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Table 1 Summary of species included in this study

From: Plant species introduced by foreigners according to folk tradition in Norway and some other European countries: xenophobic tales or not?

Taxon English name Country Supposed origin in folk tradition Phytogeography Characteristics
Cakile maritima Sea rocket Norway Foreign (Spanish), wrecked ship Indigenous Conspicuous in flower and in large stands
Cicuta virosa Cowbane Norway Foreign (Scottish), mercenaries Indigenous Poisonous
Heracleum mantegazzianum Giant hogweed Denmark Foreign (Italian), packing material Introduced (Caucasus) Harmful, conspicuous (size)
Heracleum persicum Persian hogweed Denmark Foreign (Italian), packing material Introduced (Iran) Harmful, conspicuous (size)
Jacobaea vulgaris Common ragwort Scotland Foreign (English), horse fodder Probably indigenous Poisonous
Lathyrus japonicus Sea pea Norway Possibly foreign (Dutch), whalers Indigenous Conspicuous in flower; poisonous if peas are consumed in quantity
Leymus arenarius Lyme grass Norway Foreign (Dutch), grain from wreck Indigenous Conspicuous in large stands, harmful if infested with ergot
Phoenix dactylifera Date palm Greece (Crete) Foreign (Egyptian), soldiers Introduced Conspicuous in shape and size, cultivated ornamental
Phoenix theophrasti Cretan date palm Greece (Crete) Foreign (Arab), pirates Indigenous, endemic Conspicuous in shape and size, inedible fruits
Primula vulgaris Primrose Norway Foreign (Dutch), ballast Indigenous Conspicuous in flower
Scopolia carniolica Henbane bell Norway Foregin (Russian), soldier Introduced (southern Europe) Poisonous, cultivated ornamental