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Table 1 List of plants used as foodstuff or medicinal purposes in Afyonkarahisar (Inner-West Anatolia)

From: Ethnobotanical survey of plants used in Afyonkarahisar-Turkey

Species Plant Family Local Name Parts Used Uses Preparation and Administration
Acanthus hirsutus Boiss. (AKUH 7506) Acanthaceae Ayıpençesi Stem, Leaf Fodder Stem and leaf are consumed by animals for fodder.
Amaranthus retroflexus L. (AKUH 7509) Amaranthaceae Paşa pancarı, kızılbacak Leaf Food The plant’s leaves are fried in oil and consumed.
Conium maculatum L. (AKUH 7520) Apiaceae Yılan kamışı, gumarcık ot Flower Infection The plant oil were removed and the stem is driven to kill germs in the stem structure.
Eryngium campestre L. var. virens Link. (AKUH 7528)   Çakırdikeni Stem Infection Infusion as tea.
Arum elongatum Steven subsp. elongatum Steven (AKUH 7542) Araceae Basur otu Root, Tuber Hemorrhoid Plant tuber part turned into powder by in effect simulating the board. The capsule was consumed.
Dracunculus vulgaris Schoot. (AKUH 7564)   Yılan bıçağı Leaf Infection The leaf part is used as a salve on a wound.
Muscari comosum (L.) Mill. (AKUH 7597) Asparagaceae Dağ soğanı, ada soğanı Above ground parts Circulatory system Infusion as tea.
Tragopogon latifolius Boiss. var. angustifolius Boiss. (AKUH 7514) Asteraceae Tekesakalı, yemlik Leaf Stomach disease The leaves are directly consumed.
Helianthus tuberosus L. (AKUH 7521)   Yerelması Root, Stem Food Root and stem parts are directly consumed.
Anthemis tinctoria L. var. tinctoria L. (AKUH 7545)   Papatya Flower Respiratory system Infusion as tea.
Hieracium pannosum Boiss. (AKUH 7548)   Sakız otu Root Oral and dental health The root of the plant is suspended in the sun, the resulting liquid such as milk dry up like chewing gum is for chewing.
Anthemis wallii Hub.-Mor. et Reese (AKUH 7501)   Papatya Flower Asthma and shortness of breath Infusion as tea.
Chondrilla juncea L. var. juncea. (AKUH 7504)   Karakavuk, çıtlık, çengel sakızı Leaf Painkiller and stomach disease The leaves are used in salad.
Lactuca serriola L. (AKUH 7502)   Tarla marul, acı marul, dilli tura Leaf Diet and attenuator The leaves of the plant are consumed as part of a salad.
Achillea millefolium L. subsp. millefolium. (AKUH 7534)   Ayva denesi Leaf, Flower Diseases of the digestive system Infusion as tea.
Achillea teretifolia Willd. (AKUH 7532)   Yaraotu Above ground parts Diseases of the digestive, skin and acne The plant’s above ground parts boiled water by putting a quantity of 15 min is suspended. Tea mixed with oil is applied on acne and wounded regions.
Centaurea depressa M. Bieb. (AKUH 7560)   Gökbaş Leaf Food The leaves of the plant are consumed by making a taco.
Cichorium intybus L. (AKUH 7557)   Acı günek, çiftlik otu Leaf Painkiller and stomach diseases The plant’s leaves are made of salad and rolls.
Scolymus hispanicus L. (AKUH 7503)   Diken Stem Digestive diseases The fleshy parts of the stem of the plant is consumed directly in the blister pack
Bellis perennis L. (AKUH 7511)   Çayır papatyası Flower Medical, respiratory diseases Flower of the plant is dried, boiled water for 3–5 min by joining strength, juice drink.
Doronicum orientale Hoffm. (AKUH 7513)   Sarıçiçek Flower, Leaf Fodder The plant flowers and leaves parts exposed to animals as bait.
Onopordum anatolicum (Boiss.) Eig. (AKUH 7562)   Galgan Stem Digestive tract, stomachache, kidney stones The meaty parts in the stem of the plant is removed, directly from the defeated are consumed. Decoction as tea.
Gundelia tournefortii L. var. tournefortii (AKUH 7556)   Kenger Fruit Skin disorders, eczema, hemorrhoids After roasting, the fruit portion is consumed.
Artemisia campestris L. (AKUH 7589)   Pelin Young shoots and Leaves Appetizer Decoction as tea.
Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (AKUH 7573)   Civanperçem Leaf, Flower Pain relievers, stomach, respiratory distress, shortness of breath disorders Decoction as tea.
Inula anatolica Boiss.(AKUH 7576)   Basur otu Flower Hemorrhoids Flower is boiled in water. It is used as a treatment for hemorrhoids district.
Berberis crataegina DC.(AKUH 7629) Berberidaceae Sarıçalı Leaf, Fruit Kidney stones, liver Leaves are effective for preventing kidney stones when they are consumed 15–20 days as salad. The fruit of the plant part (grape) is consumed directly.
Anchusa leptophylla Roemer & Schultes subsp. leptophylla (AKUH 7505) Boraginaceae Ballık Otu, Kuzu dili Stem, Flower, Food Stem and flowers are put into the dough.
Cerinthe minor L. subsp. auriculata (Ten.) Domac (AKUH 7558)   Sarıçiçek Flower, Leaf Fodder Leaves and flower parts are exposed to animals.
Anchusa undulata L. subsp. hybrida (Ten.) Coutinho (AKUH 7552)   Sığırdili Leaf Diabetes The plant’s leaves are boiled and are consumed by joining into the dough.
Alkanna tinctoria (L.) Tausch subsp. glandulosa Hub.-Mor. (AKUH 7561)   Havacıva otu Root Hemorrhoids Decoction as tea, the region also has a therapeutic equivalent of hemorrhoids.
Anchusa azurea Mill. var. azurea. (AKUH 7553)   Kuzu dili, Ballık otu Leaf Food Fresh leaves of the plant are boiled and put into dough.
Alyssum desertorum Stapf. var. desertorum Stapf. (AKUH 7554) Brassicaceae Yozmercimek Fruit Food Consumed directly by shepherds.
Sisymbrium altissimum L. (AKUH 7590)   Hardal otu Leaf, Flower Food, Fodder Leaf of the plant parts consumed in the form of rolls wrapped in phyllo dough. Leaves and flowers of the plant are given to animals.
Barbarea sp. (AKUH 7583)   Acı tere Leaf Body resistance, vitamin The plant’s leaves are made of salad.
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. (AKUH 7507)   Pastariz, bicibici Leaf Food The plant fresh leaves are consumed in the form of pastry wrapped into rolls.
Sinapis arvensis L. (AKUH 7508)   Hardal Leaf Food Boiled fresh leaves is consumed in taco.
Silene dichotoma Ehrh. subsp. dichotoma Ehrh. (AKUH 7512) Caryophyllaceae Toklubaşı Leaf Food The plant’s leaves are made of salad
Stellaria media (L.) Vill. subsp. media. (AKUH 7510)   Kuşekmeği, urgancık, kazayağı Leaf Food The leaves of the plant is consumed wrapped in dough.
Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke var. vulgaris (AKUH 7515)   Toklubaşı Leaf Food Fried in oil and consumed.
Agrostemma githago L. (AKUH 7628)   Sakızlık otu Flower Digestive disorder Infusion as tea.
Dianthus zonatus Fenzl. var. aristatus (Boiss.) Reeve (AKUH 7620)   Basur otu Flower Hemorrhoids Flower part is boiled in water in 3–5 min. It is drunk for hemorrhoidal disease by the use of 10–15 sessions
Dianthus zonatus Fenzl var. zonatus (AKUH 7598)   Siğilotu Flower Skin diseases, warts Infusion as tea.
Vaccaria pyramidata Medik. var. grandiflora (Fisch. ex DC.) Cullen (AKUH 7623)   Mor çiçek Flower, Leaf Fodder It is consumed as fresh by animals..
Chenopodium album L. (AKUH 7588) Chenopodiaceae Sirken Leaf Food The plant’s leaves are boiled, consumed in dough.
Chenopodium album L. subsp. album var. album (AKUH 7582)   Sarı sirken Leaf Food The plant’s leaves are roasted and the eggs are added on to it.
Chenopodium foliosum (Moench) Asch. (AKUH 7630)   İt üzümü Fruit Food Fruits are eaten in fresh.
Beta trigyna Waldst. & Kit. (AKUH 7625)   Kır ıspanağı Leaf Digestive and stomach diseases Fried in oil and eaten by shepherds.
Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. (AKUH 7626)   Süpürge Branch, Stem Household goods Turned into a broom is used as household goods.
Atriplex sp. (AKUH 7627)   Tellice Flower Immune system Infusion as tea.
Cistus laurifolius L. (AKUH 7624) Cistaceae Pinar Leaf, Young shoots Crafts, coloring, digestive The leaves and young branches of the plant are boiled, green, yellow and tones are obtained. The leaves and shoots are boiled in water to drink.
Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus (AKUH 7622) Cupressaceae Gıli gıli Leaf, Galbula Cholesterol, diabetes The plant’s fruit and leaves are boiled in water for 10–15 min for a drink. Fresh fruits are edible or boiled to prepare juice.
Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. (AKUH 7621)   Katran ağacı Stem Digestive and infection diseases The plant body part turned into tar at high temperature and used for cleaning of the infection and digestive problems.
Juniperus foetidissima Willd. (AKUH 7619)   Kokar ardıcı Leaf Skin diseases, warts Juniper leaves, broken in and they are applied into the warty zone 30–40 sessions.
Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. (AKUH 7617) Equisetaceae Kırk kilit Stem Respiratory, sinusitis and arthritis diseases Decoction as tea.
Euphorbia macroclada (Boiss.) (AKUH 7616) Euphorbiaceae Sütleğen Stem Infection The plant is removed from the body in the form of liquid milk. Liquid bread into the stained area and ingested for treatment malaria.
Vicia cracca L. subsp. stenophylla Velen. (AKUH 7613) Fabaceae Efek Flower, Fruit Food, fodder Flowers and fruits are consumed directly.
Astragalus flavescens Boiss. (AKUH 7618)   Eşek geveni Leaf, Flower Fodder The plant’s leaves and flower parts are consumed directly by animals
Astragalus microcephalus Willd. (AKUH 7615)   Geven Above ground parts Fodder Spiny part is burned by shepherds. A hammer or mallet were crushed for animals to eat.
Coronilla varia L. subsp. varia (AKUH 7611)   Burçak Flower, Leaf Respiratory diseases Infusion as tea.
Astragalus pisidicus Boiss. & Heldr. (AKUH 7612)   Söğüt geveni Above ground parts Body resistance, immune system, cancer Infusion as tea.
Quercus ithaburensis Decne. subsp. macrolepis (Kotsch) Hedge&Yalt. (AKUH 7614) Fagaceae Palamut Cupula of the plant Crafts, painting Cupula of the plant by boiling chickpea yolk color is obtained for rug weaving.
Quercus cerris L. var. cerris (AKUH 7608)   Kızılmeşe Fruit Infection, hemorrhoids, Skin disorders, eczema It is boiled in water and two spoons of juice is consumed on an empty stomach.
Quercus infectoria Oliv. subsp. boissieri (Reuter) O.Schwarz (AKUH 7610)   Gerçelik Fruit Fodder Plant crops are exposed as sheep bait.
Quercus pubescens Willd. (AKUH 7595)   Tüylü meşe Leaf Fodder The leaves of the plant are eaten by animals.
Hypericum perforatum L. (AKUH 7566) Hypericaceae Binbir otu Above ground parts Painkillers Decoction as tea.
Hypericum perfoliatum L. (AKUH 7555)   Binbirdelik otu Leaf, Flower Digestive system Decoction as tea.
Juglans regia L. (AKUH 7607) Juglandaceae Ceviz kabuğu Fruit Peel Skin cancer, crafts and coloring Decoction as tea. It is boiled to obtain dark brown collors and tones for rug weaving.
Tymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus (Borbas) Jalas (AKUH 7601) Lamiaceae Dağ kekiği Flower Lowering cholesterol and sugar. The plant is consumed in the form of oregano oil. Infusion as tea.
Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. subsp. typhoides (Briq.) Harley var. typhoides (AKUH 7600)   Yabani nane, Doğuma Leaf Body resistance, vitamin, respiratory diseases The plant’s leaves are consumed in salad Infusion as tea. Dried leaves of the plant are used for spices. Plant leaves are mixed to the dough.
Teucrium chamaedrys L. subsp. chamaedry. (AKUH 7603)   Bodurmamut, sancıotu Leaf, Flower Painkillers, stomach and hemorrhoid disease Infusion as tea.
Origanum vulgare L. subsp. hirtum (Link) Ietsw. (AKUH 7599)   Dağ çayı Flower Digestive and stomach diseases Infusion as tea.
Thymus zygioides Griseb. var. lycaonicus (AKUH 7606)   Mor kekik Flower Heart and vascular diseases Infusion as tea.
Salvia cryptantha Montbret & Aucher ex Bentham (AKUH 7602)   Kır çayı, şapla Leaf, Flower Respiratory and colds Infusion as tea.
Marrubium globosum Montbret et Aucher ex Bentham (AKUH 7578)   Oğul otu Leaf Cardiac, vascular diseases Infusion as tea.
Salvia tomentosa Mill. (AKUH 7579)   Karakekik Leaf, Flower Food Decoction as tea.
Salvia virgata Jacq. (AKUH 7592)   Kır kekiği Flower Food Dried flowers are used for spices by joining tarhana soup
Phlomis armeniaca Willd. (AKUH 7593)   Zorlatma otu Flower Painkillers Flower oil is applied to the pain region.
Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus var. sipyleus (AKUH 7604)   Beyaz kekik Flower Respiratory diseases shortness of breath, influenza Infusion as tea.
Mentha pulegium L. (AKUH 7605)   Yarpuz Flower Food Dried flowers of the herb is consumed as spices. Infusion as tea.
Teucrium polium L. (AKUH 7591)   Acı ot Stem Hemorrhoids Infusion as tea.
Linum hirsutum L. subsp. anatolicum (Boiss.) Hayek var. anatolicum.(AKUH 7596) Linaceae Keten Flower Food The flowers of the plant are consumed directly.
Viscum album L. subsp. album (AKUH 7594) Santalaceae Bögem, burç Leaf, Young shoots Respiratory, cough, digestive, intestinal gas reliever Infusion as tea.
Arceuthobium oxycedri (Dc.) M. Bieb. (AKUH 7584)   Ardıç burçu Stem Neurological diseases Decoction as tea.
Malva sylvestris L. (AKUH 7587) Malvaceae Ebegümeci Leaf Food After rosting in oil, it is consumed in the form of food.
Malva neglecta Wallr. (AKUH 7586)   Ebegümeci Leaf Painkiller Infusion as tea. Fresh leaves of the plant participates in the dough.
Morus nigra L.(AKUH 7585) Moraceae Doğal dut Fruit Infection, aphthae Marmalade is made from fruit.
Peganum harmala L. (AKUH 7572) Nitrariceae Üzerlik Above ground parts The evil eye It is believed to prevent for the evil eye to strike the bride and son-in-law.
Chelidonium majus L. (AKUH 7563)   Kırlangıç otu Above ground parts Digestion, hemorrhoids, liver, jaundice, eye diseases, skin diseases Infusion as tea (1–2 cups a day)
Fumaria asepala Boiss. (AKUH 7543)   Şahtere Flower Iinfection, fungus Infusion as tea. The plant’s water is applied to fungal region.
Papaver dubium L. (AKUH 7551)   Yaban haşhaşı Leaf Food The leaves of the plant are consumed by making a salad.
Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe var. pallasiana (AKUH 7565) Pinaceae Katran çamı Stem Infection Tar in water is drunk for infection.
Plantago lanceolata L. (AKUH 7525) Plantaginaceae Sinirli yaprak Leaf Infection Leaf of the plant part is driven directly to the inflamed area. It is used for cleaning of the infection.
Plantago major L. subsp. intermedia (Gilib.) Lange (AKUH 7531)   Yılanotu Leaf Infection Leaf of the plant part affected area to be wrapped, provides to outside infection.
Acantholimon ulicinum (Willd. & Schultes) Boiss. subsp. lycaonicum (Boiss. & Heldr.) Bokhari. & Edm. (AKUH 7580) Plumbaginaceae Porsuk Flower, Leaf Household goods Used in homes as decorative items.
Acantholimon acerosum subsp. lycaonicum (Willd.) Boiss. var. acerosum (AKUH 7581)   Keven, Porsuk Flower Household goods, infection, tuberculosis Infusion as tea (1–2 cups a day)
Rumex scutatus L. (AKUH 7569) Polygonaceae Ekşimen Leaf Vitamin needs The leaves of the plant are consumed directly. Phyllo dough is made between the rolls. Salad is made. It is consumed directly with salt.
Rumex patientia L. (AKUH 7571)   İlibada, Sabla Leaf Food The leaf part is consumed as wheat wrapped (sarma). Leaf of the plant part participates in the dough.
Rumex acetosella L. (AKUH 7574)   Kuzukulağı Leaf Food Leaves are eaten directly. Rolls are made, It is eaten.
Rumex crispus L. (AKUH 7575)   Evelik Leaf Food The leaf part is consumed as wheat wrapped (sarma).
Polygonum cognatum Meissn. (AKUH 7518)   Çobanekmeği Leaf Body resistance It is eaten as salad. Leaf of the plant part eaten directly.
Rumex tuberosus L.subsp. tuberosus L. (AKUH 7519)   Ekşikulak Leaf Body resistance, vitamin It is eaten as salad. Leaf of the plant part eaten directly.
Portulaca oleraceae L. (AKUH 7522) Portulacaceae Temizlik otu Above ground parts Food The plant’s above ground parts especially the leaves part joins into the yogurt. It is eaten as salad.
Lysimachia vulgaris L. (AKUH 7577) Primulaceae Mersin Leaf Digestive diseases Infusion as tea (1–2 cups a day)
Nigella sativa L. (AKUH 7559) Ranunculaceae Çörek otu Seed Respiratory distress, shortness of breath, the immune diseases The plant’s seed is consumed directly. Also, it is mixed into the honey.
Ranunculus ficaria L. subsp. ficariiformis Rouy & F. (AKUH 7567)   Sarıçiçek, Düğün çiçeği, Mayıs çiçeği Flower Digestion, hemorrhoids, skin diseases Infusion as tea (3 cups a day)
Adonis aestivalis L. subsp. aestivalis L. (AKUH 7516)   Tavukgötü Stem Fodder The stem of the plant parts are consumed by animals.
Rhamnus rhodopeus Velen. subsp. anatolicus (Grub.) Browicz & Zieliński (AKUH 7570) Rhamnaceae Yağlıcan çehri, Karaköken Fruit Debilitating, diabetes Fruits of the plant part eaten directly.
Pyrus elaeagnifolia Pallas subsp. elaeagnifolia Pallas (AKUH 7568) Rosaceae Ahlât Fruit Cardiovascular diseases, hypertension Infusion as tea(4 cups a day) Fruits of the plant part are eaten directly. Designated as a beverage.
Rosa hemisphaerica Herrm. (AKUH 7549)   Gündöndü çiçeği Fruit Food Fruits of the plant part eaten directly.
Rosa canina L. (AKUH 7550)   Kuşburnu Fruit Urea treatment, hemorrhoids, gastric ulcer Dried fruit is boiled for a long time in the water to get marmelata. The fruit is boiled and it is taken orally as cold drink. Infusion as tea(3–4 cups a day)
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. subsp. monogyna.(AKUH 7547)   Öküzgötü Fruit Respiratory, cold Infusion as tea(2–4 cups a day) Dried fruit is boiled for a long time in the water to get marmelata.
Prunus divaricata Ledeb. subsp. divaricata.(AKUH 7541)   Yabani erik Fruit Body resistance Fruits of the plant part are eaten directly.
Geum urbanum L. (AKUH 7535)   Dağçayı, meryemotu Root Respiratory, influenza Decoction as tea.
Crataegus aronia (L.) Bosc. ex DC. (AKUH 7546)   Alıç Fruit Food Fruits of the plant part are eaten directly.
Malus sylvestris Mill. subsp. orientalis(Uglitzk.) Browicz var. orientalis (AKUH 7540)   Dağ elması Fruit Food The fruit of the plant is dried, boiled and drunk as juice.
Crataegus orientalis Pallas ex M. Bieb. var. orientalis (AKUH 7544)   Ahlât Fruit, Young shoots Diabetes, rheumatism The ends of the branches and shoots of the plant parts are welded, cold drink. Fruits of the plant part are eaten directly.
Cerasus vulgaris Mill. (AKUH 7539)   Yozvişne Fruit Kidney, diuretic Infusion as tea(8–10 cups a day) Compote is done from fruits.
Prunus armeniaca L. (AKUH 7533)   Kayısı kurusu Fruit Digestive and intestinal problems Fruits of the plant part are eaten directly. Compote is done from fruits.
Cotoneaster nummularia Fisch. & C.A.Mey. (AKUH 7536)   Muşmula Fruit Food Fresh fruits are boiled to prepare jam. Decoction as tea.
Salix alba L. (AKUH 7538) Salicaceae Söğüt Leaf Painkiller, stomach and respiratory diseases, shortness of breath Infusion as tea(2 cups a day)
Linaria genistifolia (L.) Mill. subsp. genistifolia (AKUH 7537) Scrophulariaceae Geyşenik, Meryem otu Flower Fodder Animals consume directly.
Linaria genistifolia (L.) Mill. subsp. confertiflora (AKUH 7517)   Geyşenik, Meryem otu Leaf, Flower Skin disorders, eczema Portions of the leaves and flowers are boiled. It is applied 2–3 times a day for eczema areas.
Verbascum sp. (AKUH 7527)   Öküz kuyruğu, sığırkuyruğu Leaf, Flower Respiratory, asthma, shortness of breath, skin diseases, warts, eczema Infusion as tea(2–4 cups a day) It is applied 2–3 times a day for eczema areas.
Linaria grandiflora Desf. (AKUH 7529)   Sarışın Leaf, Flower Fodder Animals consume directly.
Urtica dioica L. (AKUH 7526) Urticaceae Isırgan Leaf Cancer, leukemia Decoction as tea.
Urtica urens L. (AKUH 7530)   Dağlayan Leaf Skin cancer Decoction as tea.
Urtica pilulifera L. (AKUH 7524)   Isırgan otu Leaf Food Decoction as tea.
Tribulus terrestris L. (AKUH 7523) Zygophyllaceae Çoban çökerten Flower, Leaf, Root Kidney sand, hemorrhoids Leaves are consumed to make taco. The flower oil is applied for hemorrhoids.