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Table 1 Gatherers’ perceptions of the optimal periods and environmental conditions for the growth of white truffles

From: The changing ethnoecological cobweb of white truffle (Tuber magnatum Pico) gatherers in South Piedmont, NW Italy

Informant Gathering period Trees Soils Climate
1 Mid Sept-mid Jan; best time however is in November Elm (Ulmus minor Mill.), Willow (Salix alba L.), Birch (Betula pendula L.), Oak (Quercus spp.) Sandy soils “produce” round truffles; muddy soils flat and irregular truffles Rain at the end of June-beginning of July is crucial for a good gathering season
2 Oct-Jan Oak, Poplar (Populus spp.), Willow Wet and ventilated soils; floods can stop the growth of truffles for many years In July and August it must rain; snow in the gathering period does not have any influence
3 Mid Sept-mid Dec Poplar, Lime Tree (Tilia platyphyllos Scop.), Dog Rose (Rosa canina L.), Cornelian Cherry Tree (Cornus mas L.), Willow, Pubescent Oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) Acidic soil; landslides stop the growth of truffles for a few years Summer droughts generate very little growth in the fall
4 Aug-Jan Elm, Oak, Birch, Willow Wet and sandy soils; landslides and floods are very detrimental Landslides and floods are very dangerous for the growth of white truffles, although they may be useful as well, since they shift and “reorganise” the occurrence of truffles elsewhere
5 Oct-Dec Osier (Salix viminalis L.) Pesticides and floods are very detrimental Fresh and wet climate
6 Oct-Dec Oak, Poplar, Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.), Willow, Lime Tree Soil exposure along the North-South direction Wind occurrence
7. End of Aug-beginning of Dec Willow, Oak, Hazelnut Fresh and wet soils  
8 Aug-Dec Poplar, Willow, Oak, Dog Rose “Heathy” soils – a sign of these is the occurrence of many snails Wet climate
9 Sept-Nov Elm, Lime Tree, Pubescent Oak Wet and fresh soils; windy slopes exposed to the North Ventilated climate
10 Sept-Dec Elm, Willow, Osier Loam and slopes exposed to the North or South  
11 Oct-Dec Hazelnut, Poplar, Elm Rocky soils End of June it has to rain
12 Oct-Jan Birch, Willow   The summer has to be rainy
13 Mid Sept-mid Dec Pubescent Oak, Poplar, Lime Tree Muddy and sandy soils, exposed to shadow Windy climate
14 Sept-Jan Oak, Hazelnut   
15 Aug-Dec Elm, Lime Tree, Oak Wet and sandy soils Heavy rains in July are crucial for a good season
16 Oct-Dec Lime Tree, Elm, Birch, Poplar Muddy and sandy soils exposed to the North Wet climate
17 Sept-Jan Osier, Willow, Poplar Wet and sandy soils, rich in calcium Rainy summer
18 Oct-Dec Lime Tree, Elm, Hazelnut Wet soils, far from vineyards and their chemicals/pesticides Rainy summer