necklace with a silver blessed key; put Saint Margherita’s little cross on [28]. Put Saint Elena’s and Saint Costantino’s coins on [23].
Headache Saint Peter; Saint Rita [28]. Saint Augusto [32]. Crypt of Saint Venanzo (Marche) where the sick put their heads on the crypt of the Saint [31]. Oratory of Madonna del Coppo (Emilia Romagna) where the sick went carrying a tile on the head [29]. Holy Water [23]. Bless the head [28]. Put on a lead ring bought in the church of Saint Peter (Sicily) [28]. Tie Saint Augusta’s ribbons around the head [46].
Insomnia Madonna di mezza montata; Madonna del Buon Riposo [28].     
Diseases of the eye and adnexa      
Conjunctivitis     Rubbing a leaf of a blessed palm on the part [24].  
Eye Ailments Saint Lucia [25, 2732, 3537].   Holy Water [28, 30, 42, 43].   
Diseases of the circulatory system      
Apoplexy Saint Andrea Avellino [23, 30, 32, 36].     Put Saint Andrea Avellino’s medal on [30].
Sudden Death      Put Papa Leone’s epistle on [89].
Epistaxis      Put Papa Leone’s epistle on [89].
Gangrene Saint Pacino [94].     
Diseases of the respiratory system      
Sore Throat Beato Gola [23]. Saint Biagio [25, 2832]. Altars of Saint Biagio (Friuli) [23]. Crypt of Saint Venanzo (Marche) where the sick put their foreheads on the crypt of the Saint [31]. Blessed Oil [37]. Bless the throat [23, 31]. Wear a blessed shirt [46]. Eat blessed apples [23]. Put the neck between two blessed candles [35]. Wear Saint Biagio’s necklace [28].
Tussis Saint Tossano [31]. Madonna della Tosse [46]. Church of Madonna della Tosse (Tuscany), coming back from another road and not that they travelled during the outward journey [90].    
Diseases of the digestive system      
Hernia Saint Alfio; Saint Bartolomeo, Saint Giacomo; Saint Corrado [28]. Saint Cataldo [36]. Saint Pantaleone [24]. Saint Calogero’s procession (Sicily) [28]. Church of Madonna del Monte (Apulia) where the sufferer had to exit from another door and not the one they entered in [40].    
Hepatitis Madonna del giallume [24]. Jesus; Saint Francesco di Paola [28].    Drink a concoction made with an Easter candle, Mary’s candle, hairs and nails of the sick [95].  
Stomachache Saint Albertino; Saint Santo [30]. Saint Timoteo [36]. Saint Erasmo [32].    Passing a light blessed candle in a glass over the part [96]. Light a blessed candle and place on a coin on the part of the body, then these are covered with an upturned glass [31].  
Stomatitis    Holy Water [38].   
Toothache Saint Apollonia [23, 25, 27, 28, 3033]. Church of Saint Apollonia (Sicily) [28].    Touch the part with Saint Domenico da Cucullo’s iron [38].
Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue      
Baldness Saint Peter [28].     
Boils     Pierce the boil with the tip of a leaf of a blessed palm [24].  
Hyperhidrosis    Holy Water [28].   
Milk Crust Saint Silvestro [46]. Altar of Saint Agnese (Friuli) [23].    
Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue      
Arthritis Saint Peter and Saint Paolo [31]. Saint Ventura [30]. Saint Mauro Abate [30, 32]. Church of Saint Ventura (Umbria) where the sick lies down [30]. Blessed Oil [30]. Drop on the part some blessed wax drips [30].  
Dislocations     Drop on the part some blessed wax drips [30].  
Gout Saint Tommaso [32]. Church of Saint Ventura (Umbria) where the sick lies down [30].    
Sciatica     Bless the part [45].  
Sprains     Light a blessed candle and place on the part and cover with an upturned glass [31].  
Diseases of the genitourinary system      
Infertility Saint Rita [35].   Holy Water [30]. Covering the sufferer with the smoke of incense, blessed olive leaves, crab’s eyes and salt [92].  
To regularize Menstruations Madonna delle Grazie [30].     
Metrorrhagia Saint Marta [23]. Church of Madonna della Catena (Sicily) [28].    
Renal Colics Saint Liborio [28, 30, 32].     
Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium      
To favour Birth Saint Anna [25, 2932, 38, 90]. Saint Libero [46]. Beato Netta [63]. Madonna dei sette dolori; Saint Torello; Madonna delle Grazie; Saint Francesco di Paola [30]. Saint Rita; Saint Leonardo; Saint Nicola; Saint Antonio da Padova [38]. Saint Teodoro [32] Church near Col San Martino (Veneto) [46]. Church of Saint Teodoro (Latium) [32].   Bless the tummy [32]. Covering the woman in labour with the smoke of blessed olive leaves, blessed candles, sacred images, crab’s eyes, salt, chicken feathers and hairs of the husband [46, 92]. Gird the loins with Saint Francesco’s rope; resting a Crucifix on the lower stomach [46]. Put Papa Leone’s epistle on [89]. Put next to the bed Saint’Anna’s or Madonna’s rose [27, 45, 47, 49]. Wear a necklace with Saint Torello’s medal [30].
Breast Ailments Saint Agata [2325, 28]. Saint Joseph [28].     Put Rosary on [28].
Puerperal fevers     Covering the woman in labour with the smoke of incense, blessed olive leaves, crab’s eyes and salt [92].  
To favour the secretion of Maternal Milk Saint Martino [30]. Saint Agata [27, 30]. Saint Lena [31]. Church of Saint Mamante (Veneto) [46].   Eat blessed food [30].  
Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes      
Snake Bites      Brand the skin with Saint Domenico da Cucullo’s iron [24].
Venomous Bites Saint Domenico da Cucullo [23, 31, 32]. Saint Giobbe [31]. Saint Paolo [51]. Saint Margherita [30].     Put Papa Leone’s epistle on [89].
Burns Saint Lorenzo [2729]     
Contusions     Covering the sufferer with the smoke of a blessed candle [46].  
Cripplings Saint Eutropio [32].     
Fractures Saint Mauro [29].     
Wounds Saint Paolo [25].    Apply blessed fat [31].  
External causes of morbidity and mortality      
Drowning Saint Placido [36].     
Falls Saint Venanzo [31]. Saint Antonio di Padova [32]. Saint Emarcora [23].     Put Saint Giorgio and Saint Venanzio’s medal on [23, 30].
Miscellanea      
All Diseases Saint Antonio da Padova [29, 35]. Saint Liberata [29]. Saint Cosma and Saint Damiano [28]. Church of Madonna del Pettoruto (Calabria) [97]. Church of Saint Libera (Veneto) [25]. Holy Water [55]. Blessed Oil [46].   Use Madonna di Bibano’s belt [46].
Children Diseases      Put next to the bed the stick of San Francesco di Paola or the hand of Madonna della Consolazione’s statue [98].
Incurable Diseases Saint Espedito [29]. Saint Joseph [25, 31]. Saint Rita [29].     
Pains   Crypt of Saint Venanzo (Marche) where the sick put their foreheads on [31].