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Table 3 Key food plants in Southern Conte-Burica, Costa Rica. Vernacular and botanical names, botanical family, life form, plant organ used, agroecosystem mostly found, and freelist results (frequency, average rank and Smith's salience) for key food plants, in decreasing Smith’s saliency order. (n = 10 key informants; key plants = 25 folk taxa)

From: Foodways in transition: food plants, diet and local perceptions of change in a Costa Rican Ngäbe community

Ngäbere Name English Name Spanish Name Scientific Name Botanical Family Frequency (%) Average Rank Smith's Salience (S) Life forma Plant organ usedb Agroecosystem mostly foundc
Aro Rice Arroz Oryza sativa Poaceae 100 6.20 0.847 H S CuA, To
Mumá Bean (common) Frijol (común o cañero), vainica Phaseolus vulgaris Fabaceae (Papil.) 100 7.40 0.822 L S, Frt CuA, To
Mumá krire Pigeon pea Frijol de palo Cajanus cajan Fabaceae (Papil.) 100 8.20 0.801 S S, Lt CuA
I Corn Maíz Zea mays Poaceae 90 10.44 0.664 H S CuA, To
Ö Manioc, cassava Yuca Manihot esculenta Euphorbiaceae 90 13.78 0.645 H R, Lt CuA, Ga
Naran Orange Naranja Citrus × sinensis Rutaceae 90 14.33 0.552 T Fr Ga, Tr
Arrowleaf, otoe, yautia Tiquizque (chamol, otoe) Xanthosoma spp. Araceae 80 16.50 0.538 H R, Lt CuA, Ga
Drun Yam Ñame Dioscorea alata Dioscoreaceae 100 21.20 0.497 L R Ga, Cu
Baran bun Plantain Plátano Musa acuminata × balbisiana Musaceae 80 15.13 0.465 H Fr, L (I), (T) Ga, CuP
Cocoa Cacao Theobroma cacao Sterculiaceae 70 15.00 0.458 T S, S (A) Ga, CuP
Mumá köire Cowpea Frijol de bejuco, caupí Vigna unguiculata Fabaceae (Papil.) 60 10.33 0.449 L S CuA
Kabe Coffee Café Coffea arabica Rubiaceae 70 14.57 0.447 S S To, Ga, CuP
Barän rugá Banana Banano Musa acuminata Musaceae 90 19.56 0.442 H Fr, L (I), (T) Ga, CuP
Drune Yampi Ñampí Dioscorea trifida Dioscoreaceae 90 21.78 0.429 L R Ga, Cu, Tr
Pumpkin, Squash Ayote (auyama) Cucurbita moschata Cucurbitaceae 70 19.86 0.376 L Lt, Fr Ga, Cu
Muá Pineapple Piña Ananas comosus Bromeliaceae 70 19.71 0.367 H Fr Ga, Cu
Jlimu Lemon Limón criollo Citrus × limon Rutaceae 60 16.33 0.351 T Fr Ga
Dugá Avocado Aguacate Persea americana Lauraceae 50 11.20 0.339 T Fr Ga, Tr, ESF
Söran Soursop Guanábana Annona muricata Annonaceae 60 19.50 0.315 T Fr Ga
Mölen Heliconia Chichica Heliconia spp. Heliconiaceae 80 22.38 0.303 H Lt, Flt, Tt Ga, Sh, ESF, Cu
Mraño Cashew Marañón Anacardium occidentale Anacardiaceae 50 19.20 0.277 T Fr, S, L (I) Tr, Ga
Dabá Peach palm Pejibaye Bactris gasipaes Arecaceae 60 23.50 0.26 P Fr, Lt CuP, Fo
Mitdrá Several palms Palmito de palma real/corozo Attalea butyracea, Bactris gasipaes and other minor species Arecaceae 50 21.40 0.216 P Lt, Fr Tr, ESF, Fo
Kolan Wild coriander Culantro (coyote) Eryngium foetidum Apiaceae 90 31.22 0.198 H C (L) Ga
Bere Breadnut Berbá, ojoche, lechoso Brosimum alicastrum Moraceae 50 24.80 0.175 T Fr, S Fo
  Percentages        37.5 % Cu
12 % Arecaceae 34 % Fr 33.5 % Ga
12 % Fabaceae 40 % H 24 % S 8 % Tr
8 % Dioscoreaceae 28 % T 21 % L 6.8 % Fo
8 % Musaceae 16 % L 10 % R 6.8 % ESF
8 % Poaceae 8 % P 8 % T 5.1 % To
8 % Rutaceae
44 % in 11 other fam. 8 % S 3 % Fl 2 % Sh
  1. Abbreviations: a Life form: T: Tree; S: Shrub; H: Herb; L: Liana, vine; P: Palm; b Plant organ used: R: Storing organs (Roots, rhizomes, tubers, and bulbs), usually underground; L: Leaves; Fl: Flowers; T: Stems (includes bark); t: tender (several parts); Fr: Fruits (exo- and/or mesocarp); S: Seeds; A: Arillus; C: Condiments; Ed: Sweetener; Ac: Oil; Col: Food colouring; I: Indirect uses; c Agroecosystem mostly found: Ga: Garden; CuA: Annual cultivation field (beans, corn- broadcasting- & rice, yuca, tiq.- slash and burn); CuP: Pluriannual cultivation field (cocoa, coffee, B/P, peach palm, cane); Sh: Shrubland; ESF: Early succesional forest; Fo: Forest; Ri: River; We: Wetland; Be: Beach; Tr: Trails; To: Town (& store). Parenthesis in plant part used and italics in agroecosystems indicate minor significance. Final note: One plant may have several plant organ used and agroecosystem mostly found (See Appendix 2 for a full list of food plants recorded with all participants)