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Table 1 Names, Life forms, Growth habit, Edible parts, Mode of utilization, Availability period and Availability status

From: Assessment of wild leafy vegetables traditionally consumed by the ethnic communities of Manipur, northeast India

Local names
(Voucher no.)
Scientific names Family Life forms Growth habit Edible part(s) Mode of utilization or preparation Local availability period Local availability status (in its season)
Chuchurangmei IBSD/WEP 001 Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr Leguminosae Annual Shrub Fruit, leaf Raw leaves added to singju, fruit cooked eaten as eromba August-September Common
Kolamni IBSD/WEP 002 Ipomoea aquatica Forssk Convolvulaceae Perennial Herb Stem Cooked eaten as vegetable Year round Common
Komprek IBSD/WEP 003 Oenanthe javanica (Blume) DC. Apiaceae Perennial Herb Leaf, stem Eaten raw in singju or cooked as mixed vegetable Year round Common
Sinjupaal IBSD/WEP 004 Alocasia cucullata (Lour.) G. Don Araceae Perennial Herb Corm Eaten raw as singju or cooked with potato and dry fish Year round Common
YelangIBSD/WEP 005 Polygonum barbatum L. Polygonaceae Annual Herb Leaf Cooked eaten as vegetable January-March Common
Kakthum IBSD/WEP 006 Eleocharis dulcis (Burm.f.) Trin. ex Hensch Cyperaceae Perennial Herb Root Eaten raw or steam as snack, also cooked eaten as eromba November-December Common
Ching yensil IBSD/WEP 007 Antidesma diandrum (Roxb.) B.Heyne. ex Roth Euphorbiaceae Perennial Small tree Leaf Cooked eaten as eromba or with potato and dry fish April -July Common
KengoiIBSD/WEP 008 Lysimachia ovovata Buch.-Ham. ex Wall Primulaceae Perennial Herb Whole part Cooked eaten as eromba, or with potatoes and dry fish Winter Common
PerukIBSD/WEP 009 Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. Apiaceae Perennial Creeper Whole plant Boil eaten (champhut), or with potato and smashed with chilli, fermented fish (kangsu) Year round Common
Thamou IBSD/WEP 010 Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Nelumbonaceae Perennial Rooted hydrophyte Leaf, root Eaten raw snack or singju; cooked with honey June- October Common
TharoIBSD/WEP 011 Nymphaea nouchali Burm.f. Nymphaeaceae Perennial Rooted hydrophyte Stem, tuber Eaten raw - singju; boiled tuber eaten as snack July- October Common
Thangjing IBSD/WEP 012 Euryale ferox Salisb. Nymphaeaceae Annual Rooted herb Seed, stem Eaten raw mixing with chilli and fermented fish or singju, added to cooked dish June-September Common
Esing ekaithabi IBSD/WEP 013 Neptunia oleracea Lour. Leguminosae Annual Herb Shoot Raw as singju, cooked with other vegetables Rainy season Common
Koukha IBSD/WEP 014 Sagittaria sagittifolia L. Alismataceae Perennial Herb Tuber Cooked eaten as eromba or fried with gram flour November-January Common
Yendang IBSD/WEP 015 Cycas pectinata Buch.-Ham Cycadaceae Perennial Shrub Leaf, shoot Raw as singju or cooked eaten as eromba June-September Uncommon
Monsaobi IBSD/WEP 016 Chenopodium album L. Amaranthaceae Annual Herb Leaf Cooked eaten with other vegetables June-September Common
Kanghumaan IBSD/WEP 017 Meriandra bengalensis (Roxb.) Benth. Lamiaceae Perennial Shrub Inflorescence, leaf Added raw as dressing in eromba or singju November- March Common
Tekta IBSD/WEP 018 Pogostemon purpurascens Dalzell Lamiaceae Annual Shrub Leaf Added as spices September-October Uncommon
Yerum keirum BSD/WEP 019 Stellaria media (L.) Vill. Caryophyllaceae Annual Herb Whole plant Cooked as vegetable Winter season Common
Toninkhok IBSD/WEP 020 Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Saururaceae Perennial Herb Whole plant Use as spice or accessory additives Year round Common
Loklei IBSD/WEP 021 Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig Zingiberaceae Perennial Herb Rhizome Boiled eaten as eromba April-May Common
Pullei IBSD/WEP 022 Alpinia nigra (Gaertn.) Burtt Zingiberaceae Perennial Herb Rhizome Boiled eaten as eromba April- July Common
Amomum aromaticum Roxb. Zingiberaceae Perennial Herb Stem Boiled eaten as eromba April- September Common
Yaipal IBSD/WEP 024 Curcuma angustifolia
Zingiberaceae Perennial Herb Inflorescence Boiled eaten as eromba, cooked, as well as fry eaten April- May Common
Sarei mapan IBSD/WEP 025 Amomum sp. Zingiberaceae Perennial Herb Inflorescence Cooked eaten as eromba and as mixed vegetable fry February-May Uncommon
Esing kambong IBSD/WEP 026 Zizania latifolia (Griseb.) Turcz. ex Stapf Poaceae Perennial Herb Culms Raw-snack, roast, cook as vegetables, cook with milk honey and black rice September- November Uncommon
Chantruk mana IBSD/WEP 027 Cardamine hirsuta L. Brassicaceae Annual Herb Leaf Added raw in singju, additives in cooked curry November-February Common
*Huikhong/mansam IBSD/WEP 028 Viola pilosa Blume Violaceae Perennial Creeper Whole plant Added raw in singju, cooked eaten as eromba and kangsu Year round; except winter Uncommon
Phunil IBSD/WEP 029 Gnaphalium indicum L. Asteraceae Annual Herb Whole part Eaten raw as dressing, cooked eaten as vegetable October-December Common
Kongouyen IBSD/WEP 030 Cissus javanica DC Vitaceae Perennial Climber Leaf, stem Cooked by boiling with potatoes and dry fish Rainy season Common
Heibi mana IBSD/WEP 031 Vangueria spinosa (Roxb. ex Link) Roxb. Rubiaceae Perennial Tree Leaf Added raw in singju Year round Common
Lam khamen IBSD/WEP 032 Solanum torvum Sw. Solanaceae Perennial Shrub Fruit Cooked eaten as vegetable July-September Common
Nongmangkha IBSD/WEP 033 Phlogacanthus thyrsiformis (Roxb. ex Hardw.) Mabb Acanthaceae Perennial Shrub Inflorescence Eaten raw with chutney, cooked with other vegetable December-March Common
Oosingsha mapaan IBSD/WEP 034 Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers. Lauraceae Perennial Tree Inflorescence, fruit Eaten raw with chutney, cooked as eromba, November-April Common
Chigonglei angouba IBSD/WEP 035 Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit Leguminosae Perennial Tree Fruit Eaten raw as singju, cooked as eromba October- December Common
Oothum IBSD/WEP 036 Wendlandia paniculata (Roxb.) DC Rubiaceae Perennial Tree Tender leaf Cooked eaten as eromba with black pea or making chutney March-April Common
Mukthrubi IBSD/WEP 037 Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC. Rutaceae Perennial Tree Leaf, inflorescence Eaten raw with chili and fermented fish chutney or additives in snail curry Year Round Common
Naoseknambi IBSD/WEP 038 Zanthoxylum sp. Rutaceae Perennial Tree Leaf Raw-singju, added in meat curry, cooked eaten as kangsoi April-June Common
Awaphadigom IBSD/WEP 039 Eryngium foetidum L. Apiaceae Perennial Herb Leaf Added as spice in all cooked dish; especially in meat curry Year round Common
Heiba mana IBSD/WEP 040 Exbucklandia populnea (R.Br.ex Griff.)R.W.Br. Hamamelidaceae Perennial Tree Leaf, tender shoot Eaten raw in singju, cooked eaten as vegetables or making chutney October-April Uncommon
Sita phal IBSD/WEP 041 Passiflora edulis Sims Passifloraceae Perennial Climber Leaf Cooked eaten as vegetable; added to meat curry Year round Common
Torong khongnang IBSD/WEP 042 Ficus benghalensis L. Moraceae Perennial Tree Bud Cooked eaten by boiling with chilli, dry fish, peas and potato February-March Common
Pheija maton IBSD/WEP 043 Wendlandia glabrata DC. Rubiaceae Perennial Tree Inflorescence Eaten raw as singju or with chutney and also cooked eaten as eromba December-January Common
Lamthabi IBSD/WEP 044 Zehneria scabra Sond. Cucurbitaceae Annual Climber Leaf, fruit Eaten by simply boiling in water with pinch of salt called champhut July- November Common
Lamthabi IBSD/WEP 045 Cyclanthera pedata (L.) Schrad Cucurbitaceae Annual Climber Fruit Eaten raw as snack, cooked eaten as vegetable November-December Uncommon
Singjwal IBSD/WEP 046 Zanthoxylum budrunga DC Rutaceae Perennial Tree Leaf Eaten raw as singju, cooked as vegetable Year round Common
Sijou mana IBSD/WEP 047 Eurya acuminata DC. Pentaphylacaceae Perennial Tree Leaf Cooked eaten in various forms as ooti, chagempomba and eromba Year round Common
Ansingteh IBSD/WEP 048 Lycianthes laevis (Dunal) Bitter Solanaceae Perennial Herb Leaf, soft stem Cooked with meat or boil with rice October-January Common
*Anjouteh /Morok maan IBSD/WEP 049 Solanum nigrum L. Solanaceae Annual Herb Leaf Boil and taken as such; boiled and cooked with rice or meat November-March Common
Ookhamen IBSD/WEP 050 Solanum betaceum Cav. Solanaceae Perennial Shrub Fruit Cooked as vegetable or make Chutney November-January Common
*Solunche/Jyan/ Gariyangei IBSD/WEP 051 Elatostema lineolatum Wight Urticaceae Perennial Herb Leaf, tender stem Cooked eaten by simply boiling or with rice and other vegetables Year round Common
*Anpui /BP mana IBSD/WEP 052 Clerodendrum colebrookianum Walp Lamiaceae Perennial Shrub Leaf Taken by boiling with salt or cooked with other vegetables Year round Common
*Tharei sapou/Teravu IBSD/WEP 053 Piper pedicellatum DC. Piperaceae Perennial Climber Leaf Taken by boiling with pinch of salt; cooked as eromba or with meat April- May Common
Pfuchowbu IBSD/WEP 054 Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. Athyriaceae Perennial herb Leaf Cooked with daal November- February Uncommon
Cholang IBSD/WEP 055 Allium chinense G. Don Amaryllidaceae 1–2 months Herb Whole part Added as spice to dish, eaten raw with chutney December- February Common
Huihu IBSD/WEP 056 Derris wallichii Prain Leguminosae Perennial Tree New leaf Strain boiled water and cooked with potato or as eromba March-April Uncommon
*Sinthupi/Galwa IBSD/WEP 057 Dysoxylum gobara (Buch.-Ham) Merr. Meliaceae Perennial Tree Tender stem Strain boil water and cooked as vegetable March-May Uncommon
Chonbe IBSD/WEP 058 Heteropanax sp. Araliaceae Perennial Tree Inflorescence Cooked as vegetable with dry fish or meat; preparation of chutney March Uncommon
Ansah IBSD/WEP 059 Spilanthes paniculata Wall. ex DC Asteraceae Perennial Herb Leaf, inflorescence Cooked along with other Vegetables Year round; except summer Common
Wah-vu IBSD/WEP 060 Polygonum molle D. Don Polygonaceae Perennial Herb Leaf Cooked eaten as vegetable March-November Common
*Pah-vu /Yempat IBSD/WEP 061 Plantago erosa Wall Plantaginaceae Annual Herb Leaf Cooked as eromba or along with other vegetables Year round Common
Pullei manbi IBSD/WEP 062 Etlingera linguiformis (Roxb.)R.M.SM Zingiberaceae Perennial Herb Rhizome Added as an item in various dish Year round Common
Laiwa IBSD/WEP063 Chimonobambusa callosa (Munro) Nakia Poaceae Perennial Shrub New shoot Boiled and prepare along with chilli, fermented fish, potato and pea September-December Common
Naatwa IBSD/WEP 064 Schizostachyum munroi S. Kumar & P. Singh Poaceae Perennial Shrub New shoot Cooked with other vegetables and meat November- December Common
Gangru IBSD/WEP 065 Phrynium placentarium (Lour.) Merr. Marantaceae Perennial Herb Rhizome Boil and taken as such October - November Common
Anpuinu IBSD/WEP 066 Hiptage sp. Malpighiaceae Perennial Climber Leaf Eaten both raw or steam along with chutney January-June Common
Moirang khanam IBSD/WEP 067 Clerodendrum serratum (L.) Moon Lamiaceae Perennial Shrub Leaf, inflorescence Steamed and used for preparation of chutney August- September Common
Anthru IBSD/WEP 068 Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd Cucurbitaceae Perennial Climber Tender leaf Cooked by boiling with rice as chagempomba Year round Common
  1. *some species have multiple names as they are known by different names in different communities