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Table 3 Plant used in Sahrawi camel ethnoveterinary practices

From: Ethnoveterinary of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara: camel diseases and remedies

Botanical taxon Family Voucher specimen Local Hassaniya phytonym Parts used (Hassaniya name) Preparation and use Indications
Acacia ehrenbergiana Hayne Fabaceae GV1015 Tamat Fr (jarrub) Mixed with fodder Dietary supplement (nutraceutical)
Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. var. senegal Fabaceae GV1076 Amour Fr (sallaha) Dried, grinded and given as powder (in winter time), or mixed with water (during hot period) Diarrhoea
Ba Indigestion
Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne subsp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan var. raddiana Fabaceae GV1010 Talha Le (warga talha) Mixed with fodder Dietary supplement (fattening)
Fl (anish)
Fr (jarrub)
Ba Grinded (topical application) Wounds cicatriser
Re (al elk talha)
Le (warga talha) Grinded and mixed with sugar and oil Diarrhoea
Le Leaves are burnt and a decoction is made; a plaster is prepared with water and coal obtained from the bark of talha and shdari (topical application) Sarcoptic mange
Allium cepa L. Alliaceae   Besla Bu Heated in oil, given as food supplement once per day during 2 or 3 days or until the animal gets better (topical application and vaginal washes) Cough
Post-partum prolapse
Allium sativum L. Alliaceae   Thoum Bu Heated in oil or fried (topical application) Post-partum prolapse
Ammodaucus leucotrichus Coss. et Dur. Apiaceae GV1013 Kamuna Ap Heated in oil (topical application) Skin ulcers
Infected wounds
GV1033 Kamunat rag Mastitis
Anabasis articulata (Forssk.) Moq. Chenopodiaceae   Ashram Ap Long-cooking in water with warga talha and shdari (topical application) Sarcoptic mange
Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels Sapotaceae   Argan Se (bulez) Inner part is grinded and then fried (topical application with shmed); argan oil can be used in the same way Mastitis
Artemisia herba-alba Asso Asteraceae GV1042 Shih Ap Heated with barley peels and/or aggaya (topical application) Mastitis
Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav. Asphodelaceae GV1078 Tazia Ap Heated with barley peels (topical application) Mastitis
Atriplex halimus L. Chenopodiaceae GV1052 Legtaf Ap Dried and grinded It is a plant of hatba that can substitute askaf
Calotropis procera (Ait.) Ait. f. subsp. procera Asclepiadaceae   Tursha St The stem is burnt and ash is applied topically Wounds caused by excessive or prolonged backloading
Ap Dried aerial parts Dietary supplement (nutraceutical)
Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Theaceae   Tcha Le Dried or heated in water without sugar Diarrhoea
Chamomilla pubescens (Desf.) Alavi Asteraceae GV1090 Lerbien Ap Heated in oil (topical application) Ulcers
Infected wounds
Cistanche phelypaea (L.) Cout. Orobancaceae   Dhenoun Ap Grinded and mixed with tar (topical application) Mange
Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. Cucurbitaceae GV2068 Hadgit lehmar Se Cooked in water (plaster topically applied) Mange
Cleome africana Botsch. Capparidaceae GV1026 Lemkheinza Ap Dried (when eaten in huge quantities it causes nervous disorders with tremors, ‘as if it was drunk’) Dietary supplement (nutraceutical)
Green, grinded, mixed with ludek and topically applied to broken legs for 40 days; grinded, mixed with ludek and nile and topically applied to open wounds Leg fractures
GV2056 Mkheinza Wounds caused by excessive backload
Green, grinded and boiled in water during (water/plaster from the decoction topically applied) Mange
Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng. Poaceae   Idkhir Ap Grinded, mixed with water and topically applied as cataplasm; ash obtained from the aerial parts is applied topically Wounds cicatriser
Cynomorium coccineum L. Balanophoraceae   Terzuz Wp Squeezed and the juice is given to calves; washes with the decoction water Calves diarrhoea
Duda syndrome
Euphorbia balsamifera Aiton Euphorbiaceae   Fernan Ap Fumigations are made with the decoction; latex (topical application) Mange
La Tick infestations
Euphorbia granulata Forssk. Euphorbiaceae GV1055 Kbidet ed-dab Ap Decoction in water (plaster topically applied); grinded and topically applied after cauterizations Mange
Snakebites and scorpion stings
Euphorbia officinarum L. subsp. Echinus Euphorbiaceae GV1001 Daghmus La Added to drinking water; applied topically (latex can harm eyes) Intestinal parasites
Hammada scoparia (Pomel) Iljin. Chenopodiaceae GV1009 Remth Ap Squeezed and the juice is applied topically; boiled and used for washes Snakebites and scorpion stings
GV1021 Ap Branches are burnt in front of the camel from one to three times, or once per week during some months Camelpox
GV1057 Mhaz
Ap Cooked (plaster topically applied); grinded and mixed with alquitran Mange
Ap Dried and grinded (dietary supplement) Aulisis
Heliotropium ramosissimum (Lehm.) DC. Boraginaceae   Lehbaliya Ap Dried, grinded and mixed with water (plaster topically applied) Ringworm
Ap Grinded (topical application with nile and sometimes salt) Chest infection
Hordeum vulgare L. Poaceae GV2023 Zraa Se (leglya) Roasted seeds also mixed with water Ghtaan (excessive workload)
Lavandula sp. Lamiaceae   Lejzema Ap   Mastitis
Maerua crassifolia Forssk. Capparidaceae GV1007 Atil Ba Burnt and grinded (applied topically inside the wound) Wounds cicatriser
GV1019 Le (sadra el hadra)
Mesembryanthemum cryptanthum Hook. f. in Hook. Aizoaceae   Afzu Ap Fresh aerial parts are grinded (topically applied) Mange
Nucularia perrinii Batt. Chenopodiaceae GV1047 Askaf Ap Grazed Dietary supplement
Intestinal parasites
If askaf is the only
pasture during drought periods, then mange develops faster
Ap Aerial parts are burnt (inhalation) Skin ulcers from camelpox
Panicum turgidum Forssk. Poaceae GV1051 Mrokba Ap Green plants are burnt (inhalation) Mhaz
Camelpox (maintain the infection at a low level)
Umm rekba Ap Heated with barley seeds peels (topically applied); decoction with aggaya (topically applied) Mastitis
Peganum harmala L. Zygophyllaceae GV1066 Harmal Se Heated in oil (topical application) Strokes
Pergularia tomentosa L. Asclepiadaceae   Ghalqa Le Boiled in water; fumigations Mange
Umm lbena
Umm el-jlud La Ticks infestations
Phoenix dactylifera L. Palmae   Tamra Fr Plaster made with the dates (topically applied) Nails wounds
Rhus tripartita (Ucria) Grande Anacardiaceae GV1023 Shdari Le Decoction made with burnt leaves (topical application) Mange
Ba Grinded (topical application) Wounds caused by excessive backload
Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae   Aureuar Se Oil (topical application); seeds are grinded and mixed with milk/milk cream/animal fat (plaster topically applied) Strokes
Udder inflammation
Salsola imbricata Forssk. Chenopodiaceae GV1054 Ghassel Ap Grazed Intestinal parasites (regarded as acid plant able to treat intestinal parasites the diarrhoea caused by the plant)
Salsola tetrandra Forssk. Chenopodiaceae GV2020 Laarad Ap Grazed Intestinal parasites (regarded as acid plant able to treat intestinal parasites the diarrhoea caused by the plant)
Ap Stems are burnt (inhalation) Skin ulcers from camelpox
Ap Grinded (plaster mixed with algatran and topically applied) Mange
Tamarix sp. Tamaricaceae GV1003 Ar’ar Ba   Wounds caused by excessive backload
GV1059 Wo
Terfezia ovalispora Pat. Terfeziaceae GV1008 Terfes Truffle Filtered decoction applied topically; boiled ½-1 h and then grinded (plaster mixed with and topically applied once per day during 3 days or until the infection resolve); boiled and used for washes Mange
Udder infections (tedrenfut)
Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Fabaceae GV1018 Halba Se A small quantity of seeds (as many as you can take between two fingers) are boiled in hot water (or the boiling pot of the second tea) then the liquid is drenched to camels two or three times; sometimes seeds are mixed with drinking water (acid plant that can cause abortion, not used during pregnancy) Dietary supplement (nutraceutical)
Diarrhoea or indigestion
GV1044 Colic
Triticum spp. Poaceae   Shir Se Milled and cooked until a thick plaster is obtained; mixed with drinking water Indigestion
Dietary supplement (during the hot season)
Zygophyllum gaetulum Emberger et Maire Zygophyllaceae GV1050 Aggaya Ap Boiled in water; fumigations are made with the cooled decoction Mange
Ap Boiled and the resulting water is applied topically with a cloth once per day in the morning until resolved; heated with barley peels Mastitis
GV1065 El barraya
Ap Milled or grinded and given to eat to the camel for three times Aulisish
  1. Part(s) used defined as: Ap aerial part, Ba bark, Bu bulb, Ep fruit epicarp, Fl flowers, Fr fruits, Ft flowering tops, La latex, Le leaves, Ls leaf stalks, Re resin, Rh rhizome, Ro root, Se seeds, Sg stigma, Sh shoots, St stems, Tu tuber, Uf unripe fruits, Wh young whorls, Wo wood, Wp whole plant