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Table 1 Gathering season, habitat and Sicilian endemism of 119 wild plant species from four Sicilian Regional Parks

From: A survey of wild plant species for food use in Sicily (Italy) – results of a 3-year study in four Regional Parks

Plant species Gathering period Habitat
Allium ampeloprasum L. spring, winter cultivated areas
Allium subhirsutum L. spring, winter cultivated areas
Ammi majus L. spring fields, pastures
Anagyris foetida L. spring fields, maquis, woods
Anthriscus nemorosa (M. Bieb.) Spreng. spring fields, woods
Apium nodiflorum (L.) Lag. spring, summer wetlands, wet meadows, grassland
Arabis hirsuta (L.) Scop. autumn, spring, winter pastures, roadsides, rocky slopes, walls
Aristolochia sempervirens L. spring, winter garrigue, maquis, woods
Artemisia alba Turra spring, summer dry meadows, rocky slopes
Asparagus albus L. spring, winter garrigue, uncultivates areas
Asparagus acutifolius L. spring, winter garrigue, uncultivated areas, woods
Asparagus aphillus L. spring, winter garrigue, maquis, uncultivated areas
Asparagus horridus L. spring, winter garrigue, maquis
Asphodeline lutea (L.) Rchb. spring dry meadows, pastures
Asphodelus ramosus L. spring, winter dry meadows, rocky slopes, uncultivated areas
a Asperula rupestris Tineo spring rocky slopes
Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. spring, summer rocky slopes, roadsides
Borago officinalis L. autumn, winter cultivated areas
Brassica fruticulosa Cirillo autumn fields, maquis, meadows
a Brassica rupestris Raf. autumn, spring, summer, winter fields, rocky slopes
Bunias erucago L. autumn, spring, winter meadows, walls
Calendula arvensis (Vaill.) L. spring, winter meadows, roadsides
Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. spring fields, meadows, wetlands
Capparis spinosa L. spring, summer rocky slopes, walls
Carduus argyroa Biv. winter pastures, roadsides, uncultivated areas
Carduus corymbosus Ten. summer pastures, roadsides, uncultivated areas, walls
Carlina corymbosa L. spring grassland, roadsides, rocky slopes
Carlina gumnifera L. (Less.) spring, summer dry grassland, garrigue, roadsides, uncultivated areas
a Carlina sicula Ten. spring garrigue, pastures
Carthamus pinnatus Desf. spring, winter garrigue, pastures, uncultivated areas
Centaurea solstitialis L. subsp. schouwii (DC.) Gugler spring, winter roadsides, uncultivated areas
Chondrilla juncea L. spring, summer dry meadows, uncultivated areas, walls
Cichorium intybus L. spring cultivated areas
Clematis cirrhosa L. spring maquis, walls
Clematis vitalba L. spring maquis, hedges, walls, woods
Clinopodium nepeta (L.) Kuntze spring, summer meadows, uncultivated areas
Crepis vesicaria L. spring, winter roadsides, uncultivated areas, walls, wetlands
Crocus biflorus Mill. autumn, spring, summer, winter pastures, woods
Dioscorea communis L. Caddick. & Wikin spring, summer hedges, shrubby areas, woods
Diplotaxis erucoides (L.) Dc. autumn, winter cultivated areas, roadsides
Diplotaxis harra (Forssk.) Boiss. summer cultivated areas, fields
Echium vulgare L. spring pastures, roadsides
Elymus repens (L.) Gould. autumn, spring, summer, winter escarpments, meadows, uncultivated areas
Equisetum arvense L. spring, winter meadows, roadsides, shrubby areas, woods
Erodium moschatum (L.) L'Hér spring fields, rocky slopes
Fedia cornucopiae (L.) Gaertn. spring, winter cultivated areas, pastures, roadsides
Foeniculum vulgare Miller spring, winter cultivated areas, fields, meadows
Fragaria vesca L. spring, summer escarpments, woods
Gladiolus italicus Mill. autumn, spring, winter cultivated areas, rocky slopes
Globularia alypum L. spring, winter rocky slopes, woods
Glycirrhiza glabra L. spring, summer fields, maquis, woods
Helianthus tuberosus L. winter meadows, roadsides, wetlands, woods
Heliotropium europaeum L. autumn, spring, winter grassland, uncultivated area
Helminthotheca echioides (L.) Holub spring cultivated areas, roadsides
Hyoseris radiata L. spring, winter fields, pastures, roadsides
Hypochoeris radicata L. autumn, spring, winter dry meadows, pastures, roadsides
Isatis tinctoria L. spring roadsides, uncultivated areas
Lactuca viminea (L.) J. & C. Presl autumn, spring, winter hedges, roadsides, shrubby areas, uncultivated areas
Lathyrus clymenum L. spring fields, roadsides, woods
Lathyrus sativus L. spring fields, roadsides, woods
Laurus nobilis L. autumn, summer maquis, meadows, woods
Leopoldia comosa (L.) Parl. spring cultivated areas, grassland
Lycium europaeum L. spring maquis, coastal zones
Malva sylvestris L. autumn, spring, winter meadows, uncultivated areas
Marrubium vulgare L. spring, summer cultivated areas, pastures, rangeland
Mentha pulegium L. spring, summer wetlands, wet meadows
Mentha spicata L. spring, summer wetlands
Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill. spring fields, roadsides, broadleaf woods
Nasturtium officinale R. Br. spring wetlands
Nepeta cataria L. spring, winter hedges, roadsides, shrubby areas, uncultivated areas
Notobasis syriaca (L.) Cass. spring, winter pastures, roadsides, uncultivated areas
Oenanthe pimpinelloides L. spring, summer damp and dry grassland
Onopordum illyricum L. autumn, spring roadsides, uncultivated areas
Origanum vulgare L. summer escarpments, fields, hedges, maquis, woods
Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller autumn, spring, summer cultivated areas, rocky fields
Orobanche crenata Forssk spring cultivated areas
Oxalis pes-caprae L. spring, winter fields, grassland, landscaped areas
Parietaria officinalis L. autumn, spring, summer roadsides, uncultivated areas, walls
Phlomis fruticosa L. spring, summer, autumn hedges, maquis, woods
Plantago coronopus L. spring escarpments, rocky slopes
Plantago lagopus L. autumn, winter escarpments, roadsides, uncultivated areas
Polygonatum multiflorum (L.) All. spring woods
Polypodium vulgare L. autumn, spring, summer, winter rocky slopes, uncultivated areas, woods
Portulaca oleracea L. spring, summer cultivated areas, meadows
Raphanus raphanistrum L. autumn, spring, winter cultivated areas, grassland, fields, roadsides
Reichardia picroides (L.) Roth autumn, spring, winter cultivated areas, dry meadows, walls
Rosa canina L. autumn, spring, summer, winter hedges, woods
Rosmarinus officinalis L. autumn, spring, summer, winter cultivated areas, escarpments, fields, hedges, maquis, woods
Rubus ulmifolius Schott spring, summer maquis, hedges, woods
Ruscus aculeatus L. autumn, spring, winter maquis, woods
Scabiosa columbaria L. winter grassland, pastures, rocky slopes
Scolymus grandiflorus Desf. spring roadsides, uncultivated areas, walls
Scolymus hispanicus L. spring roadsides, walls
Scolymus maculatus L. spring fields, roadsides, rocky slopes
Scorzonera hispanica L. spring, winter fields, rocky slopes, uncultivated areas
Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke spring grassland, hedges, shrubby areas, woods
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner spring roadsides, uncultivated areas
Sinapis alba L. spring cultivated areas, fields, roadsides
Sinapis arvensis L. autumn, spring, winter cultivated areas, fields
Sinapis pubescens L. autumn, spring, winter rocky slopes, uncultivated areas
Sisymbrium rio L. spring, winter fields, roadsides
Smilax aspera L. spring fields, hedge, maquis, walls
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill spring, winter roadsides, uncultivated areas
Sonchus bulbosus (L.) Kilian & Greuter spring fields, uncultivated areas
Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L. spring, winter fields, pastures, roadsides
Sonchus tenerrimus L. spring fields, pastures, uncultivated areas
Taraxacum campylodes G.E. Haglund autumn, spring, winter pastures, rocky slopes
Taraxacum minimum (Briganti ex Guss.) N. Terracc. autumn, spring, winter pastures, rocky slopes
Teucrium fruticans L. spring escarpments, fields, rocky slopes
Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. spring, summer escarpments, rocky slopes, uncultivated areas
Tragopogon porrifolius L. spring grassland, roadsides
Trifolium phleoides Willd. spring maquis, meadows, uncultivated areas
Urospermum picroides (L.) F.W. Schmidt winter roadsides, uncultivated areas
Urtica dioica L. autumn, spring, winter cultivated areas, roadsides
Urtica membranacea Poir. ex Savigny winter fields, roadsides, uncultivated areas
a Urtica rupestris Guss. autumn, spring, winter cultivated areas, roadsides
Urtica urens L. autumn, spring, summer fields, roadsides
Verbascum sinuatum L. spring roadsides, uncultivated areas
Wisteria sinensis (Sims) Sweet spring roadsides, uncultivated areas
  1. aendemism