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Table 3 List of the wild plant species used for food purposes in the study area

From: A survey of wild plant species for food use in Sicily (Italy) – results of a 3-year study in four Regional Parks

Family, scientific name, voucher specimen code Vernacular name (in Sicilian dialect) Part(s) of plant used Food uses in the study area Presence of the species in the study area Use reports Current use in the study area Cultural importance index Level of perceived usefulness of species Species recorded for food purpose also in other Italian regions Species recorded for food purposes also in other Mediterranean countries Species previously cited for food purposes in Sicily Medicinal uses in the study area
Amaryllidaceae             
Allium ampeloprasum L. (CORISSIA - S/0392) porracciu Bulb Flavouring, raw in salad M 20 P 0.13 H X Y Z  
Allium subhirsutum L. (CORISSIA - S/0017) agghiu sarvaggiu Aerial part, bulb Flavouring, raw in salad N 14 P 0.06 H X    
Apiaceae             
Anthriscus nemorosa (M. Bieb.) Spreng. (CORISSIA - S/0089) coscia di cunigghiu Aerial part Boiled vegetables E 1   0.005 L X    
Ammi majus L. (CORISSIA - S/0204) ennera Aerial part Boiled vegetables N 1   0.004 H X Y   
Apium nodiflorum (L.) Lag. (CORISSIA - S/0090) scavuni, sedanu Aerial part Boiled vegetables M 24 P 0.16 H X Y Z Diuretic (M)
Foeniculum vulgare Miller (CORISSIA - S/0038) finucchieddu, finucchieddu rizzu Aerial part, seed Boiled vegetables, raw in salad, sauce for pasta E, M, N, S 248 P 0.31 H X Y Z Digestive, gastrointestinal disorders (E, M, N, S)
Oenanthe pimpinelloides L. (CORISSIA - S/0293) finocchiu acquaticu Aerial part Boiled vegetables M 5   0.03 H X    
Aristolochiaceae             
Aristolochia sempervirens L. (CORISSIA - S/0230) cannatedda Leaf Boiled vegetables E 50   0.25 H   Y   
Asparagaceae             
Asparagus albus L. (CORISSIA - S/0228) sparacio bianco, sparaciu biancu spinosu Turion Boiled vegetables, omelettes, sauce for pasta E, M, S 54 P 0.09 H, L X Y Z Diuretic (E, M, S)
Asparagus aphillus L. (CORISSIA - S/0043) aparaggiu servaggiu, sparaci di bruscu Aerial part, turion Boiled vegetables E, N 8   0.02 H X Y   
Asparagus acutifolius L. (CORISSIA - S/0202) sparaciu nivuru, sparaciu servaggiu Turion Boiled vegetables, omelettes, sauce for pasta E, M, N, S 167 P 0.21 H X Y Z Diuretic (E, M, N, S)
Asparagus horridus L. (CORISSIA -S/0249) sparacogni Turion Boiled vegetables, fried as vegetables with eggs N 32 P 0.14 H X    
Leopoldia comosa (L.) Parl. (CORISSIA - S/0368) cipuddazzu, giacintu sarvaggiu Aerial part, bulb Boiled bulbs, fried bulbs with eggs, onion balls N 8   0.03 L X Y Z  
Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill. (CORISSIA - S/0385) capudazza Bulb Flavouring, seasoning E 2   0.01 L X    
Polygonatum multiflorum (L.) All. (CORISSIA - S/0393) sparaci i curma Aerial part Boiled vegetables, fried as vegetables with eggs N 3   0.01 L     
Ruscus aculeatus L. (CORISSIA - S/0363) asparagi, spinapulici, pungitopo, sparaciu di tronu Turion Boiled vegetables, fried as vegetables with eggs E, M, N, S 97 P 0.12 H, L X Y Z Diuretic (E, S)
Asteraceae             
Artemisia alba Turra (CORISSIA - S/0215) canforedda Leaf, flower Flavouring E 1   0.005 L X    Mineralizing (E)
Calendula arvensis (Vaill.) L. (CORISSIA - S/0184) calennula Flower Boiled vegetables N 1   0.004 L X Y   
Carduus argyroa Biv. (CORISSIA - S/0189) napodi d'acqua, napordio Flower Boiled vegetables, fried as vegetables with eggs S 9   0.04 H X Y Z  
Carduus corymbosus Ten. (CORISSIA - S/0394) carvi Flower, seed Omelettes E 1   0.005 H X    
Carlina corymbosa L. (CORISSIA - S/0395) mazzacani Flower Boiled vegetables E 2   0.01 L X    
Carlina gummifera L. (Less.) (CORISSIA - S/0316) masticogna Inflorescence, root Boiled vegetables, raw in salad M, N, S 22   0.04 H, L X    
Carlina sicula Ten. (CORISSIA -S/0284) pani cauru Aerial part Boiled vegetables, fried as vegetables with eggs M, N 17   0.04 H, L    Z  
Carthamus pinnatus Desf. (CORISSIA - S/0396) cardunceddu Aerial part Boiled and fried vegetables, raw in salad M 3   0.02 L X    
Centaurea solstitialis L. subsp. schouwii (DC.) Gugler (CORISSIA - S/0078) aprocchio, apuarchiu, procchia Leaf, whole plant Boiled vegetables, fried as vegetables with eggs E, M, N, S 85 P 0.11 H, L X Y Z Diuretic (M), stomach pains (N)
Chondrilla juncea L. (CORISSIA - S/0389) cutulidda Aerial part Boiled vegetables E 5   0.02 H X Y Z  
Cichorium intybus L. (CORISSIA - S/0026) ciconia, cicoria, cicuaria Aerial part, leaf Boiled vegetables, fried as vegetables with eggs, sauce for pasta E, M, N, S 295 P 0.37 H X Y Z Diuretic (E, M, N, S), laxative (M, N)
Crepis vesicaria L. (CORISSIA - S/0036) cicuriuni Aerial part Boiled vegetables S 7   0.03 L X Y Z  
Helianthus tuberosus L. (CORISSIA - S/0240) cazzatummula Tuber Cooked with sweet potatoes N 3   0.01 L X Y   
Helminthotheca echioides (L.) Holub (CORISSIA - S/0397) aspragini vulgari Aerial part Boiled vegetables, omelettes, sauce for pasta M 7   0.05 L     
Hyoseris radiata L. (CORISSIA - S/0070) cicoria sarvaggia Aerial part Boiled vegetables S 3   0.01 L X   Z Diuretic (S)
Hypochoeris radicata L. (CORISSIA - S/0283) coscivecchi, costi i vecchia, costolina Inflorescence, leaf Boiled vegetables E, M, N 103 P 0.18 H, L X Y Z Kidney stones, renal colics (E)
Lactuca viminea (L.) J. & C. Presl (CORISSIA - S/0290) cacciacunigghiu, pedi di nigghiu Aerial part, leaf Raw in salad E, N 8   0.02 H X Y Z  
Notobasis syriaca (L.) Cass. (CORISSIA - S/0007) piscialasinu, spina ianca Inflorescence Boiled and gratin vegetables, fried as vegetables with eggs, omelettes N, S 8   0.01 L X   Z  
Onopordum illyricum L. (CORISSIA -S/0197) minapurdi,munaceddi, napordi, onopordo Aerial part, leaf, stem Boiled vegetables, dipped in flour and eggs M, N, S 95   0.16 H X Y Z  
Reichardia picroides (L.) Roth (CORISSIA - S/0192) caccialebra, grattalingua comune Aerial part Boiled vegetables E, M 50 P 0.14 H X Y Z Headache (E)
Scolymus grandiflorus Desf. (CORISSIA - S/0160) cardagna maggiore Aerial part, stem Boiled vegetables, raw in salad E, M 51   0.14 H X   Z  
Scolymus hispanicus L. (CORISSIA - S/0398) scoddi Aerial part Boiled vegetables N 3   0.01 L X Y Z  
Scolymus maculatus L. (CORISSIA - S/0399) cacalasagni Stem Raw in salad, omelettes,sauce for pasta S 16   0.07 H, L X Y Z  
Scorzonera hispanica L. (CORISSIA - S/0049) scussunara Aerial part Boiled vegetables E 12   0.06 H   Y   
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner (CORISSIA - S/0212) buanazzi, cardu Aerial part Boiled vegetables, raw in salad M, N 17   0.04 L X Y Z Liver disorders, stomach pains (N)
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill (CORISSIA - S/0077) cardedda spinosa, cardedda sarvaggia, crispinu spinosu Aerial part, leaf Boiled vegetables, sauce for pasta E, M, S 58   0.10 H X Y Z Digestive (S)
Sonchus bulbosus (L.) Kilian & Greuter (CORISSIA - S/0400) latte d'aceddu Leaf Mixed vegetables E 1   0.01 L X    
Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L. (CORISSIA - S/0364) cardera duci, cardedda, crespino comune Aerial part, whole plant Boiled vegetables, flavouring, omelettes, sauce for pasta E, M, N, S 154 P 0.19 H, L X Y Z Digestive, refreshing (M, N, S)
Sonchus tenerrimus L. (CORISSIA - S/0010) crespino Aerial part Boiled vegetables, sauce for pasta M 9   0.06 L X Y Z  
Taraxacum campylodes G.E. Haglund (CORISSIA - S/0032) denti di liuni Inflorescence Boiled vegetables, sautéed vegetables wit batter N 13   0.05 H, L X Y   
Taraxacum minimum (Briganti ex Guss.) N. Terracc. (CORISSIA - S/0069) cicoria sarvaggia, pedi d'aceddu Inflorescence Boiled vegetables, raw in salad N 3   0.01 L X    
Tragopogon porrifolius L. (CORISSIA -S/0052) nzitarola, perciacannedda Inflorescence, leaf, root Boiled vegetables, raw in salad N 3   0.01 L X Y Z  
Urospermum picroides (L.) F. W. Schmidt (CORISSIA - S/0087) coccialebbra, coccidilepre Leaf Boiled vegetables S 2   0.008 L X Y Z  
Boraginaceae             
Borago officinalis L. (CORISSIA - S/0268) burrania, borragine, vurrania Aerial part Boiled vegetables, sauce for pasta, sautéed vegetables with batter E, M, N, S 185   0.23 H X Y Z Diuretic, laxative (E, M, N, S), digestive (N)
Echium vulgare L. (CORISSIA - S/0106) viperina Aerial part, inflorescence Boiled vegetables N 1   0 L X Y   
Heliotropium europaeum L. (CORISSIA - S/0313) erba i nasu Aerial part Boiled vegetables E 1   0.01 L     
Brassicaceae             
Arabis hirsuta (L.) Scop. (CORISSIA - S/0051) razzi Aerial part Boiled vegetables E 29   0.15 H X    
Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. (CORISSIA - S/0220) mazzarelli Young shoots Boiled vegetables E 2   0.01 L X    
Brassica fruticulosa Cirillo (CORISSIA - S/0093) caliceddi, caluceddi, calicelli Aerial part, leaf Boiled vegetables, sautéed vegetables with batter E 98 P 0.50 H X Y Z  
Brassica rupestris Raf. (CORISSIA - S/0101) caliceddi i muru, cavulazzu Leaf Boiled vegetables, fried as vegetables with eggs E, N 8   0.02 H, L X    
Bunias erucago L. (CORISSIA - S/0381) cicoria selvaggia Aerial part Boiled vegetables E 62   0.32 H X   Z Digestive, diuretic (E)
Diplotaxis erucoides (L.) Dc. (CORISSIA - S/0286) arsaneddi d'aglia, caluzzi di vigna, lassaneddi d'aglia, lassanu d'aglia, pissineddi, sinacciola Aerial part Boiled vegetables, fried as vegetables with eggs and lemons S 37   0.16 H X Y   
Diplotaxis harra (Forssk.) Boiss. (CORISSIA - S/0345) cavuliceddi Leaf Boiled vegetables S 3   0.01 L   Y Z  
Isatis tinctoria L. (CORISSIA - S/0372) cavolu carrammu Flower Boiled vegetables E 2   0.01 L X    
Nasturtium officinale R. Br. (CORISSIA - S/0140) crescione, crisciuni, Aerial part, leaf Boiled vegetables, raw in salad E, M, N, S 45 P 0.05 H, L X Y Z Diuretic (E, S, N), renal pains (N)
Raphanus raphanistrum L. (CORISSIA - S/0258) mazzaredda, ravaneddu, razzi Aerial part Boiled vegetables M, N, S 33   0.05 H X Y Z  
Sinapis alba L. (CORISSIA - S/0168) azzareddi, mazzarello bianco Aerial part Boiled vegetables E, S 20 P 0.04 H X Y Z  
Sinapis arvensis L. (CORISSIA - S/0057) cavulazzu, pisciacunigghiu Aerial part, seed Boiled vegetables, sautéed vegetables with batter E, M, N, S 64 P 0.08 H X Y Z Bronchitis, cough (N)
Sinapis pubescens L. (CORISSIA - S/0042) sinapi Aerial part Sautéed vegetables with batter M 5   0.03 H X    
Sisymbrium irio L. (CORISSIA - S/0375) pisciacani, assini Aerial part Boiled vegetables, fried as vegetables with eggs N 13   0.05 L X Y Z  
Cactaceae             
Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller (CORISSIA -S/0046) ficu d'innia, ficudinia Fruit Fresh fruit, marmalade E, M, N, S 157 P 0.19 H X Y Z Digestive (E, M, N, S), diuretic (E, M, N, S)
Capparaceae             
Capparis spinosa L. (CORISSIA - S/0037) chiapparu, chiapperi, chiapparedda Flower bud Raw in salad, sauce for pasta, fish and meet E, M, N, S 33 P 0.04 H X Y Z  
Caprifoliaceae             
Fedia cornucopiae (L.) Gaertn. (CORISSIA - S/0014) spezzacannati Aerial part, young shoot Raw in salad M, N 10   0.03 L X   Z  
Scabiosa columbaria L. (CORISSIA - S/0044) erva di cavaleri Leaf Boiled vegetables E 1   0.01 L X    
Caryophillaceae             
Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke (CORISSIA - S/0080) aricchi i lepri, erva privicatura Leaf, young shoot Omelettes, raw in salad E, N 27   0.06 H X Y Z  
Convolvulaceae             
Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. (CORISSIA - S/0401) campaneddu Leaf Boiled vegetables E 10   0.05 H X    
Dioscoreaceae             
Dioscorea communis L. Caddick & Wilkin (CORISSIA - S/0003) sparaci i curriola, sparaci ri serpa, viddicedda, vitarra Aerial part, young shoot Fried as vegetables with eggs M, N, S 52   0.08 H X    Digestive (N, S), laxative (M, N),
Equisetaceae             
Equisetum arvense L. (CORISSIA - S/0349) cuda i cavaddu Aerial part, leaf Boiled vegetables E, N 6   0.01 H X Y   Diuretic (N)
Geraniaceae             
Erodium moschatum (L.) L'Hér. (CORISSIA - S/0185) panizzi da bedda matri Aerial part Boiled vegetables N 1   0.004 L X Y   
Iridaceae             
Crocus biflorus Mill. (CORISSIA - S/0341) ciuri pi fari u zafferanu Flower Flavouring E 1   0.01 L X Y   
Gladiolus italicus Mill. (CORISSIA - S/0321) cutiddi Aerial part Boiled vegetables E 1   0.01 L X    
Lamiaceae             
Clinopodium nepeta (L.) Kuntze (CORISSIA - S/0149) niputedda, nitedda, nepotella Leaf Flavouring E, M, N, S 127 P 0.16 H, L X Y Z Heamorroids (E)
Marrubium vulgare L. (CORISSIA - S/0307) marrobbiu Leaf Boiled vegetables S 1   0 L X Y   Bronchitis, cough (S)
Mentha pulegium L. (CORISSIA - S/0229) iuri di menta Leaf Flavouring, liqueurs, seasoning E, N 17 P 0.02 H X Y Z Digestive (N)
Mentha spicata L. (CORISSIA - 0198) menta Leaf Flavouring, liqueurs, seasoning E 4 P 0.02 L X Y Z  
Nepeta cataria L. (CORISSIA - S/0041) citulella Aerial part Boiled vegetables E 4   0.02 H X    Sedative (E)
Origanum vulgare L. (CORISSIA - S/0398) arianu, rianu Flower, leaf Flavouring, seasoning E, N, S 110 P 0.17 H X Y Z Digestive (N)
Phlomis fruticosa L. (CORISSIA - S/0287) sarvia sarvaggia Leaf Flavouring S 2   0.01 L X Y Z  
Rosmarinus officinalis L. (CORISSIA - S/0357) rosmarinu Aerial part, leaf Flavouring, seasoning E, N, S 109 P 0.16 H X Y Z Asthma (N, S), digestive, stomach pains (N)
Teucrium fruticans L. (CORISSIA - S/0231) caccazzina, ricuttedda Aerial part Sautéed vegetables with eggs and batter E, N 16   0.04 H X Y Z Heamorroids (E)
Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. (CORISSIA - S/0391) sataredda Flower, leaf Flavouring, seasoning E, M, N, S 38 P 0.04 H X Y Z Sedative (S), throat and mouth inflammations (N)
Lauraceae             
Laurus nobilis L. (CORISSIA - S/0218) dauru, davuru Leaf Flavouring E, M, N, S 75 P 0.09 H X Y Z Airways inflammation, cold, cough (M, N), digestive (E, M, N, S)
Leguminosae             
Anagyris foetida L. (CORISSIA - S/0068) fasolu taddi Shoot Fried as vegetables with eggs N 6   0.03 L X    
Glycirrhiza glabra L. (CORISSIA - S/0354) niculizia Root Raw in salad N, S 15 P 0.03 H X Y Z Cold, cough (N, S)
Lathyrus clymenum L. (CORISSIA - S/0402) fasolu taddi Shoot Fried as vegetables with eggs N 6   0.03 H X Y Z  
Lathyrus sativus L. (CORISSIA -S/0132) chiecchiera Fruit Raw in salad N 2   0.009 H X Y   
Trifolium phleoides Willd. (CORISSIA - S/0223) cuda di surciu, curi ri succi Aerial part Boiled vegetables, fried as vegetables with eggs E, N 17   0.04 H, L X Y   Diuretic (E)
Wisteria sinensis (Sims) Sweet (CORISSIA - S/0187) glicine Aerial part , inflorescence Sautéed vegetables with batter N 2   0.009 L     
Malvaceae             
Malva sylvestris L. (CORISSIA - S/0227) marva Leaf Boiled vegetables E 16   0.08 H X Y Z Anti-inflammatory, digestive, diuretic, haemorroids, renal colics (E)
Oxalidaceae             
Oxalis pes-caprae L. (CORISSIA - S/0244) acetosella, castanziculli, castagnola Leaf, bulb, root Side dish, roast like chestnuts E, M, N 12   0.02 H, L X Y Z Digestive (N)
Orobanchaceae             
Orobanche crenata Forssk (CORISSIA - S/0209) lupa Aerial part, stem Raw in salad N, S 5   0.01 L X    Cough (N)
Plantaginaceae             
Globularia alypum L. (CORISSIA - S/0334) erva bianca Leaf Boiled vegetables E 15   0.08 H X    Renal stones (E)
Plantago lagopus L. (CORISSIA - S/0165) coda di gatto Aerial part Boiled vegetables E 16   0.08 H X Y Z  
Plantago coronopus L. (CORISSIA - S/0278) erva stidda Aerial part, leaf Boiled vegetables N 2   0.009 L X Y   Astringent (N)
Poaceae             
Elymus repens (L.) Gould. (CORISSIA - S/0028) gramigna Whole plant Boiled vegetables E 51   0.26 H X    Diuretic, hypertension, renal colics, stomach pains (E)
Polypodiaceae             
Polypodium vulgare L. (CORISSIA - S/0327) filici Leaf, root Boiled vegetables E 3   0.01 L X    Depurative, digestive, laxative (E)
Portulacaceae             
Portulaca oleracea L. (CORISSIA - S/0369) purciddana Aerial part Raw in salad E, M, N, S 64 P 0.08 H, L X Y Z Depurative (E)
Ranunculaceae             
Clematis cirrhosa L. (CORISSIA - S/0335) viterbi Leaf Boiled vegetables E 1   0.01 L     
Clematis vitalba L. (CORISSIA - S/0328) aliferi, clematidi Turion Mixed vegetables, omelettes, raw in salad M 20   0.13 L X Y Z  
Rosaceae             
Fragaria vesca L. (CORISSIA - S/0362) fraula silvatica Fruit, leaf Fresh fruit, marmalade E, M, N 23 P 0.04 H X Y   Diuretic (E)
Rosa canina L. (CORISSIA - S/0061) rusera Flower, fruit Marmalade M, N 17   0.04 L X Y Z Digestive (N)
Rubus ulmifolius Schott (CORISSIA - S/0261) amuredda, rivetta, rovi, ruvetta Fruit, flower, leaf Cakes, marmalade M, N, S 60 P 0.09 H, L X Y Z Haemorrhoids (S)
Rubiaceae             
Asperula rupestris Tineo (CORISSIA - S/0193) spuredda Leaf Boiled vegetables N 2   0.009 L     
Scrophulariaceae             
Verbascum sinuatum L. (CORISSIA - S/0180) erba de morroidi Leaf Boiled vegetables E 2   0.01 L X    Haemorroids (E)
Smilacaceae             
Smilax aspera L. (CORISSIA - S/0073) salsapariglia Shoot Boiled vegetables, sautéed vegetables with batter M, N 40 P 0.11 H, L X Y Z  
Solanaceae             
Lycium europaeum L. (CORISSIA - S/0166) spina santa Young shoot Sautéed vegetables with batter S 3   0.01 L X Y Z Digestive, refreshing (S)
Urticaceae             
Parietaria officinalis L. (CORISSIA - S/0127) erva i ventu Leaf Boiled vegetables E, N 4   0.009 H X    Cough, diuretic, headache, hypertension, stomach pains (E)
Urtica dioica L. (CORISSIA - S/0260) lardica, ortica Leaf Mixed vegetables, omelettes, raw in salad M, N 76 P 0.20 H, L X Y   Anti-dandruff, anaemia (M), abscess, digestive (N)
Urtica membranacea Poir. ex Savigny (CORISSIA - S/0392) ferdica Aerial part Raw in salad S 1   0 L X Y Z Anti-inflammatory, digestive, refreshing (S)
Urtica urens L. (CORISSIA - S/0017) ardicula Aerial part Boiled vegetables, mixed vegetables with legumes S 18   0.08 L X Y Z Digestive, refreshing (S)
Urtica rupestris Guss. (CORISSIA - S/0169) ardica Leaf Boiled vegetables E 24 P 0.12 H X    Digestive, haemorroids, renal colics (E)
Xanthorrhoeaceae             
Asphodeline lutea (L.) Rchb. (CORISSIA - S/0259) asfodelo giallo, scannabecchi, scornabecchi Aerial part, inflorescence Boiled vegetables, fried as vegetables with eggs E, M, N, S 55 P 0.07 H X   Z Diuretic (E)
Asphodelus ramosus L. (CORISSIA - S/0403) erva di oliva Leaf Boiled vegetables E 6   0.03 H X   Z  
  1. Abbreviations
  2. Symbols: H high level of perceived usefulness, L low level of perceived usefulness, P current use in the study area, X food use recorded also in other Italian regions, Y food use recorded also in other Mediterranean countries, Z species previously cited for food purposes in Sicily
  3. Sicilian Regional Parks: E - Etna Regional Park; M - Madonie Regional Park; N - Nebrodi Regional Park; S - Monti Sicani Regional Park
  4. References for Italian regions:
  5. Atzei (1991); Ilardi and Raimondo [37]; Pieroni [104]; Lentini [40]; Pieroni [8]; Pieroni [72]; Guarrera [71]; Atzei [73]; Pieroni et al. [9]; Guarrera and Manzi [74]; Guarrera [108]; Guarrera et al. [12]; Lentini and Venza [14]; Pieroni (2011); Guarrera and Savo [82]; Ranfa et al. [28]; Sansanelli and Tassoni [7]
  6. References for Mediterranean countries:
  7. Jouad et al. [85]; Bonet and Vallès [81]; Ertuğ [99]; Dogan et al. [98]; Rivera et al. [10]; Tardío et al. [67]; Della et al. [11]; Ozbucak et al. [102]; Pardo-de-Santayana et al. [103]; Pardo-de-Santayana et al. (2007); Ali-Shtayeh et al. [68]; Leporatti and Ghedira [78]; Menendez-Baceta et al. [100]; Nassif and Tanji [101]; Powell et al. [105]