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Table 1 NTFPs used by the local people of the Kangchenjunga Landscape, Eastern Himalaya

From: Traditional use and management of NTFPs in Kangchenjunga Landscape: implications for conservation and livelihoods

SN Botanical name Habit Family Vernacular name(s) Distribution (Altitude in meter) Part(s) used, Use(s), Location and Reference(s)*
  Angiosperms      
1 Justicia adhatoda L. Shrub Acanthaceae Asuro (Np); Bashakha (Dz); Jantrashi (Me); Khateermu (Sh); Vasakdog (S) 500-1600 Roots: Extract taken to cure cholera and epilepsy (KL Nepal: [53]). Roots, bark and leaves: Used as insecticide, expectorant, and antispasmodic. Used as remedy for asthma, cough, fever, gonorrhea leprosy, and phthisis (Sikkim: Database)ǂ. Tender shoots: Used to treat asthma (Jhapa: [66]; Panchthar: [67]). Leaves: Extract given orally to cure wheezing in children (Jhapa: [68]). Decoction used in bronchitis, cold, and veneral diseases (Jhapa: [66]). Paste applied on abdomen and vagina just minutes before childbirth for easy delivery (Sikkim: [69]). Leaves and shoots: Taken orally against fever, headache and bodyache (Darjeeling: [52]). Flowers: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]) and also used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
2 Strobilanthes cusia (Nees) Kuntze Herb Acanthaceae    Leaves: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).
3 Viburnum erubescens Wall. Shrub Adoxaceae Asaray (Np) 2000-3500 Seeds: Edible (Darjeeling: [72]).
4 Trianthema portulacastrum L. Herb Aizoaceae Seto Punarnava (Np) 150-300 Young shoots: Used as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]).
5 Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wangerin Tree Alanginaceae Dhela (S); Asare (Np) 150-350 Bark: Paste used for abortion and antifertility (Jhapa: [66]). Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).
6 Achyranthes aspera L. Herb Amaranthaceae Apamarga, Ulte kuro (Np) 800-2300 Whole plant: Juice taken in cough (Panchthar: [67]; Ilam: [73]), dropsy, piles, stomachache (Ilam: [73]) and diarrhoea (Panchthar: [67]).
7 Achyranthes bidentata Blume Herb Amaranthaceae Ankhlay Jhar, Datiwan (Np) 200-2100 Roots and stem: Juice used as diuretic and also given in rheumatism (Darjeeling: [74]; Sikkim: [75]; Ilam: [73, 76, 77]) and hypertention (Ilam: [73, 76, 77]).
8 Alternanthera sessilis (L.) DC. Herb Amaranthaceae Saranchi Saag (Np); Garundi (S) 200-2000 Roots: Pounded with seeds of Foeniculum vulgare and taken orally to cure piles (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves and twigs: Decoction taken to cure fever (Darjeeling: [78]).
9 Amaranthus spinosus L., Herb Amaranthaceae Janum arak (S); Lude (Np) 150-1200 Roots: Extract used as diuretic (KL Nepal: [53]). Decoction taken with warm water to check excessive bleeding at post delivery stage (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Used as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]). Eaten as curry to treat burns, boils and as laxative (Darjeeling: [74]).
10 Amaranthus spp. Herb Amaranthaceae Zimtsi (Dz); Naam (Sh)   Whole plant: Used as spices (KL Bhutan: [70]).
11 Amaranthus tricolor L. Herb Amaranthaceae   200 Leaves: Used to stop diarrhea (Sikkim: [11]). Seeds: Taken to cure gastric problems, fried beaten seeds with butter are given to pregnant women to lessen pregnancy pains (Sikkim: [11]).
12 Amaranthus viridis L. Herb Amaranthaceae Gandhari (S); Lude (Np) 150-1200 Young shoots and leaves: Used as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]). Juice with sugar taken to cure colic and as laxative (Darjeeling: [74]).
13 Celosia argentea L. Herb Amaranthaceae Bhale Phul, Sahastrajadi (Li) 500-1600 Leaves: Juice administered orally in diarrhoea and dysentery (Sikkim: [79]).
14 Allium sp. Herb Amaryllidaceae Lagok (Dz/Sh)   Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
15 Allium wallichii Kunth Herb Amaryllidaceae Wild Garlic (Eg); Palengu (Gr); Gokpa, Koje, Ri Gokpa (Km, Sh); Ban Lasun, Ban Pyaj, Jimbu, Jimbujhar (Np); Bathatuva (Ri) 2300-4800 Plant: Used in digestion (Sikkim: [69]). Bulbs and aerial parts: Used as spice (Sikkim: [10, 80], Database; Taplejung: [81, 82]; Sikkim: Database). Bulbs: Boiled, fried in clarified butter and taken in cholera and diarrhea; chewed to treat cough, colds, and altitude sickness (Taplejung: [83]). Bulbs and flowers: Use to treat gastric disorders (Sikkim: [75]).
16 Choerospondias axillaris (Roxb.) B. L. Burtt & A. W. Hill Tree Anacardiaceae Nepali Hug Plum (Eg); Phindruwa (Li); Lapsi (Np); Amali (Nw); Pindumsi, Pintupsi (Ri); Nying Sho Sha (Tb) 1200-1900 Fruits: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Edible and also used to make pickle (Darjeeling: [80], Sikkim: [10, 47, 72, 95]; Ilam: [94]; Taplejung: [88]). Used to treat cough, cold, tonsillitis, diabetes, worm infestation, and heart ailment [87].
17 Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr. Tree Anacardiaceae Doka (S) 100-1400 Bark: Paste applied around bone fracture to set bone (Jhapa: [66]).
18 Mangifera indica L. Tree Anacardiaceae Thaijau (Me); Ul (Np) 300-700 Plant: Effective for jaundice patient (Darjeeling: [105]). Fruits: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Green unripe fruit skin crushed and drunk to get relief from stomachache (Jhapa: [68]). Bark: Given with bark of Anthocephalus chinensis, Madhuca longifolia and Gmelina arborea in diarrhea and dysentery (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Young leaves chewed during cough and sore throat (Sikkim: [79]).
19 Mangifera sylvatica Roxb. Tree Anacardiaceae Chuchiam, Kathorkung (Lp)   Fruits: Used as laxative (Sikkim: [85]).Used to make sour pickle (Ilam: [94]).
20 Rhus chinensis Mill. Tree Anacardiaceae Bhakimlo (Np); Chokashing (Dz); Roptangshing (Sh);   Fruits: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Flowers and fruits: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).
21 Rhus javanica Miller Tree Anacardiaceae Tibru, Tsakshing (Gr); Rushi (Km, Sh); Yaseba, Isewa (Li); Bhaki Amilo, Bhakimlo, Dudhe Bhalayo (Np); Mahada, Oksarempo, Osreksi (Ri); Bokumba, Thaksing (Sh); Tibi Sing (Tm); Da Trig (Tb) 1000-2700 Fruits: Edible and also used in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery (Taplejung: [88]; Panchthar: [67]; Ilam: [73]) and stomach problems (Taplejung: [88]; Ilam: [73]). Dried and extract used in diarrhea, swellings and wounds (Sikkim: Database). Juice used as food preservative; juice boiled with water and mixed with raw egg and the mixture given to treat diarrhea (Sikkim: [11]) and dysentery (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [11]). Juice administered orally during blood dysentery (Sikkim: [79]). Boiled and isolated vinegar used to make pickles (Ilam: [94]).
22 Semecarpus anacardium L.f. Tree Anacardiaceae Soso (S); Rani bhalayo (Np); Bhalau (Me) 150-1200 Roots: Used to treat skin infection (Sikkim: [11, 75]). Bark: Decoction given to animals to remove worms (Sikkim: [11]). Latex: Used as antitetanus (Jhapa: [66]). Fruits: Edible (Jhapa: [92]). Also used to treat headache (Jhapa: [68]). Seeds: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Seed oil taken in cough and colds (Jhapa: [66]).
23 Spondias pinnata (L. f.) Kurz Tree Anacardiaceae Amaro (Np) 300-1400 Flowers: Used to make curry and for flavoring (Ilam: [94]).
24 Toxicodendron hookeri (K.C. Sahni & Bahadur) C.Y. Wu & T.L. Ming Tree Anacardiaceae Tarsishing (Sh)   Fruits: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).
25 Annona squamata L. Tree Annonaceae Saripha (Np); Mandargom (S) 500-900 Bark: Juice drunk to control fever (Jhapa: [68]). Leaves and seeds: Used to kill lice (Panchthar: [67]). Thalamus is used as antifertility (Jhapa: [66]). Seeds: Useful in abortion and menstrual disorders (Jhapa: [66]). Roots and seeds: Paste applied on forehead during headache (Sikkim: [79]).
26 Angelica cyclocarpa (C.Norman) M.Hiroe Herb Apiaceae    Roots: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).
27 Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels Herb Apiaceae    Roots: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).
28 Carum carvi L. Herb Apiaceae Caraway (Eg); Chir (Gr-Mn); Ban Jeera (Np); Sushavi (Sn); Chhonyo, Khoda (Sh,Wi) 2500-5100 Fruits: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Leaves: Used as vegetable (Taplejung: [87]).
29 Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. Herb Apiaceae Ghortaapre, Gol patta, Gora taprey, Goltaprey (Np); Dalka chatumana (S) 500-2100 Plant: Used to cure heating and tenderness of limb skin (Jhapa: [68]). Juice taken orally to get rid of pneumonia, fever (Sikkim: [75]), asthma (Jhapa: [68]; Ilam: [76, 77]; Sikkim: Database, [69]), mental tension, urinary problems, and stomachache (Ilam: [76, 77]; Jhapa: [68]; Sikkim: [75]). Infusion massaged on the forehead to relieve from headache (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Used for skin disease and improving memory (Sikkim: Database). Leaves and young shoots taken to cure tonsil (Darjeeling: [52]). Aerial parts mixed with young shoots of Justicia adhatoda and taken against diarrhoea (Darjeeling: [86]).
30 Coriandrum sativum L. Herb Apiaceae Dhaniya (Np) 1000-2500 Seeds: Used as spice (Ilam: [76]) and in flatulence (Darjeeling: [91]). Leaves: Used in flatulence (Darjeeling: [91]). Green leaves used to enhance aroma on food (Ilam: [76]). Plant: Used in cough, bronchitis, reheumatism and urinary problem (Ilam: [76]).
31 Cortia depressa (D.Don) C. Norman Herb Apiaceae Nigale Sag (Np); Gholo, Ghundu, Kholo, Nhopchhema (Sh); Tangkyun (Sh, Tb); Ghundu (Wl) 3600-5100 Leaves: Tender leaves used as vegetable (Taplejung: [88]). Seeds: Used as spice (Taplejung: [81]).
32 Heracleum nepalense D. Don Herb Apiaceae Sunaga, Habluwa (Km); Samben (Lp); Chimphing (Np); Bhote-Jeera, Nafo (Np-Dl); Chimping (Np-Tb); Phaki, Thar (Sh); Chimbing, Chimping (Sh, Wl); Chapho Karpo, Zira Goepa (Tb) 1800-3700 Plant: Used as good winter fodder (Taplejung: [81, 87]). Roots: Given to cattle as tonic; juice and roasted seeds taken in cough and diarrhoea (Panchthar: [67]; Ilam: [73, 77]). Flowers and fruit: Suggested to cure influenza and body ache (Sikkim: [75]). Fruit: Used as pickle and also in typhoid, nausea, and vomiting (Darjeeling: [78]). Seeds: Used in case of bodyache, headache, and faint (Panchthar: [67]; Ilam: [73]).
33 Heracleum wallichii DC. Herb Apiaceae Chimphing (Np) 3600-4100 Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).Used as tonic and aphrodisiac (Darjeeling: [78]). Juice taken to cure diarrhea (Sikkim: [11]). Seeds: Taken in diarrhea and gastric disorders (Sikkim: [75]), used as chatni (Sikkim: [11]). Decoction of dried seeds taken in influenza (Darjeeling: [78]; Sikkim: [11]).
34 Heracleum candicans Wall. ex DC. Herb Apiaceae    Whole plant: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).
35 Heracleum dissectifolium K.T. Fu Herb Apiaceae    Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
36 Hydrocotyle himalaica P. K. Mukh. Herb Apiaceae Golpata (Np) 1500-2500 Plant: Extract taken to cure pneumonia and throat infection (Sikkim: [75]).
37 Hydrocotyle javanica Thunb. Herb Apiaceae Golpatta (Np)   Plant: Taken to cure throat problem (Sikkim: [75]).
38 Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. Herb Apiaceae Tike Ghor Tapre (Np) 600-2500 Plant: Useful in treatment of migrant and to improve memory (Panchthar: [67]).
39 Selinum wallichianum (DC.) Raizada & Saxena Herb Apiaceae Sunaga (Km); Bhutkesh (Np); Bhatauri, Dhaneli, Kalo Chhetaro (Np-Dl); Tunak (Tb); Chyadukpa (Sh, Wl) 2700-4800 Roots and fruits: Used for cuts, wounds, colic, gastritis, and intestinal pain (KL Nepal: [83]). Roots: Smoke inhaled in case of faint, fever, and headche. Also used as fodder (Taplejung: [81]). Decoction taken to get relief from pain and fever (Ilam: [76]). Flowers and leaves: Smooked to treat headache (KL Nepal: [53]). Leaves: Leaves, aromatic, carminative. Fruits: Used in skin diseases and scabies (Sikkim: Database).
40 Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. Tree Apocynaceae Chhatiwan (Np); Chhatni (S) 100-1400 Bark: Used in malarian fever and also given to lactating mothers for increasing milk (Jhapa: [66]). Extract used to treat piles (KL Nepal: [53]). Filtered bark juice used to cure leanness in man (Jhapa: [68]). Powder mixed with common salt and given to cattle to cure fever (Sikkim: [97]). Bark, latex and flowers: Used as tonic and in fever and leucoderma (Sikkim: [97]).
41 Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don Shrub Apocynaceae Barhamase Phool, Sadabahar (Np); Gofatbhiwar (Me) 150-1500 Plant: Anti cancer and antitumour (Sikkim: Database). Leaves: Used as diuretic (Sikkim: Database). Flowers: Eaten to maintain sugar level for diabetic patients (Jhapa: [68]).
42 Holarrhena pubescens (Buch.-Ham.) Wall. ex G. Don Shrub Apocynaceae Ban Khirro, Khuria, Anley Khirrn, Madhese Khirro (Np); Hat (S) 100-1500 Plant: Powder or decoction taken to treat acute diarrhea and dysentery (Darjeeling: [86]; Sikkim: [11, 85]). Bark: Powdered with black pepper and taken to cure cough, cold, fever, diarrhea, and dysentery (Jhapa: [66]). Juice taken in amoebic dysentery (Sikkim: [11, 85]). Bark and seeds: Useful to treat gastric troubles and have anthelmintic property (Panchthar: [67]). Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Stem: Bark powder or decoction given to livestock to treat constipation, problems during stool passing and dysentery (Sikkim: [84]).
43 Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) R. Br. Climber Apocynaceae Dudilata (S); Dudelaharo (Np) 150-900 Leaves: Extraction used in stomach pain (Jhapa: [66]). Stem: Extraction used in toothache and gum swelling (Jhapa: [66]).
44 *Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. Ex Kurz. Herb Apocynaceae Kharokha (Me); God (S) 100-900 Young shoots: Extract given to cure pneumonia (Jhapa: [68]). Roots, stems and leaves: Used to treat fever (Panchthar: [67]). Roots: Extract used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Useful in insomnia (Sikkim: Database), high blood pressure, and snake bite (Jhapa: [66]; Sikkim: Database). Extract taken in stomach pain and intestinal worms (Jhapa: [66]). Powder administered orally as antidote to snake-bite (Sikkim: [84]).
45 Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medik. Herb Apocynaceae    Fruits: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
46 *Acorus calamus L. Herb Araceae Sweet Flag (Eg); Sadakppa (Li); Ruklop (Lp); Bojho (Np); Chhowas (Ri); Vacha (Sn); Chota, Jota (Gr-Mn); Suda, Syueda (Sh); Shete (Tm); Tshedak (Sh); Shudag (Tb) 1700-2300 Rhizomes: Used in treatment of epilepsy and other mental ailments, chronic diarrhoea (Darjeeling: [86]; Sikkim: [69]), colic pains and as a brain tonic (Sikkim: [69]). Used to cure cold, cough (Jhapa: [68]; Sikkim: [11, 79]; Ilam: [73]), sore throat, bronchitis, tonsil, toothache, headache (Jhapa: [68]; Ilam: [73]), bodypain (Jhapa: [66]), scabies, sinusitis (Panchthar: [67]) and also as vermifuge and antispasmodic (Sikkim: [75]). Used in skin disease (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [11, 79, 89]), malaria and asthma (Darjeeling: [80, 89]). Juice used as insecticide (Panchthar: [67]; Sikkim: [75]). Decoction taken as antipyretic (Sikkim: [11, 69]; Darjeeling: [78]) and also to treat rheumatism (Darjeeling: [78]). Pounded with the rhizome of Curcuma zedoaria and given in ulcers and abdominal pains (Jhapa: [66]). Extract taken to cure measles (Sikkim: [79]). Crushed and boiled with salt and decoction used to massage for fortnight (Darjeeling: [74]). Paste applied as ointment on wounds in cattle, also administered in indigestion in cattle (Sikkim: [84]).
47 Acorus gramineus Aiton Herb Araceae Silijam (Dz), Bortsl (Sh)   Rhizomes: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
48 Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G. Don Herb Araceae Man kachui (S); Karkalo (Np). 100-800 Petioles and tuber: Edible as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]). Young petioles: Cooked with Colocasia esculenta and taken orally in cold and cough (Jhapa: [66]).
49 Alocasia spp. Herb Araceae    Tubers: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).
50 Amorphophallus paeoniifolius C. Y. Wu ex H. Li, Y. Shiao & S. L. Tseng Herb Araceae Pindo (S); Ol (Np) 100-800 Tubers and petioles: Used as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]).
51 Arisaema costatum (Wall.) Mart. ex Schott Herb Araceae Glatli (Gr); Asek kaki (Li); Dhakayo, Jangali Makai (Np); Thwa (Sh) 1900-2800 Leaves: Dried leaves boiled and cooked as vegetable (Taplejung: [87]). Young shoots used to make curry and corn eaten after repeated boiling (Ilam: [94]).
52 Arisaema griffithii Schott Herb Araceae Asek Makai, Yakla Khomba (Li); Dhokayo (Np); Doka Banko (Np-Dl); Thwa (Sh); Thwa (WI) 2400-3500 Leaves: Sundried, stored and consumed as vegetable in winter; dried leaves are also used to make Sinki (dried fermented leaves) (Sikkim: [98]; Taplejung: [81, 88]).
53 Arisaema intermedium Blume Herb Araceae Sarpa Makai (Np) 2600-3400 Roots: Juice or paste taken in ulcer and fever (Ilam: [73, 77]).
54 Arisaema jacquemontii Blume Herb Araceae Banko (Np) 2700-4700 Roots: Juice taken orally to treat menstrual disorders, toothache, and pain (Ilam: [73, 77]).
55 Arisaema sp. Herb Araceae Dowo (Dz), Rungenengsae (Sh)   Bulbs: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
56 Caladium bicolor (Ait.) Vent. Herb Araceae Dungasaru (S)   Rhizomes: Pounded and applied on body to relieve from bodyache (Jhapa: [66]).
57 Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott Climber Araceae Kammare lahara (Np); Dari jappa (S) 200-300 Fruit: Pounded and applied on rheumatism and bodyache (Jhapa: [66]).
58 Typhonium trilobatum (L.) Schott Herb Araceae Nirbish (S) 450 Rhizome: Paste applied externally to cure rheumatism (Jhapa: [66]).
59 Aralia cachemirica Decne. Shrub Araliaceae Dal kabro (Np); Dumbak (Wl) 2400-4200 Plant: Powder contains high nutrient and generates heat in the body of animal (Taplejung: [81]). Roots: Used to treat cuts and contraction of muscles (Panchthar: [67]).
60 Brassaiopsis hainla (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) Seem. Tree Araliaceae Chuletro (Np, Li) 1000-1900 Roots: Administered orally in case of dysentery (Sikkim: [79]).
61 Hedera nepalensis K. Koch Shrub Araliaceae Ivy (Eg); Dudela (Np) 2000-3200 Plant: Juice taken orally as antispasmodic (Sikkim: [85]).
62 Helwingia himalaica Hook. f. & Thomson ex C. B. Clarke Shrub Araliaceae   2100-2700 Fruits: Enhance fertility (Sikkim: [75]).
63 Macropanax undulatus (Wallich ex G. Don) Seemann Tree Araliaceae Chenday (Np) 400-2200 Bark: Administered against diabetes (Darjeeling: [52]).
64 Merrilliopanax alpinus (C. B. Clarke) C. B. Shang Tree Araliaceae    Young shoots: Useful in gastric disorders (Sikkim: [75]).
65 Panax pseudo-ginseng subsp. himalaicus H. Hara Herb Araliaceae Mangan, Panchpattery (Np)   Roots: Taken to reduce fever, indigestion, and vomiting; also used as tonic (Sikkim: [75], Database).
66 Panax pseudo-ginseng Wall. Herb Araliaceae Panchapattey (Np)   Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used as stimulant, combating general debility, headache, vomiting, expectorant, carminative, tonic, in blood pressure (Sikkim: [69]) and weakness (Ilam: [76]; Sikkim: [69]). Juice given to cure liver disorders, colic, fever and menstrual disorders (Darjeeling: [74]).
67 Pentapanax leschenaultii (DC.) Seem. Tree Araliaceae Chinde (Np) 1600-3700 Leaves:Tender leaves after boiling used as curry (Ilam: [94]).
68 Areca catechu L. Tree Arecaceae    Fruit/seed: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
69 Borassus flabellifer L. Herb Arecaceae Tari (S)   Flowers: Juice taken to quench the thurst (Jhapa: [66]).
70 Calamus acanthospathus Griff. Climber Arecaceae Cane (Eng)   Shoots: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Edible and also used as a substitute for rope, as cable for suspension bridges, for wickerwork, baskets, and containers. Thicker cane used for makingfurniture frames, walking sticks and umbrella handles (KL Bhutan: [100]).
71 Calamus erectus Roxburgh Climber Arecaceae    Shoots: Edible (Bhutan: [99]).
72 Calamus latifolius Roxb. Climber Arecaceae   600 Shoots: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Leaves: Juice used to cures eye diseases (Sikkim: [11]).
73 Calamus tenuis Roxb. Climber Arecaceae Cane (Eng)   Shoot: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Used to make household items, such as mats, screens and furnitures (KL Bhutan: [100]).
74 Caryota urens L. Tree Arecaceae Rangbhang (Np)   Stem and buds: Inner core pith and terminal bud consumed as vegetable (Ilam: [94]).
75 Phoenix acaulis Roxb. ex Buch.-Ham. Tree Arecaceae Betgera (Np) 1400 Fruits: Raw fruits used to make vegetable curry (Ilam: [94]).
76 Phoenix sylvestris Roxb. Tree Arecaceae Thakal (Np) 150-1500 Stem: Soft pith eaten raw (Ilam: [94]).
77 Plectocomia himalayana Griffith Herb Arecaceae Patsha (Bhut) 1500-2500 Young shoots: Taken as vegetable (Bhutan: [99, 102])
78 Aristolochia griffithii Hook.f. & Thomson ex Duch. Climber Aristolochiaceae    Flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
79 Aristolochia indica L. Climber Aristolochiaceae Godh (S)   Roots and leaves: Paste applied in stomachache and as an antidote in snake bite and scorpion sting (Jhapa: [66]).
80 Asclepias curassavica L. Herb Asclepiadaceae Khorsani Kose Phul (Np) 700-1500 Roots: Used to treat cancer, warts, and snake bite (Panchthar: [67]).
81 Calotropis gigantea (L.) Dryand. Shrub Asclepiadaceae Ankh (Np); Gogando-bimtang (Me); Akona (S) 100-1000 Latex and Leaves: Used in sprain and swelling (Jhapa: [66]; Panchthar: [67]; Sikkim: Database). Roots: Extraction given in fever and applied on chest and abdomin to relieve pains (Jhapa: [66]). Latex: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Applied on burns (Jhapa: [66]) and for ring worm (Jhapa: [68]).
82 Hoya longifolia Wall. ex Wight Shrub Asclepiadaceae Wax Plant (Eg) 1400-2300 Leaves: Applied on burns (Panchthar: [67]).
83 Marsdenia roylei Wight, Climber Asclepiadaceae Baahuni Lahara (Np) 1400-2400 Plant: Used for cooling and alternative effect in gonorrhea (Sikkim: Database). Roots, leaves and fruit: Decoction used to relieve burning sensation of the genitals (Sikkim: [11]).
84 Marsdenia tenacissima Weight & Arn. Climber Asclepiadaceae Bahuni Lahara, Sunamari (Np), Kamtiongrik (Lp)   Roots: Juice taken daily as purgative (Sikkim: [85]).
85 Marsdenia tinctoria R. Br. Climber Asclepiadaceae Kali Lahara, Ryom (Np)   Leaves: Juice taken for stomachache (Sikkim: [85]).
86 Campylandra aurantiaca Baker Herb Asparagaceae Nakima (Np) 1900-2900 Roots: Stocks given orally in case of food poisoning (Darjeeling: [52]). Inflorescence: Powdered and taken with water to relieve body pain (Sikkim: [11]). Given in food poisoning (Darjeeling: [74]). Flowers: Used as appetizer and taken in diabetes (Sikkim: [69, 79], Database). Taken as curry (Sikkim: [89]).
87 Chlorophytum arundinaceum Baker Herb Asparagaceae Turam (S) 500-1200 Roots: Powder taken to relieve from body weakness (Jhapa: [66]).
88 Eucomis regia (L.) Aiton Herb Asparagaceae Lily (C)   Bulb: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).
89 Tupistra nutans Wall. ex Lindl. Herb Asparagaceae Nakima (Np)   Flower: Taken as appetizer and in diabetes (Sikkim: Database). Inflorescence: Powdered and taken to relieve from body pain (Sikkim: [11]).
90 Acmella calva (Candolle) R. K. Jansen Herb Asteraceae Mareti (Np) 1000-1900 Fruit: Juice taken orally for headache and stomachache [66, 77], toothache (Darjeeling: [74]; Ilam: [73, 77]) and sore mouth (Darjeeling: [74]).
91 Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) R.M. King & H. Rob. Herb Asteraceae Banmara (Np) 850-2500 Plant: Juice applied on fresh cut (Darjeeling: [74]; Ilam: [73]; Sikkim: [11, 75]) and also taken orally in fever (Ilam: [73]). Leaves: Taken orally in dysentery (Darjeeling: [52]).
92 Ageratum conyzoides L. Herb Asteraceae Ilamejhar (Np) 200-2000 Whole plant: Used as antidote (KL Nepal: [53]). Leaves: Juice applied on wound (Sikkim: [11]; Panchthar: [67]) and also used as anthelmintic (Panchthar: [67]). Decoction used as antipyretic (Darjeeling: [78]), and also in diarrhea, dysentery, colic, and flatulence (Sikkim: [11]).Tenders chewed to cure diarrhoea and dysentery. Flowers: chewed to treat throat pain (Sikkim: [79]).
93 Ajania tibetica (Hook.f. & Thomson) Tzvelev Shrub Asteraceae    Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).
94 Anaphalis adnata Wall. ex DC. Herb Asteraceae Buki phul (Np) 800-3200 Leaves: Juice applied on fresh cuts and wounds (Ilam: [73, 77]).
95 Anaphalis triplinervis (Sims) C. B. Clarke Herb Asteraceae Bhukiphul (Np) 100-2300 Flower: Paste applied regularly to cure skin problems (KL Nepal: [53]).
96 Artemisia dubia Wall. ex Besser Herb Asteraceae Pati, Titepati, Titaypati (Np); Sibuma, Sungmara (Ri); Chhaphung (Sh); Khenpa (Tb); Sangsin Khemba (Wl) 1200-3400 Whole plant: Used in ritual ceremony (Sikkim: [11]). Leaves: Used to treat pains and possess anthelmintic properties (Panchthar: [67]).Crushed fresh leaves uesd to open decongestant sinuses and to stop nasal bleeding (Taplejung: [81]; Sikkim: [11], Database). Extract used on cuts and bruises (Sikkim: [11], Database). Supposed to possess detergent effect and used as cleansing agent (Sikkim: Database). Taking bath of leaves juice cures skin allergies and leaves chewed to treat mouth ulcer (Sikkim: [11]). Used as deobstruent, antispasmodic, obstructed menses and hysteria (Darjeeling: [80]).
97 Artemisia indica Willd. Herb Asteraceae Namyohoba (Li); Tuknil (Lp); Titepati (Np); Tompe (Sh) 300-2400 Tender shoots and leaves: Used to treat inflammation (Taplejung: [87]). Leaves and flowers: Juice used to treat injuries (Sikkim: [75]). Juice taken in asthma, gastritis and skin disease (Ilam: [76, 77]).
98 Artemisia nilagirica (C.B. Clarke) Pamp. Herb Asteraceae Titepati (Np)   Shoots and leaves: Used to cure mouth ulcer; paste applied externally on forehead during dizziness and headache (Darjeeling: [52]).
99 Artemisia sieversiana Ehrh.ex Willd. Shrub Asteraceae    Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
100 Artemisia vulgaris L. Herb Asteraceae Titepati (Np); Titeypati (Li) 1500-3800 Leaves: Used to treat nose bleeding (Sikkim: [69, 79, 91]) nervous and spasmodic affections, asthma and the disease of the brain (Sikkim: [69]). Tender leaves chewed cures mouth ulcers; crushed leaves mixed with water and taken bath cures skin allergy. Juice used as anti-leech, besides its religious values (Sikkim: [79]). Used as deobstruent, antispasmodic, obstructed menses and hysteria (Sikkim: [89]). Crushed and extract applied externally on skin to treat itching in cattle; fresh leaves grounded, sap extracted and used as nasal drop to stop nose bleeding in cattle (Sikkim: [84]).
101 Aster neo-elegans Grierson Shrub Asteraceae    Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
102 Aucklandia costus Falconer Herb Asteraceae Kapisful, Kuth (Np)   Plant: Believed to cure bronchitis, vomiting, epilepsy, headache, and hysteria (Sikkim: Database).
103 Bidens pilosa L. Herb Asteraceae Kuro (Li) 500-2500 Leaves: Juice applied to eyes and ears to reduce pain (Sikkim: [79]). Leaves and roots: Extract used in cut and jaundice (KL Nepal: [53]).
104 Bidens spp. Herb Asteraceae Zumphirobu (Sh)   Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).
105 Blumea hieraciifolia (D. Don) DC. Herb Asteraceae Sahasrabooti (Np) 900-1800 Leaves: Dried and taken smell to treat asthma (Darjeeling: [74]).
106 Blumea lacera (Burf. f.) DC. Herb Asteraceae Gangansu (Me); Rando, Ghar nagharni (S) 150-350 Roots: Paste sticked on and around swelling region to prevent cutaneous infection (Jhapa: [68]). Decoction given in urinary infections, and also with decoction of Plumeria acuta given in gonorrhoea and spermatorrhoea (Jhapa: [66]).
107 Calendula officinalis L. Herb Asteraceae   2600-4400 Leaves and flowers: Used as antiseptic, antifungal, diaphoretic, stimulant, antispasmodic and in small pox; also used in healing wounds, ulcers, and burns (Sikkim: Database).
108 Chrysanthemum indicum L.   Asteraceae Godawari (Li) 100-2900 Flowers: Dried flowers chewed during stomachache (Sikkim: [79]).
109 Cirsium sp. Herb Asteraceae    Whole plant/flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
110 Cremanthodium humile Maxim. Herb Asteraceae    Whole plant/flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
111 Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. Herb Asteraceae Bhringaraj (Np); Khetkeshari (S) 200-1200 Roots: Used in treatment of snake and scorpion bite (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves and tender shoots: Used to treat cut and wounds and jaundice (Panchthar: [67]). Leaves: Infusion used in catarrhal (Jhapa: [66]).
112 Elephantopus scaber L. Herb Asteraceae Sahsra Jari (Np); Dadari (Me) 200-1500 Roots: Paste applied on the muscular pain (Jhapa: [68]). Fruits: Used as tonic (Jhapa: [66]).
113 Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl. ex DC.) Benth. ex C.B. Clarke Herb Asteraceae    Flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
114 Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. Herb Asteraceae Banmara (Np) 850-2500 Plant: Juice applied on fresh cut (Sikkim: [75]; Ilam: [73]) and also taken in fever (Ilam: [73]).
115 Eupatorium cannabinum L. Herb Asteraceae Banmara (Np) 1000-2000 Stem and Leaves: Extract used on cut and bruises to stop bleeding and infection (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [11], Database).
116 Eupatorium odoratum L. Herb Asteraceae Aule banmara (Np); Daubanthu (Me) 400-1500 Leaves: Juice applied on cut and injury as haemostatic and to check nasal bleeding, extract dropped in nose to cure severe headache (Jhapa: [68]). Extract also used in cuts and wounds (Sikkim: Database).
117 Gnaphalium affine D. Don Herb Asteraceae Pahelo Bukey (Np) 600-3700 Plant: Whole plant crushed and given orally to infants suffering from diarrhoea (Darjeeling: [52]).
118 Grangea maderaspatana (L.) Poir. Herb Asteraceae Chot Bhidimyan (S) 150 Aerial parts: Pounded together with Sphaeranthus indicus and taken orally as well as inhaled a few drops to restore consciousness during epileptic fit (Jhapa: [66]).
119 Inula cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) DC. Shrub Asteraceae Golden Samphire, Sheep's Year (Eg); Bakhrikane, Gaitihare, Kanpate, Tihare- Phul (Np); Basita, Machram (Ri). 1000-2500 Roots: Juice used in fever, indigestion, and other stomach disorders (Taplejung: [81]).
120 Inula helenium L. Herb Asteraceae    Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
121 Ixeridium gracile (DC.) Pak & Kawano Herb Asteraceae    Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
122 Leontopodium jacotianum Beauverd Herb Asteraceae Bhuke Phul, Jhulo (Np-Dl); Tawa Thokar, Tawa Thokar Yungpa (Tb) 2700-4900 Plant: Used as incense (Taplejung: [81]).
123 Leontopodium monocephalum Edgew. Herb Asteraceae Bhuke Phul, Jhulo (Np-Dl); Tawa Thokar goepa (Tb). 4600-5600 Plant: Used as incense (Taplejung: [81]).
124 Leontopodium sp. Herb Asteraceae    Rhizomes: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).
125 Lorentea sp. Herb Asteraceae Khainingroo or Rumplung (Sh)   Leaves: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).
126 Pulicaria insignis Drumm. ex Dunn Herb Asteraceae    Whole plant/flowers:Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).
127 Pulicaria sp. Herb Asteraceae    Flowers: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).
128 Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch. Herb Asteraceae    Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
129 Saussurea gossypiphora D.Don Herb Asteraceae Bhutkesh, Kapase Phool (Np-Tp); Yazembawa (Wl) 3500-5700 Whole plant: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]). Fibres: Used for various purposes (Taplejung: [81]).
130 Senecio cappa Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don Herb Asteraceae Bakhrakane (Np)   Roots and leaves: Infusion used in fever and boils (Ilam: [73, 76]).
131 Senecio chrysanthemoides DC. Herb Asteraceae    Whole plant: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).
132 Sonchus arvensis L. Herb Asteraceae Ban-rayo (Np)   Roots: Paste applied to reliefe from toothache (Darjeeling: [74]).
133 Sonchus wightianus DC. Herb Asteraceae    Roots: Taken in jaundice (Sikkim: [75]).
134 Soroseris hookeriana (C.B.Clarke) Stebbins Herb Asteraceae    Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
135 Sphaeranthus indicus L. Herb Asteraceae Bad Bhidimyan (S) 200-800 Shoots: Paste applied on breast of women to cure swelling and wounds (Jhapa: [66]).
136 Tagetes erecta L. Herb Asteraceae Demal-bhiwar (Me) 1800-2000 Leaves: Juice drunk to cure pneumania and chest pain (Jhapa: [68]). Flowers: Useful in pneumonia, piles, and jaundice (Panchthar: [67]).
137 Tagetes patula L. Herb Asteraceae Sayapatri (Np) 900-2000 Flowers: Chewed to cure sore throat, cough and mouth ulcer (Sikkim: [79]).
138 Tanacetu matkinsonii (C.B.Clarke) Kitam. Herb Asteraceae    Whole plant: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).
139 Tanacetum tatsienense (Bureau & Franch.) K. Bremer & Humphries Herb Asteraceae    Whole plant/flowers:Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).
140 Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. Herb Asteraceae    Whole plant: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).
141 Taraxacum sikkimense Hand.- Mazz. Herb Asteraceae Wakhur (Sh); Tuki Phool (Np); Khurmang, Wakhur (Tb) 3600-4700 Plant: Used as vegetable. Flowers and leaves: Used as galactagogue for human and cattle (Taplejung: [87]).
142 Taraxacum tibetanum Hand.-Mazz. Herb Asteraceae Khenpa-karpo (Dz/Sh/B)   Whole plant: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).
143 Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) Willd. Herb Asteraceae Sauraj (S) 1200-2000 Fruits: Pounded and taken to remove intestinal worms and to cure stomachache (Jhapa: [66]).
144 Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. Herb Asteraceae Jurishuri (S) 100-2300 Leaves: Decoction given in fever (Jhapa: [66]).
145 Waldheimia glabra (Decne.) Regel Herb Asteraceae Gang Poe (Tb), Ghanga-Setik (Wl). 4100-5400 Plant: Used as incense (Taplejung: [87]).
146 Impatiens balsamina L. Herb Balsaminaceae Tiuri (Np) 1200-1900 Plant: Decoction used to cure burns and urinary problems (Ilam: [73, 76]).
147 Basella alba L. Climber Basellaceae Purne arak (S); Poi sag (Np) 200 Young shoots: Used as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]).
148 Begonia picta Sm. Herb Begoniaceae Begonia (Eg); Magar Kanche (Np); Shovaparnee (Sn) 600-2800 Plant: Juice taken in headache and conjunctivitis (Ilam: [73, 76]). Stalks: Extracts from stalks used for venereal disease (Sikkim: Database). Fruit: Juice applied as an anti-leech agent (Taplejung: [88]). Shoots and leaves: Used to make pickle and jam (Ilam: [94]).
149 Berberis angulosa Wall. ex Hook. f. & Thomson Shrub Berberidaceae Chutro (Np) 3400-4500 Stem: Decoction taken orally in blood dysentery and jaundice (Darjeeling: [52]).
150 Berberis aristata DC. Shrub Berberidaceae Berberry (Eg); Karya (Gr-Mn); Kyarbukung (Lp); Chutro, Musa Lede (Np); Chotto (Np-Dl); Kyerwa, Kyerkar (Km, Tb); Chompairaim (Ri); Daruharidra, Rasanjan (Sn); Kerpatsang (Dz) 1800-3500 Roots and bark: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).Used in jaundice, malaria, fever, and diarrhea; also used externally to cure eye disease (Sikkim: Database). Leaves, flowers and bark: Used in eye disease, bile disorders, lympy disorder, jaundice, malarian fever, swelling, and dysentery (Ilam: [73]; Panchthar: [67]). Stem: Extract used for hypoglycemic activities (Sikkim: [96]). Fruit: Eaten raw (Ilam: [73]; Panchthar: [67]), also used to cure rabies (Sikkim: [75]).
151 Berberis asiatica Roxb. ex DC Shrub Berberidaceae Berberry (Eg); Toksong, Pirima (Li); Chutro, Musa Lede (Np); Chotto (Np-Dl); Daruharidra, Thakti-Layem (Ri) 1200-2500 Bark: Decoction used to treat conjunctivitis, eye inflammation, and also used as laxative and tonic (KL Nepal: [83]). Roots: Source of dye (KL Nepal: [83]).Bark and root decoction administered orally in jaundice and fever (Sikkim: [79]). Fruit: Eaten raw (Taplejung: [82, 87]). Fruit and leaves: Juice taken in diarrhoea and dysentery (Sikkim: [79]).
152 Berberis nepalensis Spreng. Shrub Berberidaceae    Bark: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).
153 Mahonia acanthifolia D.Don Shrub Berberidaceae Chutro (Np)   Stem: Decoction taken to treat blood dysentery, diarrhoea and jaundice (Darjeeling: [52]).
154 Mahonia napaulensis DC. Shrub Berberidaceae Mahonia (Eg); Samlikhe, Samjikhe (Li); Chutro, Jamane Mandro (Np); Khlusa (Ri); Daruharidra, Kanchan (Sn); Kerbe (Tm); Kerpa (WI) 1400-2900 Plant: Used for fencing (Taplejung: [81, 82]). Fruit: Used in the treament of urinary disorders (Taplejung: [81, 82]). Ripe berries eaten raw (Taplejung: [81]). Bark: Juice applied in eyes (Sikkim: [79]). Fruit and bark: Decoction taken to treat dysentery, diarrhoea (Ilam: [73, 76]; Sikkim: [86]), and urinary disorders (Ilam: [73, 76]).
155 *Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T.S.Ying Herb Berberidaceae Himalayan May Apple (Eg); Balulu, Balugu (Km); Laghu Patgra (Np); Meme Gudruk (Np-DI); Upala, Bamasisi, Ramasisi (Sh, WI); Wolmose (Tb); Goegabetapi (Sh) 2400-4500 Plant: Useful for typhoid fever, mental disorder, and plague (Sikkim: Database). Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Roots: Used as purgative, hepatic stimulant, bile expellant, bitter tonic and in skin diseses (Sikkim: [69]). Decoction used in ulcer and liver troubles (Taplejung: [81]). Crushed and applied externally on hoof to treat infection; decoction used for cattle to treat indigestion (Sikkim: [84]). Roots and fruit: Used as anticancer remedy (Sikkim: [75]), taken in fever and diarrhea (Taplejung: [81]; Sikkim: [75], Database). Fruit: Ripe fruits eaten raw; used in gynecological diseases, menstrual disorders, kidney disease, skin disease, and cough (Taplejung: [81]).
156 Betula alnoides Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don Tree Betulaceae Saur (Np) 1200-2600 Bark: Paste applied on snake bite (Sikkim: [75]). Chewed as a substitute of betel nut (Ilam: [94]).
157 Betula cylindrostachya Lindley Tree Betulaceae Saru (Np); Taghyam (Bh) 1400-2800 Leaves: Buds used as substitute for tea leaves (Sikkim: [72]).
158 Betula utilis D. Don Tree Betulaceae Himalayan Silver Birch (Eg); Bhojpatra, Bhujpata, Bhojpatra (Np); Bhuj, Bhujpat (Np-Dl); Tag-Pa Tak-Pa (Km, Sh, Tb, Wl); Bhurjha, Bhurjapatra (Sn). 2700-4300 Branch: Used during marriage ceremony (Taplejung: [81]). Bark: Crushed and applied on injuries of cattle (Sikkim: [97]). Boiled and used for cleaning wounds as antiseptic (Sikkim: [79]).
159 Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz Tree Bignoniaceae Totala, Tatelo (Np); Totalabimfang (Me) 400-1400 Plant useful in jaundice (Darjeeling: [105]). Roots, bark and fruit: Used in fever, bronchitis, dysentery, and asthma (Sikkim: [85]). Root bark: Improves appetite, taken in vomiting, asthma, and bronchitis (Darjeeling: [80, 89]). Bark and seeds: Powder used to treat dropsy, sprains, asthma, urinary disorders (Ilam: [73, 76, 77]), high fever and pneumonia (Sikkim: [11]). Seeds: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]). Endosperms eaten to cure pneumonia (Jhapa: [68]). Bark: Powder applied on chronic wounds (Jhapa: [68]) and also used to treat burns, boils (Panchthar: [67]), and diarrhea (Darjeeling: [86]; Panchthar: [67]). Flowers:Usedas medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]). Edible (Darjeeling: [80]). Flowers: Edible (Darjeeling: [80]; Ilam: [94]; Sikkim: [89]).
160 Stereospermum chelonoides (L. f.) DC. Tree Bignoniaceae Pader (S) 150-250 Fruit: Tied as an amulet to cure migrain (Jhapa: [66]).
161 Bombax ceiba L. Tree Bombacaceae Edel (S); Simal (Np); Pemgeyser (Sh) 500-1500 Roots and bark: Used as emetic (Panchthar: [67]) and also used to treat diarrhea and dysentery (Darjeeling: [86]; Panchthar: [67]; Sikkim: Database). Roots: Decoction given in urinary infection, also with decoction of Plumaria acuta given in gonorrhoea and spermatorrhoea (Jhapa: [66]). Flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Buds cooked as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]). Pickled and eaten twice daily to get relief from diarrhea and dysentery (Jhapa: [68]). Paste applied externally on small pox in children (Sikkim: [79]). Exude used as gum (KL Bhutan: [70]).
162 Heliotropium indicum L. Herb Boraginaceae Hatisude (S) 100 Young stem: Used with bulb of onion to cure rabies (Jhapa: [66]).
163 Onosma hookeri C. B. Clarke Herb Boraginaceae Laljari (Np); Bemu (Bhu); Muktsi (Sh) 3000-4700 Roots: Oil used externally as hair tonic (Sikkim: [49]). Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).
164 Brassica campestris L. var cumifolia Roxb. Herb Brassicaceae Rayo (Np) 2500 Whole plant: Used to make fermented material called 'Gundruk' (Darjeeling: [108]; Sikkim: [101]). Used in fever, indigestion and irritation (Ilam: [76]).
165 Brassica sp. Herb Brassicaceae Yoongkar (Dz)   Seed: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
166 Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. Herb Brassicaceae Shepherd's Pursa (Eg); Chamsure Jhar, Tori Ghans, Tori Jhar (Np); Chhyamachhyaru (Sh, Wl) 1400-4500 Plant: Used as green vegetable (Taplejung: [87]). Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Leaves: Juice used in malarian fever (Darjeeling: [78]).
167 Cardamine hirsuta L. Herb Brassicaceae Simrayo (Np) 500-3000 Shoot: Extract taken to low blood pressure and in cardiac problems (Darjeeling: [74]; Sikkim: [75]).
168 Cardamine macrophylla Willd. Herb Brassicaceae Chhurukpa (Sh, Wl) 2500-4500 Plant: Used as vegetable (Sikkim: [98]; Taplejung: [87])and also made fermented vegetables (North-East India: [101]).
169 Erysimum hieraciifolium L. f. Herb Brassicaceae Chhasey (Dz); Kharshing (Sh); Phaledo (Np)   Seed: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).
170 Lepidium sativum L. Herb Brassicaceae Chamsur (Np) 200-3000 Plant: Consumed as vegetable; useful in piles, asthma, cough, syphilis and bodyache (Ilam: [76]).
171 Malcolmia sp. Herb Brassicaceae    Whole plant:Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
172 Nasturtium officinale R. Brown Herb Brassicaceae    Aerial parts: Decoction given to relieve body pain; young shoots taken as salad (Ilam: [76, 94]; Sikkim: [11, 79]). Plant: Juice given in indigestion and urinary disorder (Ilam: [76]).
173 Raphanus sativus L. Herb Brassicaceae Mula (Np)   Whole plant: Used to make fermented material called 'Sinki' and 'Gundruk' (Darjeeling: [101, 108]). Used in indigestion, liver and gall bladder troubles, urinary complaints and ear pain (Ilam: [73, 76]).
174 Thlaspi arvense L. Herb Brassicaceae Jay-kha (Dz)   Whole plant: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).
175 Canarium sikkimense King Tree Burseraceae Poskar shing (Sh)   Exude or resin used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).
176 Garuga pinnata Roxb. Tree Burseraceae Aule Dabdabe, Dubdabey (Np) 300-1200 Bark: Root bark used for curing skin disease; juice applied to treat dislocated bones and to heal wounds (Sikkim: [85]). Fruit: Taken to improve digestion (Sikkim: [85])
177 Codonopsis foetens Hook.f. & Thomson Climber Campanulaceae Gaytangru (Sh)   Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
178 Lobelia angulata G. Forst. Herb Campanulaceae    Plant: Decoction given to treat throat pain and fever. Tender shoots: Juice applied externally to treat boils and inflammation (Sikkim: [11]).
179 Lobelia pyramidalis Wall. Herb Campanulaceae Eklebir (Np)   Leaves and flowers: Used as antispasmodic (Sikkim: [75]).
180 Pratia nummularia (Lam.) A. Br. & Asch. Herb Campanulaceae Lanka Sanay (Np) 1000-2400 Leaves: Juice taken orally in dysentery and tonsillitis (Darjeeling: [74]).
181 Cannabis sativa L. Herb Cannabaceae Gaja (Np); Gaja (S)   Leaves: Infusion taken to cure stomach pain and flatulence (Jhapa: [66]). Stem: Cut into small pieces and fed to livestock to treat inflammation; small pieces mixed with fodder to feed cattle as a tonic (Sikkim: [84]). Decoction given orally to treat severe diarrhoea (Sikkim: [75, 79]). Flowers: Dried flower paste taken in empty stomach to treat diarrhoea (Darjeeling: [86]). Seeds: Pounded and taken to relieve body pain (Sikkim: [75, 79]).
182 Canna indica L. Herb Cannaceae   900 Rhizomes: Edible and taken to treat fever (Sikkim: [11]). Extraction given to cure urinary troubles (Jhapa: [66]).
183 Capparis zeylanica L. Shrub Capparaceae Asaria (S) 150 Fruits: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).
184 Dipsacus atratus Hook.f. & Thomson ex C.B.Clarke Herb Caprifoliaceae Yika (Dz), Pinsa (Sh),   Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
185 Pterocephalus hookeri (C.B.Clarke) E.Pritz. Herb Caprifoliaceae    Flowers/whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
186 Viburnum cylindricum Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don Shrub Caprifoliaceae Arrow wood (Eg); Hanggase (Li); Gharaghuri, Ghar ghure, Ghode khari (Np) 1000-2500 Seeds: Oil used to treat burns (Panchthar: [67]) and also used for cooking purpose (Taplejung: [87]).
187 Carica papaya L. Herb Caricaceae Mewa (Np) 100-1000 Latex: Mixed with salt and applied to cure ringworm (Jhapa: [66]). Fruits: Eaten raw and also eaten to cure jaundice (Sikkim: [79]).
188 Arenaria densissima Wall. ex Edgew. & Hook.f. Herb Caryophyllaceae    Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
189 Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. ex. Roem. & Schult. Herb Caryophyllaceae Abhijalo (Np); Hachiya-gara-gamso (Me) 2200-4300 Plant: Burned and inhaled for antipyretic effect (Darjeeling: [78]). Paste useful to treat fever, cold and cough (Darjeeling: [78]) also used for dog bites (Sikkim: Database), headache and sore throat (Sikkim: [11]). Paste applied externally on fractured bone and bandaged with the help of cotton cloth; decoction administered to animal to treat mouth ulcer (Sikkim: [84]). Above ground parts: Steamed and smelled during sinus trouble (Darjeeling: [52, 78, 80]; Sikkim: [11]; Panchthar: [67]). Leaves: Pasted with Urena lobata applied for cutaneous infections (Jhapa: [68]). Useful in diarrhea and dysentery (Panchthar: [67]).
190 Drymaria diandra Blume Herb Caryophyllaceae Avijalo (Np) 700-2000 Plant: Juice useful in cough, cold and sinusitis (Ilam: [73, 76]) and peptic ulcer (Ilam: [76]).
191 Drymaria villosa Cham. & Schlecht. Herb Caryophyllaceae Abijalo (Np)   Shoots: Given to treat pneumonia and sinusitis (Sikkim: [75]).
192 Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Shrub Celastraceae Kujur (S) 150-300 Plant: Juice taken in fever (Darjeeling: [78]). Fresh juice cures sores of throat (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [11]) and lungs (Jhapa: [66]). Bark and oil: Applied externally to treat acute stomach pain (Jhapa: [66]). Shoots: Juice taken to treat gastritis and constipation (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Juice used as eye drops to cure eye infection. Paste reduces swelling and applied on wounds to heal (Jhapa: [66]). Given to cattle to treat loss of appetite (Sikkim: [84]). Seeds: Paste applied on the skin allergies and good for gout (Sikkim: [11]).
193 Chenopodium album L Herb Chenopodiaceae Bethu Saag (Np)   Plant: Used as appetizer, laxative, and diuretic; also useful in treatment of eye diseases, throat troubles, piles, blood heart, and spleen diseases (Sikkim: Database). Cooked and eaten as vegetable to reduce bodypain especially back pain (Sikkim: [79]). Young shoots: Consumed as vegetable (Ilam: [94]).
194 Cleome gynandra L. Herb Cleomaceae Junge Phool (Np); Seta kata arak (S) 300 Leaves: Eaten as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]).
195 Garcinia cowa Roxb. Tree Clusiaceae Egg tree (Eg); Kaphal (Np) 100-1300 Fruit: Sun dried and taken to treat dysentery (Sikkim: [85])
196 Hypericum uralum Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don Herb Clusiaceae Urillo (Np) 1200-3600 Bark: Juice applied on wound and bruises (Sikkim: [75]). Seeds: Aromatic and stimulant (Sikkim: Database).
197 Mesua ferrea L., Tree   Clusiaceae Nageeswari (Np) 400-950 Bark: Orally administered in various skin diseases (mostly poxes) and in menstrual disorder (Sikkim: Database). Bark or stem paste applied or taken orally in hydrocele and on wound (Sikkim: [53]).
198 Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. Tree Combretaceae Bhaayure (Me); Barro (Np); Lopong (S); Baru (Dz/Sh/T/B) 300-1100 Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]) and incense (KL Bhutan: [70]). Powder drunk to treat constipation (Jhapa: [68]). Useful in bronchitis (Jhapa: [66]; Sikkim: Database), asthma and respiratory trouble.Decoctionadministered to livestock for treatment of diarrhea and dysentery (Sikkim: [84]). Bark: Used for anemia and leucoderma (Sikkim: Database).
199 Terminalia chebula Retz. Tree Combretaceae Silikhaa (Me); Aaru (Dz/Sh) 150-1100 Fruits: Edible (Sikkim: [47]). Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]) and incense (KL Bhutan: [70]). Used as tonic and also to cure eye, heart and bladder diseases (Sikkim: Database). Powder taken to recover from gastric (Jhapa: [68]). Consumed during cough and sore throat and mouth ulcers (Sikkim: [79]). Powder of dried fruits and bark given in diarrhoea (Darjeeling: [86]). Fruit and/or bark decoction administered with small amounts of rock salt to cattle to treat diarrhea and dysentery (Sikkim: [84]).
200 Terminalia myriocarpa Van Heurck & Mull. Arg. Tree Combretaceae Pani saaj (Np) 100-1000 Bark: Juice applied externally on cuts and wounds (Sikkim: [79]).
201 Terminalia tomentosa Wight & Arn. Tree Combretaceae    Bark: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).
202 Commelina benghalensis L. Herb Commelinaceae Kane Jhar (Np) 900-1800 Leaves: Juice applied to treat conjunctivitis (Darjeeling: [74]).
203 Commelina paludosa Blume. Herb Commelinaceae Bhaisen Jhar (Np) 300-3500 Root: Paste applied on boils (Darjeeling: [52]).
204 Streptolirion volubile Edgew. Herb Commelinaceae   1500-2400 Leaves: Crushed and applied on wounds of ear, nose and navel (Darjeeling: [52]).
205 Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Climber Convolvulaceae Dodder (Eg); Akash Beli, Akashveli, Amarbel, Indrabeli (Np); Chamjakhikwa, Jalisang (Ri); Alakjadi (S) 200-3100 Plant: Decoction used to treat jaundice (Taplejung: [88]; Panchthar: [67]; Sikkim: [75]; Ilam: [73, 76]). Infusion taken in diarrhea, bronchitis (Panchthar: [67]; Ilam: [73, 76]), and also applied externally to treat body ache and skin infections (Jhapa: [66]). Shoots and seeds: Used to cure cough (Sikkim: [75]).
206 Cuscuta sinensis Lam. Climber Convolvulaceae Bayding/dukpoo-ru (Sh)   Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
207 Evolvulus alsinoides L. Herb Convolvulaceae Sankha Pushpi (Np) 550-1100 Plant: Used as febrifuge and aphrodisiac (Panchthar: [67]).
208 Evolvulus nummularius (L.) L. Herb Convolvulaceae Chhatbatiza (S) 150-910 Plant: Applied on scorpion sting, cut, wounds and burns (Jhapa: [66]).
209 Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. Climber Convolvulaceae Karmi (S); Lahore pani sag (Np) 300-1500 Leaves and twigs: Eaten as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]). Stem: Necklace prepared and put round the neck of jaundice patient (Darjeeling: [105]).
210 Maianthemum purpureum (Wall.) LaFrankie Herb Convolvulaceae Khhiringlo, Khirro, Sikari-Sag (Np); Lekh Daro (Np-Dl) 2600-4300 Young leaves and tender shoots: Cooked as vegetables (Taplejung: [88]).
211 Merremia umbellata subsp. orientalis (Hallier f.) Ooststr. Herb Convolvulaceae   300-480 Stem: Extraction taken to enhance lactation (Jhapa: [66]).
212 Cornus capitata Wall. Tree Cornaceae PhastiINamimpluse (Sh), Poitsi (Dz)   Fruits: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).
213 Cornus macrophylla Wall. Tree Cornaceae ChapoiIBaminpa (Sh), Boray poitsi (Sh), Poitsi (Dz)   Fruits: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).
214 Griselinia lucida (J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.) G.Forst. Shrub Cornaceae    Fruits: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
215 Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken Herb Crassulaceae Patharkuchi (Np)   Leaves: Paste applied on wound, bruises, swelling and insect bites (Sikkim: [69]).
216 Kalanchoe integra (Medikus) Kuntze Herb Crassulaceae Hatnokane (Np)   Leaves: Juice taken orally as purgative (Sikkim: [85]).
217 Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt Climber Cucurbitaceae Gol Kankri (Np); Tilkocha (S) 200-900 Fruit: Unripe fruits used as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]).
218 Cucurbita pepo L. Climber Cucurbitaceae Pharsi (Li)   Seeds: Powdered and taken orally for its vermifuge potency in children (Sikkim: [79]). Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
219 Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey Climber Cucurbitaceae Kabubotke (S) 200-1500 Leaves: Decoction used in eye infections (Jhapa: [66]).
220 Herpetospermum pedunculosum (Ser.) Baill. Climber Cucurbitaceae Ban Karela (Np); Serkyi Metog (Tb); Mendok Sepu (Wi) 1500-3600 Fruit: Inner par used in stomachache and to treat bile diseases (Taplejung: [81]).
221 Momordica charantia L. Climber Cucurbitaceae Tite Karela (Np, Li) 300-2100 Fruit: Juice taken as blood purifier and also helps to control diabetes (Ilam: [76]; Sikkim: [79, 96]) and treat opthalmia and bleeding (Ilam: [76]). Used as vegetable (Ilam: [76]). Leaves and fruit: Useful in gastric troubles (Darjeeling: [91]).
222 Trichosanthes tricuspidata Lour. Climber Cucurbitaceae Indreni (Np) 1200-2300 Roots and fruit: Extract used to treat gonorrhea, asthma, earache, and hemicrania (Ilam: [73, 76, 77]). Roots: Used in lung diseases of cattle. Fruit: Taken to cure asthma (Sikkim: Database). Leaves: Tender shoots used for vegetable (Ilam: [94]).
223 Daphniphyllum himalense (Benth.) Mull. Arg. Tree Daphniphyllaceae Chandan (Np) 1200-2500 Plant: Plant has religious and aesthetic value (Sikkim: [72]).
224 Dillenia indica L. Tree Dilleniaceae Ramphal (Np) 150-250 Fruit: Juice with sugar used as cooling beverage in fever and cough (Sikkim: [11], Database). Bark and leaves: Taken to cure diarrhea and dysentery (Sikkim: [11], Database).
225 Dillenia pentagyna Roxb. Climber Dilleniaceae Sahad (S); Tatar (Np) 150-1500 Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).
226 Dioscorea alata L. Climber Dioscoreaceae Ghartarul (Np) 600-1200 Roots: Used in fever, rash and itch, constipation, intestinal worms, leprosy, piles, and gonorrhoea. (Sikkim: Database). Eaten raw to treat throat pain (Sikkim: [11]).
227 Dioscorea bulbifera L. Climber Dioscoreaceae Kaching (Lp); Ban tarul, Gittha, Kukurtarul (Np); Bengo nari (S); Tshemakewa(Dz), Borang-Joktang/Fantang (Sh) 150-2100 Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Tubers: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Used as aphrodisiac, stomachic, appetizer (Sikkim: Database), tonic and to cure ulcer (Sikkim: [75]). Boiled and eaten after submerging them whole night in cold water (Jhapa: [92]; Darjeeling: [80]; Ilam: [94]; Sikkim: [89, 107], Database) and also used for washing clothes, to kill lice and fish and as contraceptive pills (Sikkim: Database).
228 *Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. ex Griseb. Climber Dioscoreaceae Ban Tarul, Kukur Tarul (Np); Kamanduki Saplokha (Ri) 450-3100 Tubers: Cooked as vegetable; juice taken as oral contraceptives and also used in lice problems (Ilam: [76]; Taplejung: [82]).
229 Dioscorea pentaphylla L. Climber Dioscoreaceae Kusok (Lp); Aser, Bantarul, Bhyakur (Np) 600-1500 Tubers: Boiled and eaten after submerging them whole night in cold water (Jhapa: [92]). Boiled and taken orally as anthelmintic and wormifuge especially against tapeworm (Darjeeling: [52]).Tubers and shoots: Used as tonic and can also cure swelling (Sikkim: [75]).
230 Shorea robusta Gaertn. Tree Dipterocarpaceae Sal (Np); Sasing (Li) 150-1500 Used to extract oil (KL Bhutan: [91]). Exude used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]). Bark: Paste applied on wound and bone fracture (KL Nepal: [53]).
231 Drosera peltata Thunb. Herb Droseraceae    Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
232 Diospyros lotus L. Tree Ebenaceae Gundum (Dz), Amdebu (Sh)   Fruit:Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
233 Diospyros montana Roxb. Tree Ebenaceae Gada tarul (S) 500 Fruit: Pulp applied on cracks of feet (Jhapa: [66]).
234 Elaeagnus infundibularis Momiy. Shrub Elaeagnaceae Bastard-Oleaster (Eg); Pirima (Li); Guenlo, Maldhendo, Madilo (Np); Tikun (Tm) 1500-2500 Fruit: Used to make alcohol (Taplejung: [81]).
235 Elaeagnus latifolia L. Tree Elaeagnaceae   700-2300 Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]; Sikkim: [47]).
236 Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A. Nelson Tree Elaeagnaceae    Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
237 Hippophae salicifolia D.Don Shrub Elaeagnaceae Seabuckthorn (Eg), Achuk, Dale Chuk (Np) 2200-3500 Bark and fruit: Useful in lung dieases, skin eruptions, and irritations (Sikkim: Database). Fruit: Edible (Sikkim: [95]; KL Nepal: [83]) and also used to make vinegar (KL Nepal: [83]). Used in toothache, joint pain, liver, lungs, and phlegm diseases, menstrual disorders, dysentery, gum infection, blood disorders, diabetes and intestinal parasities (KL Nepal: [83]). Roots: Fresh root nodules chewed to stop vomitting and also to remove bad smell of mouth (Darjeeling: [49]).
238 Hippophae tibetana Schlecht. Shrub Elaeagnaceae Seabuckthorn (Eg); Bhui Chuk (Np) 3800-4500 Fruit: Edible and also used to obtain yellow dye (KL Nepal: [83]).
239 Elaeocarpus sikkimensis Masters Tree Elaeocarpaceae   1500-2100 Fruit: Edible (Ilam: [92]; Sikkim: [95]).
240 Elaeocarpus sphaericus (Gaertn.) K. Schum. Tree Elaeocarpaceae Rudraksh (Np) 700-1700 Fruit: Used in vata and kapha disease of head and epileptic fits (Sikkim: Database). Edible (Sikkim: [89]). Seed: Paste administered to cure cough (Sikkim: [79]).
241 Elaeocarpus varunua Buch.-Ham. ex Mast. Tree Elaeocarpaceae Gasha-thungsey (Sh)   Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).
242 Agapetes serpens (Wight) Sleumer Shrub Ericaceae Bandare Khorsani (Np) 1500-2600 Flowers: Edible (Sikkim: [80, 89]).
243 *Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall. Shrub Ericaceae Wintergreen (Eg); Singjang, Singjhangma (Li); Dhasingare, Patpate (Np); Limbuni Phool (Np-Tp); Lamchassi (Ri); Chhyaro (Sh,Wi) 1200-2600 Leaves: Used as antiseptic (Sikkim: [75]), fodder and in ritual ceremony; warm juice used to treat inflammation and swellings (Taplejung: [87]). Leaves and fruit: Decoction used to treat reheumatism (KL Nepal: [83]; Sikkim: [75]) and worms (KL Nepal: [83]; Ilam: [73]). Fruit: Ripe fruits are eaten raw (KL Nepal: [87]).
244 Gaultheria procumbens L. Shrub Ericaceae    Leaves: Used to extract oil (KL Bhutan: [93]).
245 Gaultheria sp. Shrub Ericaceae Chanze kam (Dz); Shogshingma shing (Sh)   Whole plant: Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).
246 Gaultheria trichophylla Royle Shrub Ericaceae Ani Gnonzing (Sh, Wi), Sanchanchewa (Tm) 2700-4500 Fruit: Ripe fruits eaten raw (Taplejung: [81]; Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [89]).
247 Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Drude Tree Ericaceae Lyonia (Eg); Tapeba (Li); Angeri (Np); Rangkhilayem (Ri) Dhobang (Sh); Sangemi Dongbu, Syanggomba (Wi). 1300-3300 Leaves: Dried and used as cigarette wrapper (Ilam: [81]). Infusion taken to treat scabies and dog bite (Ilam: [73, 76]).
248 Pieris formosa (Wall.) D.Don. Tree Ericaceae Balu (Np); Kekphel (Li) 2000-3300 Roots: Dust applied to treat rheumatism (KL Nepal: [53]).
249 Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don Shrub Ericaceae Fragrant Rhododendron (Eg); Sunpati (Np); Balu (Dz/B/Sh) 3500-5100 Aerial parts: Used as incense and snuffed to induce sneezing (Sikkim: Database). Leaves and flowers: Used for stomach, liver, and lung disorders, indigestion, sore throat, and as appetizer and in vomiting (Darjeeling: [98]; KL Nepal: [83]). Used as incense (Sikkim: Database). Flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used to cure blood dysentery (Sikkim: [75]). Whole plant: Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).
250 Rhododendron arboreum Smith Tree Ericaceae Porota (Gr); Tokphekalaphun, Thukphewa (Li); Gurans, Laliguras (Np); Dakbun, Tokse (Ri); Pullasa (Sn); Ladukpa, Sendok Dongbu (Wi). 1400-3600 Flowers and young leaves: Useful in dysentery (Darjeeling: [80]; Ilam: [76]; Sikkim: [11, 85]; KL Nepal: [83]), diarrhea and headache (Ilam: [76]; Sikkim: [85]). Flowers: Used to treat headache (Panchthar: [67]). Powder taken to stop bleeding in female. Flower petals clear throat choking due to fish or chicken bone (Darjeeling: [52]; Sikkim: [11]). Used to make alcohol; paste applied around eyes for good sight (Taplejung: [81]). Used to make local wine (Darjeeling: [108]; Ilam: [94]). Crushed with water and administered to livestock to treat diarrhea and dysentery (Sikkim: [97]).
251 Rhododendron campanulatum D. Don Tree Ericaceae Syapu (Gr); Chimal, Nilo Chimal, Seti Chimal (Np); Kalma (Sh); Takma Singya (Tb); Khama, Saje Medok (Wl). 2800-4400 Wood: Dried and infusion taken in fever (Darjeeling: [78]). Leaves: Used to wrap tobacco (Taplejung: [81]). Flowers: Nectar edible (Taplejung: [81]).
252 Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don Shrub Ericaceae Bhale sunpati (Np) 2100-4700 Leaves and flowers: Paste used for bile and lung disease, cold, and blood disorders (KL Nepal: [83]). Leaves: Used for incense (KL Nepal: [83]).
253 Rhododendron setosum D. Don Shrub Ericaceae Sunpatay (Np); Sulo (Dz/Sh/B/T) 3700-5600 Flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Leaves: Local Buddhist uses leaf as incense (Sikkim: [89]). Whole plant: Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).
254 Vaccinium gaultheriifolium (Griff.) Hook. f. ex C. B. Clarke Shrub Ericaceae Chyansi (Np-Tp); Khapusekma (Li) 1500-2300 Fruit: Eaten raw or pickled; juice used to treat diarrhea and dysentery (Taplejung: [81]).
255 Antidesma acidum Retz. Shrub Euphorbiaceae Archal (Np) 150-1200 Bark and leaves: Used to treat cholera (Panchthar: [67]). Fruit: Consumed raw (Ilam: [94]).
256 Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. Tree Euphorbiaceae   250-1300 Fruits: Edible (Sikkim: [95]).
257 Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Mull. Arg. Shrub Euphorbiaceae Danti (S) 300-910 Seeds: Used in gastric disorders, gouts, and rheumatism (Jhapa: [66]).
258 Bischofia javanica Blume Tree Euphorbiaceae Kainjal (Np) 150-1200 Leaves: Chewed to cure sore throat (Sikkim: [11]). Bark: Juice taken to cure diarrhea (Sikkim: [11]).
259 Bridelia retusa (L.) A. Juss. Tree Euphorbiaceae Gayo (Li) 100-1400 Bark: Paste prepared from the bark of Bridelia retusa and Schima wallichiiapplied externally on cuts and wounds (Sikkim: [79]).
260 Croton roxburghii N. P. Balakr. Tree Euphorbiaceae Guti (S) 300-750 Bark: Pounded and mixed with little amount of oil of Varanus sp. and massage on the body to relieve from measles, chicken pox, and boils (Jhapa: [66]). Roots and bark: Used as purgative (Jhapa: [66]).
261 Euphorbia griffithii Hook.f. Herb Euphorbiaceae    Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
262 Euphorbia hirta L. Herb Euphorbiaceae Aankle Jhar (Np); Gofatkhalakhachri (Me); Sangadare, pusitoa (S) 150-1500 Plant: Extraction given to lactating mother to increase the milk prodcution. Root: Given to stop vomitting (Jhapa: [66]). Young shoots: Used to treat excessive bleeding during menstruation and also in gonorrhea (Jhapa: [68]). Latex: Applied on pimples and old wounds (Jhapa: [68]) and also to treat warts and cuts (Darjeeling: [74]).
263 Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch Shrub Euphorbiaceae   800-1200 Latex: Applied on toothache (Sikkim: [11]).
264 Euphorbia royleana Boissier Shrub Euphorbiaceae Siundee (Np); Sijau (Me) 1100-1200 Latex: Applied to cure swelling of skin due to cutaneous and sub-cutaneous infection (Jhapa: [68]). Used to cure cuts and stop bleeding, to relieve from earache, cough, and asthma (Sikkim: Database).
265 Euphorbia sieboldiana C.Morren & Decne. Herb Euphorbiaceae    Tuber/roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
266 Euphorbia sikkimensis Boiss. Herb Euphorbiaceae    Tubers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
267 Glochidion lanceolarium Voigt. Shrub Euphorbiaceae Bangikath (Np)   Bark: Juice to taken in stomach complaints (Sikkim: [85]).
268 Homonoia riparia Lour. Shrub Euphorbiaceae Khola ruis (Np); Mongthel-Kung (Lp)   Roots: Decoction taken as laxative (Sikkim: [85]).
269 Jatropha curcas L. Shrub Euphorbiaceae Aanda (Me); Kaden, Hathi-kane, Sjaiwan (Np); Bhernada (S); Ngera-kharshing (Sh) 500-1200 Latex: Applied to treat toothache and swelling testicules (Jhapa: [68]). Used to stop bleeding from wounds; also applied to treat burns, eczema, ringworm (Sikkim: Database) and scabies (Jhapa: [66]). Bark: Chewed to cure mouth sores (Jhapa: [66]). Seeds: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
270 Mallotus philippinensis Muel. Arg. Tree Euphorbiaceae Sindure (Np); Rora (S)   Seeds: Dried and powder applied on the wound of cattle (Sikkim: [97]). Given to pigs along-with food to kill intestinal worms, rushed and applied externally to cure wound, injuries and skin infection (Sikkim: [84]). Fruit: Powder of glandular hairs of fruits applied in sores and wounds (Jhapa: [66]). Bark: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Flowers and fruit: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).
271 Ricinus communis L. Shrub Euphorbiaceae Aadi (Me); Iradam (S); Chamlingshing (Sh) 150-2400 Roots: Used for skin diseases. Tied as an amulet on neck of children to stop vomiting (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Juice used to cure headache, boils, and dysentery; paste used to cure jaundice (Sikkim: Database). Warmed with mustard oil and massaged on the body of post delivery women to cure body pain (Jhapa: [66]). Seeds: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Endosperm applied as cream on dryness of skin to cure cracking heels (Jhapa: [68]).
272 Tragia involucrata L. Climber Euphorbiaceae Ban Sisnu (Np); Sangelsim (S) 400 Leaves: Paste applied on local swelling of hands and feet ([66]).
273 Abrus precatorius L. Climber Fabaceae Lalgedi (Np); Karmet (S) 300-1100 Roots and fruits: Extract taken orally for abortion (KL Nepal: [53]) and also taken for tonsil and pneumonia (Sikkim: Database). Roots: Paste usedto treat urinary troubles and skin disease (Ilam: [76]) and also in cough, cold and menstrual troubles and also applied to cure wounds (Jhapa: [66]). Powder taken to treat urinary troubles and skin disease (Ilam: [76]). Leaves: Juice taken orally to relieve urinary complaints (Jhapa: [66]). Fruit: Chewed or fresh root juice administered orally during throat pain (Sikkim: [79]).
274 Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd. Tree Fabaceae Toeja (Dz); Jasenshing (Sh)   Stem: Heartwood extract used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [70, 71]) and gum (KL Bhutan: [70]). Stem and roots: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).
275 Acacia intsia (L.) Willd. Shrub Fabaceae Kondru (S) 900-1100 Root: Paste used in fever, cough and cold, and also applied against snake and scorpion sting (Jhapa: [66]). Stem: Paste with pepper taken orally to cure blood dysentery (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Paste applied on sores and itches (Jhapa: [66]).
276 Acacia pennata (L.) Willd. Climber Fabaceae Arare (Li) 200-1100 Leaves: Chewed with sugar and cumin during bleeding gums; juice administered orally in indigestion in infants (Sikkim: [79]).
277 Aeschynomene indica L. Herb Fabaceae Tal Khukuri (Np); Sola (S) 200-1300 Plant: Juice and cumin seeds used in reducing fever (Jhapa: [66]).
278 Albizia julibrissin Durazz. Tree Fabaceae Padke Siris (Np) 1000-3000 Bark: Extract or paste used to treat dandruff (KL Nepal: [53]).
279 Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. Tree Fabaceae Harasiris (Np)   Leaves and flowers: Used to cure boils, piles, and diarrhea (Sikkim: [75]).
280 Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth. Tree Fabaceae Seti Siris (Li) 300-1100 Bark: Crushed into paste and applied on forehead during fever (Sikkim: [79]).
281 Astragalus yunnanensis Franch. Herb Fabaceae    Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
282 Atylosia scarabaeoides (L.) Benth. Climber Fabaceae Jangali bhatmase jhar (Np); Birhorec (S) 400-1200 Plant: Paste orally administered to treat body swelling (Jhapa: [66]).
283 Bauhinia purpurea L. Tree Fabaceae Tanki (Np) 300-1600 Plant used against animal bite;useful as maturant for boils and ebcesses (Sikkim: Database). Roots: Used as carminative (Sikkim: Database, [79]). Paste applied on boils (Sikkim: [79]). Bark: Used to control diarrhea (Sikkim: Database). Flowers: Used as laxative (Sikkim: Database). Leaves: Used as fodder (Ilam: [73]). Shoots: Used as vegetable (Ilam: [94])
284 Bauhinia semla Wunderlin Tree Fabaceae    Exude: Used as gum (KL Bhutan: [70]).
285 Bauhinia vahlii Wight & Arn. Climber Fabaceae Makrik (Lp); Verla, Baro Lara, Bhorla (Np) 200-1300 Bark: Useful in skin disease (Sikkim: Database) and diarrhea (Sikkim: Database, [74]). Leaves: Used as demulcent (Sikkim: Database). Paste applied in factured bone (Sikkim: [97]). Seeds: Used as tonic and aphrodisiac, and also given to treat snake bite (Panchthar: [67]; Sikkim: Database). Roasted and consumed (Ilam: [92]). Seeds and leaves: Given in dysentery and used as laxative (Sikkim: [75]).
286 Bauhinia variegata L. Tree Fabaceae Koiraalo, Koirala, Takki (Np) 150-1900 Root: Dried root and bark administered orally in diarrhea (Darjeeling: [86]). Decoction given to expel placenta of cattle (Sikkim: [97]). Bark: Juice taken as tonic in toothache (Sikkim: [11]). Paste taken to cure swelling, leprosy, cough, and menstrual disorder (Ilam: [73, 76]; Sikkim: [79]). Flower: Juice taken to cure dysentery, diarrhea, and stomach pain (Sikkim: Database). Buds taken for skin disease and ulcer, dried buds chewed to treat bleeding piles (Sikkim: [11]). Cooked as curry (Darjeeling: [80]; Ilam: [73, 76]; Sikkim: [89]). Fruit: Used for blood purification (Sikkim: Database).
287 Butea minor Buch.-Ham. ex Baker Shrub Fabaceae Bhujetro (Np) 300-2000 Seeds: Used as anthelmintic (Panchthar: [67]).
288 Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze Shrub Fabaceae Palans (Np); Marup (S); Flamingo tree (Eng) 150-1200 Fruits: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Roots: Used in tuberculosis (Jhapa: [66]).
289 Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. Shrub Fabaceae Sugrong-bithai (Me) 400-500 Seeds: Fried to black with coconut oil, crushed and paste applied on scalp with the help of cock's feather for baldness (Jhapa: [68]).
290 Cassia fistula L. Tree Fabaceae Raj Brichhya (Np); Mukhralaudhi (Me); Noormui Mirfu Baha (S); Dongkoshing (Sh) 150-1400 Leaves: Used for treating skin diseases, extraction taken orally taken to purify blood, and also used as laxative (Jhapa: [66]). Fruits: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used as diuretic, purgative, and laxative (Panchthar: [67]). Used for asthma, diabetes, and eczema (Sikkim: Database). Paste used to treat the whopping cough (Jhapa: [68]).
291 Cassia occidentalis L. Herb Fabaceae Thulo Tapre (Np) 200-1400 Flowers and seeds: Paste applied in minor skin infection and inflammation (Jhapa: [68]).
292 Cassia sophera L. Shrub Fabaceae Tapre (Np); Chakora (S) 700-1000 Bark and seeds: Infusion given in diabetes (Jhapa: [66]).
293 Cassia tora L. Herb Fabaceae Tapre (Np); Chakora, Bhede deren (S) 450-1300 Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Leaves: Extraction applied on ringworm and itch (Jhapa: [66]).
294 Crotalaria pallida Aiton Herb Fabaceae Chhinchhinne (Np) 200-1750 Roots: Juice drunk to cure body-swelling problems (Jhapa: [68]).
295 Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC. Shrub Fabaceae   300-1000 Roots: Used in snake and scropion bite (Jhapa: [66]).
296 Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC Herb Fabaceae Sano Chameli (Np) 600-2300 Leaves: Juice consumed to treat diarrhoea and dysentery (Darjeeling: [74]).
297 Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr. Climber Fabaceae Pangra (Np), Kolokpu-sae (Sh) 350-1600 Seeds: Used as astringent and emetic (Panchthar: [67]; Sikkim: Database) and also useful to treat dandruff (Panchthar: [67]). Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
298 Entada pursaetha subsp. sinohimalensis Grierson & D. G. Long Climber Fabaceae   400-1500 Bark: Juice applied externally to cure skin disease (Sikkim: [11]). Seeds: Paste applied to treat mumps; powder acts as antidandruff agent (Sikkim: [11]).
299 Erythrina arborescens Roxb. Tree Fabaceae Phaledo (Np); Gyesey Kung (L) 1500-3000 Leaves and bark: Curative efficacies for skin diseases (Sikkim: [75]). Seed: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
300 Erythrina stricta Roxb. Tree Fabaceae Phaledo (Np); Chhasey (Dz); Kharshing (Sh) 1000-1600 Bark and leaves: Paste given in rheumatism, fever, asthma, and epilepsy (Ilam: [73]). Seed: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
304 Erythrina suberosa Roxb. Tree Fabaceae Phaledo (Np); Buru marar (S) 900-1200 Bark: Grinded with bark of Oroxylum indicum and given as antidote (Jhapa: [66]).
302 Flemingia macrophylla (Willd.) Merr. Shrub Fabaceae Barvasi (Np) 700-1700 Plant: Decoction given to cattle to cure blood dysentery (Sikkim: [97]).
303 Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Herb Fabaceae Jethimadhu (Np)   Roots: Given in cough, fever, dysentery, and chronic hepatitis (Sikkim: Database).
304 Indigofera sp. Tree Fabaceae    Leaves: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).
305 Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc. Tree Fabaceae Gahat (Li) 450-2800 Seeds: Decoction used to remove stone developed in kidney (Sikkim: [79]).
306 Mimosa pudica L. Herb Fabaceae Lazzawathi (Np); Jhapani (S) 200-1200 Plant: Juice given to relieve from diarrhoea (Ilam: [73]; Darjeeling: [86]), dysentery, and in treatment of hydrocele (Ilam: [73]). Roots and leaves: Paste used in case of piles (Darjeeling: [91]; Sikkim: [11], Database) and kidney problems (Sikkim: Database). Roots: Used in treating asthma, fever, cough, dysentery, vaginal and uterine complaint (Sikkim: Database). Paste applied externally to treat boils (Sikkim: [11]). Juice taken to cure epilepsy and sexual weakness also used to cure eye troubles (Jhapa: [66]). Powder used to clean tooth (Darjeeling: [74]).
307 Moghania strobilifera (L.) J. St.-Hil. ex Kuntze Shrub Fabaceae Barakaulijhar (Np) 300-2300 Roots: Juice taken in indigestion, insomnia and epilepsy (Darjeeling: [74]).
308 Mucuna macrocarpa Wall. Shrub Fabaceae    Seeds: Powder taken as anthelmentic (Sikkim: [11]).
309 Mucuna monosperma Wall. Shrub Fabaceae Baldengra (Np, Li)   Seeds: Act as expectorant in cough (Sikkim: [79]).
310 Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. Herb Fabaceae Kauso (Np); Etka (S) 100-1700 Leaves: Paste used in boils, blisters, and ulcers (Jhapa: [66]). Roots and seeds: Used as antipyretic and aphrodisiac (Panchthar: [67]). Roots: Used in delirium (Jhapa: [66]). Seeds: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
311 Oxytropis japonica Maxim. Herb Fabaceae    Whole plant: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).
312 Tamarindus indica L. Tree Fabaceae Jojo (S) Imli, Titri (Np), Titri (Me) 200-900 Bark: Decoction given in paralysis, ulcers, and inflammations. Infusion along with bark of Ziziphus mauritiana, Anthocephalus chinensis, Shorea robusta, Streblus asper and black salt given to cure flatulence in cattle (Jhapa: [66]). Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]). Used for cough and blood disorders (Sikkim: Database). Seeds: Paste eaten to cure stomachache (Jhapa: [68]).
313 Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. Herb Fabaceae Bir ghangra (S)   Tubers and seeds: Eaten as vegetable (Jhapa: [68]).
314 Castanopsis hystrix Miq. Tree Fagaceae Patle Katus (Np) 1800-2400 Fruit: Eaten raw (Darjeeling: [80]; Ilam: [94]; Sikkim: [72, 89]).
315 Castanopsis indica (Roxb.) Miq. Tree Fagaceae Katoos (Np) 1200-2900 Fruit: Roasted and consumed (Ilam: [94]).
316 Castanopsis tribuloides (Sm.) A. DC. Tree Fagaceae Musure Katus (Np) 450-2300 Fruit: Edible (Sikkim: [89]). Leaves: Good ingredients for compost (Sikkim: [89]).
317 Quercus glauca Thunb. Tree Fagaceae Phalat (Np); Yahi (Li)   Bark: Paste applied on bone fracture (KL Nepal: [53]).
318 Quercus griffithii Hook.f. & Thomson ex Miq. Tree Fagaceae Sisi (Dz); Benangshing (Sh)   Seeds: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
319 Gynocardia odorata Roxburgh Tree Flacourtiaceae Gantay (Np) 800-1000 Fruit: Used to extract oil (KL Bhutan: [93]). Juice taken or eaten raw in fever (Darjeeling: [78]). Seeds: Seed oil applied on skin diseases and leprosy (Sikkim: [75]), also used for massage purpose for infants (Sikkim: [79]). Ripen seeds roasted and the oil extracted to use in various purposes (Ilam: [94]).
320 Gentiana grandiflora Laxm. Herb Gentianaceae    Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
321 Gentiana stylophora C.B.Clarke Herb Gentianaceae    Floral parts: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
322 Gentiana urnula Harry Sm. Herb Gentianaceae    Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
323 Gentiana veitchiorum Hemsl. Herb Gentianaceae Gangi- Pangenmotok (Dz)   Whole plant/flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
324 Halenia elliptica D.Don Herb Gentianaceae    Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
325 Swertia angustifolia Buch. Ham. ex D. Don Herb Gentianaceae Vaale Chirayito (Np) 600-3300 Plant: Extract used to treat fever, cough, and cold (Ilam: [73]).
326 Swertia bimaculata (Sieb. & Zucc) C. B. Clarke Herb Gentianaceae Chiraito, Tite (Np) 900-3700 Plant: Used to treat diarrhea, dysentery, and fever (Taplejung: [81]).
327 *Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) Karsten Herb Gentianaceae Tikta (Km, Sh, Wi); Sungkhinwa (Li); Chiraito, Chiraita, Tite (Np); Khalu (Nw); Kuple (Ri); Kirattikta (Sn); Timda (Tm); Gya-Tig, Tigta (Tb) 1200-3000 Plant and seeds: Plant infusion and crushed seeds considered most effective in treating fever (Taplejung: [81]; KL Nepal: [83, 103]; Ilam: [73, 76]), asthma, cold, and cough (Darjeeling: [80]; Taplejung: [81, 87]; KL Nepal: [83, 103]; Sikkim: [11]; Ilam: [73, 76]). Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used to treat ulcer, asthma, inflammation, and piles (Darjeeling: [80]). Taken as tonic and also in leucoderma and skin diseases (Darjeeling: [69, 78, 80]). Decoction taken to cure cold, cough, diarrhea, and stomachache (Darjeeling: [69]; Sikkim: [11, 79]). Shoots: Taken in dyspepsia (Sikkim: [75]). Leaves: Mixed with young stem of Achyranthes aspera and stem bark of Phyllanthus emblica and decoction given to cure fever and cholera (Jhapa: [66]).
328 Swertia multicaulis D. Don Herb Gentianaceae Sharma Guru (Np, Tm); Sepu Gundum (Sh, WI) 4000-4900 Roots: Decoction used to treat fever, cough, bodyache, and internal injuries; paste applied to prevent bleeding and infection from cuts and wounds (Taplejung: [81, 82, 87, 88]).
329 Swertia nervosa (G. Don) C. B. Clarke Herb Gentianaceae Chiraito, Bhale Chiraito, God Tito (Np) 700-3000 Roots: Used to treat fever, cough, and cold (Taplejung: [82, 88]).
330 Geranium donianum Sweet Herb Geraniaceae Ragatgeri (Np) 3200-4800 Plant:Juice consumed in renal complications and dysentery (Darjeeling: [74]).
331 Geranium lambertii Sweet Herb Geraniaceae    Roots:Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
332 Geranium nepalense Sweet Herb Geraniaceae Bhanda (Np)   Whole plant: Used as astringent (Sikkim: [75]).
333 Aeschynanthus parviflorus (D.Don) Spreng. Shrub Gesneriaceae    Roots: Decoction used to treat fever (Darjeeling: [78]).
334 Didymocarpus villosus D.Don Herb Gesneriaceae Kumkum (Np) 900-2400 Leaves: Smoked for its laxative action (KL Nepal: [53]).
335 Dichroa febrifuga Lour. Shrub Hydrangeaceae Aseru, Basauli, Bhahak, Pahare Basak, Vasak (Np); Khasrte, Patre, Polokamji (Gr); Kiplisang (Ri), Dharmen (Tm); Borang-yangshabu (Sh) 900-2500 Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used as tonic (Sikkim: [75]). Decoction taken to treat malarial fever (Ilam: [76]; Taplejung: [87]; Sikkim: [91], Database). Roots and leaves: Decoction taken for cough and fever (Darjeeling: [78, 80]; Ilam: [76]; Sikkim: [11, 89]). Fruit: Used as febrifuge (Panchthar: [67]). Ink prepared from berries (Sikkim: [11]).
336 Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. Herb Hypoxiadaceae Kalo musali, Musali Kanda (Np); Gahot (S) 500-1100 Roots/rhizomes: Taken in stomachache, physical weakness (Jhapa: [66]), jaundice, cholera, and diarrhea (Darjeeling: [49]; Panchthar: [67]). Rhizome paste used against skin complaints, stomach ulcer, white discharge in women and dyspepsia (Darjeeling: [49]). Infusion used in gastritis and piles (Darjeeling: [49]).
337 Belamcanda chinensis (L.) Redoute Herb Iridaceae Tarware phool (Np) 100-2200 Rhizomes: Freshly collected and eaten in stomachache and also taken orally as antidote to food poisoining (Darjeeling: [52]).
338 Iris decora Wall. Herb Iridaceae    Fruits: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
339 Engelhardia spicata Lesch. ex Blume Tree Juglandaceae Yakpohama (Li), Mauwa (Np), Bokto, Oksipou (Ri) 400-2500 Bark: Used in diarrhea and dysentery; paste used in bone fracture (Taplejung: [88]).
340 *Juglans regia L. Tree Juglandaceae Okhar (Np) 1000-2000 Bark: Used for dye and acts as detergent (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [89]). Juice taken to get rid from intestinal worms (Darjeeling: [86]; Sikkim: [11, 79]). Stem bark: Decoction taken to cure arthritis, rheumatism, skin diseases and toothache (Sikkim: [79]). Bark and leaves: Juice used as fish poison (Sikkim: [11]). Leaves: Paste applied on the hoof diseases of cattle (Sikkim: [97]) Fruit: Oil used for headache (Darjeeling: [80]). Used in rheumatism (Darjeeling: [91]). Nuts: Edible (Darjeeling: [80]; Ilam: [94]; Sikkim: [89]). Shell crushed and obtained black color (Sikkim: [11]).
341 Juglans regia var kamaonia L. Tree Juglandaceae Himalayan Walnut (Eg); Akhor (Gr); Katutung, Takshing, Koto (Gr-Mn); Khayusin, Khesik (Li); Okhar, Hande Okhar (Np); Khaisi (Ri); Akshotak (Sn) 1200-3000 Bark: Paste used for poisoning fish. Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Boiled in water to extract dye. Used to treat pneumonia and wounds (Panchthar: [67]). Seeds: Eaten as tonic or to treat throat pain; hard cover of the fruit applied on gout or to treat throat and chest pain (Taplejung: [87, 88]).
342 Juncus grisebachii Buchenau Herb Juncaceae Juncus (C)   Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
343 Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze Herb Lamiaceae Nirepati, Jhusule, Rato Charpate, Rato Pat (Np); Jinting (Sh) 200-2400 Roots: Juice taken to cure fever, soar throat, diarrhea, and dysentery (Taplejung: [88]).
344 Clerodendrum infortunatum L. Shrub Lamiaceae Chitu (Np)   Leaves: Used as anthelminthic, fresh juice used as tonic and febrifuge (Sikkim: Database).
345 Clerodendrum viscosum Vent. Herb Lamiaceae Rajbeli (Np); Lakhanaat (Me); Varni (S) 100-1500 Plant: Infusion boiled in water along with the leaves of Azadirachta indica and bath to treat scabies and skin diseases (Jhapa: [66]). Roots: Paste used as anti-poison (Jhapa: [68]). Leaves: Paste used as hair tonic (Jhapa: [66]). Leaf juice consumed to treat leucoderma and hydrophobia (Darjeeling: [74]).
346 Clinopodium umbrosum (M.Bieb.) C. Koch Climber Lamiaceae Suparnasa (Np) 180-3400 Leaves: Juice used to treat cuts and burns (Panchthar: [67]).Eaten as vegetable to maintain good health (Darjeeling: [74]).
347 Colebrookea oppositifolia Sm. Herb Lamiaceae Dhursuli (Np); Dhusor (Me) 250-1700 Leaves: Paste applied in wounds and inflammation of skin (Jhapa: [68]). Juice used to treat cuts and bruises (Panchthar: [67]).Juice taken in dysentery (Sikkim: [79]). Bud extract applied in opthalmic problems (KL Nepal: [53]).
348 Elsholtzia blanda (Benth.) Benth. Herb Lamiaceae Jungali Tulsi, Ban Silam (Np)   Roots: Powder paste with mustard oil applied on the scabies affected area of cattle (Sikkim: [84]). Leaves: Juice given in diarrhoea (Darjeeling: [74]). Shoots: Taken in gastritis (Sikkim: [75]).
349 Elsholtzia fruticosa (D.Don) Rehder Shrub Lamiaceae Chhinik (Np); Aamgora, Kansata (Sh); Jirug Serpo (Km, Tb); Furmi (Wl) 1800-4200 Plant: Religious value (Taplejung: [81]). Leaves and spikes: Used as incense (Taplejung: [81]). Roots: Given against tonsilitis (Darjeeling: [52]).
350 Eriophyton wallichii Benth. Herb Lamiaceae    Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
351 Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. Shrub Lamiaceae Arridari (S) 150-1000 Plant: Paste applied on skin infections (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Juice warmed and applied over lice and parasities infected area (Darjeeling: [74]).
352 Isodon coetsa (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) Kudô Herb Lamiaceae Mire (Np) 600-3400 Leaves and shoots: Used to treat cuts and wounds (Panchthar: [67]).
353 Leucas cephalotes (Roth) Spreng. Herb Lamiaceae Drona puspi (Np); Gante Jhar (Np) 150-2400 Plant: Used to treat pneumonia and wounds (Panchthar: [67]) Leaves: Decoction given in menstrual disorders (KL Nepal: [53]).
354 Leucas indica (L.) R. Br. ex Vatke Herb Lamiaceae Khaangkareh (Me); Gummi (Np); Durup (S) 70-1000 Leaves: Crushed with Euphorbia hirta and let to inhale for sinusites and nasal infection (Jhapa: [68]). Decoction massaged on forehead to relieve headache; drops poured in nostril to cure sinusitis and earache; juice taken in asthma, and also applied in geneital organs to cure venereal diseases (Jhapa: [66]).
355 Leucosceptrum canum Sm. Herb Lamiaceae Cheeongkung (L) 1000-2600 Roots and leaves: Used for epilepsy and wound (Sikkim: [75]).
356 Melissa axillaris (Benth.) Bakh. f., Herb   Lamiaceae Sugandhi (Np)   Leaves: Juice taken with honey to cure fever (Darjeeling: [78]).
357 Mentha arvensis L. Herb Lamiaceae Padina (Np, Li) 1200-2000 Leaves: Juice given to treat rheumatism, fever, weakness, ulcer, wounds, jaundice, cough, asthma and cuts (Ilam: [76]). Fresh leaves chewed during gastritis and acidity (Sikkim: [79]).
358 Mentha piperita L. Herb Lamiaceae Pudhina (Np)   Plant: Paste taken in bodyache (Darjeeling: [52]). Leaves: Juice, paste or oil taken in painful urination, stomach problems and indigestion (Ilam: [76]).
359 Mentha sp. Herb Lamiaceae    Leaves: Used as spices (KL Bhutan: [70]).
360 Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Herb Lamiaceae Tulasipatta (S) 400-900 Leaves: Leaves are pounded and given with unboiled rice in cough and bronchitis (Jhapa: [66]). Chewed to cure mouth ulcers (Sikkim: [79]). Juice given in cardiopathy, asthma, bronchitis, snake bite, urinary disorders (Ilam: [76]).
361 Orthosiphon incurvus Benth. Herb Lamiaceae Tite (Np)   Plant: Juice given to cure tooth decay, diarrhoea, wounds, and cuts (Ilam: [73, 76]).
362 Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton Herb Lamiaceae Silam (Np, Li) 600-2400 Seeds: Dried seeds chewed to cure cough and nausea (Sikkim: [79]).
363 Phlomoides rotata (Benth. ex Hook.f.) Mathiesen Herb Lamiaceae    Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
364 Pogostemon amarantoides Benth. Herb Lamiaceae Solomon, Namnam (Bhu) 900-2100 Young leaves: Used as vegetables (Bhutan: [102]).
365 Pogostemon benghalensis(Burm. f.) Kuntze Shrub Lamiaceae Rudilo (Np) 150-1300 Young shoots: Grounded and given to treat sores of mouth and tounge (Jhapa: [66]).
366 Salvia campanulata Wall. ex Benth. Herb Lamiaceae    Flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
367 Salvia moorcroftiana Wall. ex Benth. Herb Lamiaceae   2000-3000 Whole plant: Given against diabetes (Darjeeling: [52]).
368 Salvia sp. Herb Lamiaceae    Flower: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
369 Siphocranion macranthum (J. D. Hooker) C. Y. Wu Herb Lamiaceae   1300-3200 Shoots: Taken in gastric (Sikkim: [75]).
370 Holboellia latifolia Wall. Tree Lardizabalaceae Golfa (Np) 2400-3200 Roots: Effective for rheumatism (Sikkim: [75]). Fruit: Edible (Darjeeling: [72, 80]; Sikkim: [89]). Stem: Used to make bangles, which are believed to give from orthopedic problems (Darjeeling [80]).
371 Cinnamomum bejolghota (Buch.-Ham.) Sweet Tree Lauraceae Bhalay Linkauli (Np) 600-1800 Bark: Used as condiment (Sikkim: [72]).
372 *Cinnamomum glaucescens (Nees) Hand.-Mazz. Tree Lauraceae Phagpanengshing (Sh)   Wood: Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).
373 Cinnamomum impressinervium Meisn. Tree Lauraceae Sisi (Np) 1220-1830 Seeds: Edible (Darjeeling: [80]). Leaves: Used as a substitute of bay leaf (Sikkim: [72]).
374 *Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) Nees & Eberm. Tree Lauraceae Sinkauli, Tejpat (Np); Pinge (Gur); Pataarangkhi (Rai); Shishi (She) 450-2000 Bark: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Given in gonorrhea (Sikkim: Database).Extract used in stomach disorders (Sikkim: [79]). Leaves: Used as stimulant in rheumatism, and also in colic and diarrhea (Sikkim: Database). Rubbed on the body to cure scabies (Sikkim: [11]), throat allergy and to increase appetite (Jhapa: [68]). Used as condiments (KL Bhutan: [70]). Ilam: [94]).
375 Cinnamomum verum J.Presl Tree Lauraceae    Leaves: Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).
376 Lindera neesiana (Wall ex Nees) Kurz Tree Lauraceae Gutum Phopri (Gr-Mn); Waregpa (Li); Sil Timmur, Phenlo Khapate (Np); Kongkochi (Ri); Kutumba (Tm) 1800-2700 Bark and fruit: Used as aromatic and carminative (Sikkim: [85]). Fruit: Used in cough, cold, fever, and cholera; fried in butter and used during gastritis; also used in pickle (Taplejung: [87, 88]). Given to treat headache (Panchthar: [67]). Seeds: Powder taken to stop vomiting (Sikkim: [11]).
377 Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers. Tree Lauraceae Siltimur (Np); Tanghaercherkerng (L)   Flowers: Used in stomach disorders (Sikkim: [11, 75], Database). Fruit: Taken orally as carminative (Sikkim: [85]). Used to make chutney (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [11]). Dried fruits used in nausea and giddiness (Darjeeling: [80]).
378 Litsea glutinosa Lour. Tree Lauraceae Kawala, Suppatnyok (Np)   Leaves and bark: Decoction taken to treat dysentery (Sikkim: [79]).
379 Litsea monopetala (Roxb.) Pers. Tree Lauraceae Ratmanti, Sunyokkung (Np)   Bark: Decoction taken to treat diarrhea (Sikkim: [85]).
380 Machilus edulis King. Tree Lauraceae Pumpsi, Lapche Kaulo, Lapchephal (Np)   Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]; Ilam: [94]; Sikkim: [47, 89]). Leaves: Used as fodder (Sikkim: [89]).
381 Machilus sp. Tree Lauraceae    Bark: Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).
382 Persea odoratissima (Nees) Kostermans Tree Lauraceae Lalikaulo (Np) 1000-2000 Fruit: Edible (Sikkim: [89]). Leaves: Good fodder (Sikkim: [89]).
383 Careya arborea Roxb. Tree Lecythidaceae Khumbhi (S) 200-600 Bark: Grounded with cumin seeds and given to treat indigestion and flatulence (Jhapa: [66]).
384 Leea macrophylla Roxb. ex Hornem. Shrub Leeaceae Galeni, Galoni (Np) 1500-1700 Root: Used to cure snake bite (Panchthar: [67]). Seeds: Chewed to treat viral fever. Wrapped by cloths and tied around the neck of the children to cure stomach pain (Sikkim: [11]).
385 Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. Herb Liliaceae Ghiu kumari (Np) 1200-1400 Plant: Used for antihypergycemic effect (Sikkim: [96]). Purgative (Sikkim: Database) and used on burns and skin complaints (Jhapa: [66]; Panchthar: [67]; KL Nepal: [53]; Sikkim: Database, [79]). Leaves: Chewed to cure skin and uterine disorder and jaundice (Jhapa: [68]; Ilam: [73, 76]). Used as stomachic, tonic, purgative and anthelmintic. Juice put on head in high fever to reduce body temperature (Sikkim: [69]).
386 *Asparagus racemosus Willd. Herb Liliaceae Kurilo (Np); Kedar nari (S); Ngalalkom (Sh); Ngakhacho (Dz) 300-2200 Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Useful for diabetes, jaundice and urinary disorder (Sikkim: Database). Extract used in diabetes and tuberculosis (Darjeeling: [52]) and applied externally on bone fracture and joint dislocation (Darjeeling: [52]). Also used as diuretic, demulcent, aphrodisiac, refrigerant, tonic, expectorant, astringent, and appetizer (KL Nepal: [83]; Darjeeling: [52]; Panchthar: [67]). Powder taken to enhance lactation for mothers and also useful in anemia and diarrhoea (Ilam: [73, 76, 77]). Grounded with root of Musa paradisiaca and drunk to cure gonorrhea; decoction given in fever (Jhapa: [66]). Mixed with hay or grain to feed the cattle for fortnight to increase milk-yield (Sikkim: [84]). Paste administered orally in fever, cough and cold. Fruit: Eaten to treat pimples (Sikkim: [79]). Shoots: Cooked as vegetable (Taplejung: [82]; KL Nepal: [83]; Panchthar: [67]).
387 Disporum cantoniense (Lour.) Merr. Herb Liliaceae Mhajari (Np) 700-3000 Roots: Used to treat sprains (Panchthar: [67]).
388 Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don Herb Liliaceae Snake's head fritillary (Eg); Ban lasun, Kakolee (Np) 3000-4600 Bulb: Boiled and eaten (KL Nepal: [83]). Used in tuberculosis (Sikkim: [75]) and to treat asthma (KL Nepal: [83]; Sikkim: [75]), bronchitis, and bleeding during cough (Sikkim: [75]).
389 Fritillaria delavayi Franch. Herb Liliaceae Tsika (Dz)   Bulb: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
390 Gloriosa superba L. Herb Liliaceae Langarey Tarul (Np) 400-2200 Roots and flowers: Useful in chronic ulcers, leprosy, piles, and abdominal pains (Sikkim: Database).
391 Lilium nepalense D. Don Herb Liliaceae Ban Lasun (Np) 2300-3400 Plant: Powder used to flavouring dishes; juice taken as tonic (Ilam: [73]). Bulb: Used to treat scabies and boils (Panchthar: [67]).
392 Paris polyphylla Smith Herb Liliaceae Love Apple (Eg); Satuwa (Gr); Tangma (Km); Satuwa, Tintale Banko (Np); Haimavati (Sn); Natar Dhap (Tm) 1800-3500 Roots: Used as antidotes (Sikkim: [75]) and in stomachache (Taplejung: [81, 82]) and fever (Taplejung: [81, 82]; Sikkim: [75]). Powder applied to heal wound (Darjeeling: [49]; Taplejung: [81]; KL Nepal: [83]). Infusion taken as tonic and also used in diarrhea, dysentery (KL Nepal: [83]; Ilam: [73]) and fever (Darjeeling: [78]). Infusion taken to treat respiratory disorders and worms (Ilam: [76]).
393 Polygonatum hookeri Baker Herb Liliaceae Ranye (Km), Pangi Ranye (Tb) 2900-5000 Roots: Eaten raw (Taplejung: [87]).
394 Smilax bracteata C. Presl subsp. verruculosa (Merrill) T. Koyama Climber Liliaceae Kukurdine (Np) 1900 Stem: Used for brushing teeth to cure pyorrhoea and gingivitis (Darjeeling: [52]).
395 Smilax ovalifolia Roxb. ex. D. Don Climber Liliaceae Kukurdaino (Np) 200-1000 Roots and fruit: Juice used to cure veneral diseases, rheumatism, and wounds (Ilam: [73, 76]). Leaves and shoots: Used as curry (Ilam: [94]).
396 Buddleja asiatica Lour. Shrub Loganiaceae Bhinsenpatee (Np); Pndam (L) 350-2000 Stem, leaves and flowers: Used in skin complaints and as abortificant (Sikkim: [75], Database).
397 Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f.) Etting. Herb Loranthaceae Mandargon banda (S); Aijeru (Np) 150-900 Leaves: Paste applied externally to treat skin diseases (Jhapa: [66]).
398 Scurrula elata (Edgew.) Danser Shrub Loranthaceae   1600-2700 Leaves: Used for making tea leaf for local suja (Bhutan: [99]). Bark: Paste applied on bone fracture (KL Nepal: [53]).
399 Viscum articulatum Burm.f. Shrub Loranthaceae Hadchur (Np); Hadjor, Kathkomjunga (S) 200-1700 Plant: Used to treat bone fracture (Jhapa: [66]; Panchthar: [67]); also given in ulcers, epilepsy, muscular pains (Sikkim: Database), injuries, and fracture (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [11, 79], Database). Stem: Used in body pain, fracture, and fever (Ilam: [76]; Sikkim: [75]). Paste used in sprain and rheumatism (Jhapa: [66]).
400 Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz Shrub Lythraceae Dhairo (Np); Icha (S) 200-1800 Bark: Used for gastric trouble. Bark and flowers: Used in burns, dysentery, and fracture (KL Nepal: [53]; Panchthar: [67]). Flower: Dried and taken in piles, liver complaints. Honey like secretion consumed (Ilam: [94]). Leaves: Given to cattle to cure ulcer (Sikkim: [97]). Decoction taken in malarian fever (Jhapa: [66]).
401 Michelia champaca L. Tree Magnoliaceae Chanpak (Eg); Oulichamp (Np)   Flowers: Taken for stomachache (Ilam: [76]; Sikkim: [85]) and as carminative in the treatment of dyspepsia (Sikkim: [85]). Flowers and fruit: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).
402 Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Shrub Malvaceae Jawa Kusum (Np) 900-1400 Flowers: Young flowers given against tonsillitis. Leaves and flowers: Juice used to cure dandruff and hair problems (Darjeeling: [52]).
403 Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Herb Malvaceae Bel Chandan (Np); Maharetha (Me) 1000-1500 Leaves: Paste with leaves of Lawsonia inermis applied on the foot to cure wound caused by muddy water during rainy season (Jhapa: [68]).
404 Malva verticillata L. Shrub Malvaceae Halemetok (Dz)   Flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
405 Sida acuta Burm. f. Shrub Malvaceae Khareto (Np) 250-3700 Stem: Paste applied on bone fracture (Darjeeling: [74]).
406 Sida cordifolia L. Shrub Malvaceae Bamonmara (Np) 500-1100 Roots: Half cup root juice and half-tablespoon sugar candy mixed together is given once daily till cured (Darjeeling: [105]).
407 Sterculia villosa Roxb. Tree Malvaceae Odal (Np)   Bark: Used to make ropes (KL Bhutan: [100]).
408 Urena lobata L. Herb Malvaceae Samthai (Me) 200-1300 Leaves: Paste with aerial part of Drymaria cordata applied to cure skin infection and eczema (Jhapa: [68]).
409 Melastoma malabathricum L. Shrub Melastomataceae Augeri, Chulesi (S & Np) 200 Leaves: Used in fever; decoction given to cattle (Sikkim: [97]). Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]). Stem and roots: Bark paste applied on wounds and skin disease (Darjeeling: [74]).
410 Osbeckia nepalensis Hook. Herb Melastomataceae Angeri, Lattey (Np) 450-2300 Roots: Decoction given in urinary complaints and diabetes. Leaves: Extract of young leaves or tender shoots applied on forehead and to treat pneumonia, fever and common cold (Darjeeling: [74]). Leaves and flowers: Paste used in foot sores of cattle (Darjeeling: [49]).
411 *Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Tree Meliaceae Meemee (S); Neem (Np); Nimbilai (Me) 60-1200 Plant: Used as an antiseptic and febrifuge. Useful in treatment of small pox, and as tooth brush, prophylactic for mouth and teeth (Sikkim: Database). Leaves: Cooked with rice and eaten during the name giving ceremony of newly born child. Boiled in water and bath taken with warm water to cure scabies and eczema. Dried leaf power taken as blood purifier (Jhapa: [92]). Juice taken for blood purification and intestinal worms, also applied externally on wounds, sores, blisters, ans skin diseases (Jhapa: [66]). Fresh/dried leaves chewed to control diabetes (Sikkim: [79, 96]). Bark powder used as insecticide (Sikkim: [79]).
412 Dysoxylum hamiltonii Blume. Tree Meliaceae Sipochikang (Np)   Bark: Decoction taken orally to treat stomachache (Sikkim: [85]).
413 Melia azedarach L. Tree Meliaceae Bakaina (Np); Bokom Bana (S) 700-1100 Roots: Used as astringent, and in biliousness, heart pain, vomiting, and leucoderma. Leaves: Juice taken orally as anthelmintic (Sikkim: [85]). Bark: Used as anthelmintic (Jhapa: [66]). Fruit: Used in leprosy (Jhapa: [66]).
414 Toona ciliata M. Roem. Tree Meliaceae Tooni (Np); Toon (S) 200-1700 Bark: Pounded and given to cure toothache (Jhapa: [66]; Sikkim: [79]). Flowers and fruit: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]). Fruit: Used for chestpain, fever and measles (Sikkim: [79]).
415 Trichilia connaroides (Wight & Arn.) Bentv. Tree Meliaceae Aankha Taruwa (Np) 700-2400 Leaves: Decoction taken to treat cholera (Sikkim: [85]). Leaves and fruit: Useful to treat cholera (Panchthar: [67]).
416 Cissampelos pareira L. Climber Menispermaceae Batulpate (Np); Tejomala (S) 500-1000 Plant: Extract given to treat diarrhea (Jhapa: [66]; Sikkim: [11]), dysentery, urinary disorders, and indigestion (Jhapa: [66]). Roots: Used as antidote; paste taken orally in stomach pain, malarian fever, and cold (Jhapa: [66]). Decoction consumed in empty stomach to cure diabetes (Darjeeling: [74]). Extract given to treat blood in urine (Sikkim: [84]). Leaves: Paste applied on wound and juice taken to cure stomach pain (Sikkim: [11]). Roots and leaves: Useful in cough, gastric troubles, and sore throat (Panchthar: [67]).
417 Stephania glabra (Roxb.) Miers Climber Menispermaceae Tamarke (Np) 1000-2500 Tubers: Powder used in diabetes, tuberculosis, asthma, and fever (Darjeeling: [49, 78]). Oil used externally in the treatment of leucoderma, leprosy and other skin complaints (Darjeeling: [49]). Stem: Bark used to extract fibres (Darjeeling: [49]). Plant: Useful in jaundice (Darjeeling: [105]).
418 Stephania glandulifera Miers Climber Menispermaceae Tamarkay (Np)   Tubers: Eaten in jaundice (Sikkim: [75]).
419 Stephania japonica(Thunb.) Miers Climber Menispermaceae    Root: Dipped in water and sprinkled in poultry farm to prevent from birld flu. Leaves: Paste applied on boils for opening (Sikkim: [11]).
420 *Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merr. Climber Menispermaceae Garjo, Gurjo (Np); Sarasatilata (S)   Roots: Useful in diabetic. Extract used in menstruation disorders and piles (KL Nepal: [53]). Stem and roots: Infusion given in fever (Darjeeling: [69, 78]). Used to make broom (KL Bhutan: [100]). Leaves: Warmed and wrapped around the fractured and painful joints (Jhapa: [66]). Fruit: Boiled in milk and drunk to get rid from tuberculosis (Darjeeling: [74]). Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
421 Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Tree Moraceae Rukh Kathar (Li) 1000 Latex: Applied on the boils and on the fractured bone (Sikkim: [79]).
422 Artocarpus lakoocha Wall. ex Roxb Tree Moraceae Badahar, Barar (Li) 100-1000 Latex: Applied on boils and on fractured bone (Sikkim: [79]). Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Raw fruits used as vegetable and ripen fruits eaten raw (Ilam: [94]).
423 Ficus auriculata Lour. Tree Moraceae Nimaro, Nibaro (Np) 250-1700 Roots and fruit: Chewed in constipation and warts (Ilam: [73]). Fruit: Consumed (Ilam: [94]).
424 Ficus benghalensis L. Herb Moraceae Banidare (S); Bar (Np) 500-1200 Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]). Also given in fever (Jhapa: [66]).
425 Ficus elastica Roxb. ex Hornem. Tree Moraceae Brongshig (Sh)   Exude used as gum (KL Bhutan: [70]).
426 Ficus hirta Vahl Tree Moraceae   900 Root: Decoction used to treat food poisoning (Sikkim: [11]).
427 Ficus hispida L.f. Tree Moraceae Setapodo (S); Khasreto (Np) 450-1100 Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).
428 Ficus racemosa L. Tree Moraceae Loa (S); Gular Dumri (Np) 300m Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]). Also taken to enhance lactation (Jhapa: [66]). Latex: Applied on boils and blisters (Jhapa: [66]).
429 Ficus religiosa L. Tree Moraceae Peepal (Np) 150-1500 Latex: Applied on the boils on the tongue (Ilam: [73]).
430 Ficus semicordata Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. Tree Moraceae Khasrey, Khaneu, Khaniu (Np) 200-2700 Bark and latex: Applied on boils to check infection (Sikkim: [11], Database). Latex: Applied on fresh cut (Panchthar: [67]). Fruit: Edible (Ilam: [94]; Jhapa: [92]).
431 Ficus subincisa Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. Herb Moraceae Lute Khaneu (Np) 400-2400 Latex: Freshly collected and applied externally on boils (Darjeeling: [52]).
432 Ficus virens Dryand. Tree Moraceae Kabra (Np) 500 Leaf buds: Young unopened leaf buds boiled and used as pickle (Ilam: [94]).
433 Morus alba L. Tree Moraceae    Leaves, stem and roots: Contains active phytochemical to lower blood glucose level (Sikkim: [96]). Leaves: Tender leaves chewed in curing inflammation of vocal cord and hoarse voice (Sikkim: [11]). Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]; Sikkim: [95]). Used to make jam, jellies and drinks (Ilam: [94]).
434 Morus australis Poir. Shrub Moraceae Kodaz (S); Kimu (Np) 900-2400 Bark and leaves: Decoction used to cure sore throat (Sikkim: [11]). Fruits: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]; Jhapa: [92]; Sikkim: [11]). Seeds: Extract applied to treat foot cracks (Sikkim: [11]).
435 Morus macroura Miq. Tree Moraceae Kimbu (Np); Tshendey (Dz); Sengdengshing (Sh)   Stem: Extract from heartwood used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70])
436 Streblus asper Lour. Tree Moraceae Khaksi (Np); Sada (S) 100-500 Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [68]). Latex: Used to stop bleeding from freshly cut wound (Jhapa: [66]).
437 Moringa oleifera Lam. Tree Moringaceae Munga (S); Sajiwang, Sajana (Np); Sajanamakharia (Me) 150-1100 Leaves, flowers and fruit: Used as vegetable Ilam: [94]; Jhapa: [92]). Cooked vegetable taken to control blood pressure (Jhapa: [68]). Bark: Paste mixed with black goat's milk and taken to cure tuberculosis (Jhapa: [66]). Stem: Paste used by women for long hairs (Jhapa: [66]).
438 Musa balbisiana Colla Herb Musaceae Bankera (Np) 200-600 Fruit: Green fruits used as vegetable after boiling and spath for pickle (Ilam: [94]).
439 Musa paradisiaca L. Herb Musaceae Kera (Np)   Root bark: Pounded together with stem bark of Mango, Jack fruit, Ziziphus mauritiana, Shorea robusta and Azadirachta indica and taken to cure diarrhea and dysentery (Jhapa: [66]). Sap: Taken to cure fever (Sikkim: [11]).
440 Musa sp. Herb Musaceae Bankera (Np)   Leaves: Used in house construction, roofing, and for making temporary sheds, also used as fodder. Flowers and fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70, 100]).
441 Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don Tree Myricaceae Box Myrtle (Eg); Kaphal (Np, Gr); Katphala (Sn); Lalisa (Lm); Chakchansi, Jheremsi (Ri) 1200-2300 Bark: Powder mixed with tobacco and snuffed to treat sinusitis (Panchthar: [67]); mixture also given to livestock to cure worm infestation (Taplejung: [87, 88]). Paste applied to fix fractured bone and cure internal injuries (Taplejung: [87, 88]). Paste applied on the chest to get relief from cough and bronchitis (Ilam: [76]; Sikkim: Database). Fruit: Ripen fruits consumed (Ilam: [73, 94]).
442 Myrica nagi Thunb. Tree Myricaceae Tsutsusey (Sh)   Fruit:Used as spices (KL Bhutan: [70]).
443 Horsfieldia kingii (J. D. Hooker) Warburg Tree Myristicaceae Ramgua (Np) 300-1200 Fruit: Used to make pickle (Ilam: [94]).
444 Knema angustifolia Roxb. Tree Myristicaceae Ramguwa (Np)   Fruit: Powder taken orally to treat diarrhea (Sikkim: [85]).
445 Ardisia macrocarpa Wall. Tree Myrsinaceae   1500-2400 Fruit: Edible (Sikkim: [47]).
446 Ardisia solanacea Roxb. Tree Myrsinaceae Gulaich (S) 200-1100 Bark: Macerated with flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and taken to purify the blood and also to arrest bleeding (Jhapa: [66]).
447 Embelia ribes Burm.f. Shrub Myrsinaceae Buibidans (Np)   Seeds: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Powdered with milk and given to dog for anthelmintic efficacies (Sikkim: [84]). Fruit: Crushed and given to pigs to kill tapeworm; also used as appetizer for cattle (Sikkim: [84]).
448 Maesa chisia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don Shrub Myrsinaceae Bilaune (Np); Purmu Kung (L)   Roots and leaves: Used as insecticide and anthelmintic (Sikkim: [75]).
449 Eugenia kurzii Duthie Tree Myrtaceae Ambakay (Np) 500 Fruit: Pulps consumed (Ilam: [94]).
450 Eugenia sp. Tree Myrtaceae Mantsisey (Sh); Nasi or Nyasey (Dz)   Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).
451 Psidium guajava L. Tree Myrtaceae Amba (Np); Aprisam (S) 450-1200 Bark: Pounded with bark of mango and given to cure piles (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Tender shoots chewed during cough and sore throat (Sikkim: [79]). Fruit and bark: Semi ripe fruits and bark eaten to cure diarrhoea (Darjeeling: [86]).
452 Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Tree Myrtaceae Sokod (S); Jamun (Np); Jamun (Me), Bjee (Sz), Dangbelingsae (Sh), Ngasi (Dz) 300-1200 Bark: Juice drunk in dysentery (Jhapa: [66, 68]) and diarrhea (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Extraction massaged on forehead of children for cooling and given orally to increase appetite (Jhapa: [66]). Fruits: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
453 Euryale ferox Saliab. Herb Nymphaeaceae Poraini (S); Maknana (Np) 3000-4000 Seeds: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).
454 Fraxinus floribunda Wall. Tree Oleaceae Lankuri (Np); Payjew (L)   Bark: Boiled and applied on gout (Sikkim: Database). Applied on bone fracture (Sikkim: [75]).
455 Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. Shrub Oleaceae Parijat (Np); Badibaha, Jhanti (S) 200-1200 Bark: Paste used for dislocated bones. Leaves: Boiled and decanted water taken to control malaria fever. Flowers: Offered to god and goddesses (Sikkim: Database). Leaves and flowers: Pounded with warm water and given to woman to ease expulsion of placenta (Jhapa: [66]).
456 Epilobium angustifolium L. Herb Onagraceae Rosebay (Eg); Bahankot (Km); Seja (Sh, Wl); Char Pan, Chu Tsi (Tb) 3300-4000 Leaves: Dried and used as tea; given as fodder (Taplejung: [81, 88]).
457 Bulbophyllum affine Lindl. Herb Orchidaceae    Plant: Ornamental value (Bhutan: [99]). Flowers: Edible (Bhutan: [99]).
458 Calanthe plantaginea Lindley Herb Orchidaceae Wangpeimo (Bhu) 1800-2500 Plant: Cooked and eaten as vegetable (Bhutan: [102]).
459 Coelogyne cristata Lindl. Herb Orchidaceae Chaandi gaava (Np) 1000-2000 Bulbs: Paste used in sores and boils (Ilam: [76]).
460 Coelogyne occultata Hook.f. Herb Orchidaceae Churchurbu (Sh)   Bulb/stem: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
461 Cymbidium longifolium D. Don Herb Orchidaceae   2100-2500 Plant: Used as ornamental (Bhutan: [99]).
462 *Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don) Soo Herb Orchidaceae Wangpo Lagpa (Km, Sh, Wl); Nahasihukchok (Li); Panch Aunle (Np); Hathejara (Np-Dl); Munjataka (Sn); Lovha (Sh); Wang Lag, Wangpo Lagpa (Tb) 2800-4200 Tubers: Used as tonic and given in dysentery (Sikkim: Database) and chronic fever (Darjeeling: [78]; Sikkim: Database). Decoction used to treat fever, diabetes (Ilam: [73, 76]) and diarrhoea (Ilam: [73, 76]; Sikkim: Database). Paste applied on cuts and bruises; extract taken orally to cure body ache (Darjeeling: [52, 80]). Paste taken in gastric complaints, jaundice, body ache, bone fracture, and in the formation of bone marrow (Darjeeling: [49]). Young leaves and shoots: Eaten as vegetable (KL Nepal: [83]). Roots: Used as nervine tonic and aphrodisiac (Sikkim: [69]).
463 Dendrobium aphyllum (Roxb.) C.E.C.Fisch. Herb Orchidaceae    Stem: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
464 Eulophia dabia (D. Don) Hochr. Herb Orchidaceae Hattipaila (Np)   Tubers: Juice taken orally as appetizer (Sikkim: [85]).
465 Gymnadenia crassinervis Finet Herb Orchidaceae Wanglak (B)   Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
466 Ponerorchis chusua (D. Don) Soo Herb Orchidaceae Ongri (Sh); Wangla, Marpo, Wanglag Mempa (Tb) 2400-4900 Tubers: Rosted and eaten (Taplejung: [87]).
467 Pedicularis anas Maxim. Herb Orobanchaceae    Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
468 Pedicularis decorissima Diels Herb Orobanchaceae    Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
469 Pedicularis longiflora Rudolph Herb Orobanchaceae    Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
470 Pedicularis oederi Vahl Herb Orobanchaceae    Plant used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
471 Oxalis corniculata L. Herb Oxalidaceae Chari Amilo (Np); Tandi, chatumarak, Kedumarajan (S) 300-2900 Plant: Juice used to treat indigestion, diarrhoea, piles, anemia, and eye problems (Ilam: [73, 76]). Chewed raw as appetizer and also checks boils (Sikkim: [11]). Pounded with cumin seeds and taken to cure dysentery and diarrhea. Paste applied on forehead to treat headache. Paste mixed with rhizome of Drymaria quercifolia and applied on bone fracture (Jhapa: [66]). Roots: Used in infamation (Sikkim: [75]). Leaves: Juice taken to cure dysentery (Sikkim: [11], Database) and fever, anemia, and for digestion (Sikkim: Database). Fruit: Consumed to cure throat pain (Sikkim: [11]). Leaves: Used as vegetable (Ilam: [94]; Jhapa: [92]).
472 Pandanus nepalensis St. John Shrub Pandanaceae    Leaves: Young leaves chewed as breath sweetener. Fresh leaves acts as cockroach repellant. Used to make mats, carry bags, fishing bags and thatching purpose (Ilam: [94]). Fruit: Used to make pickle (Ilam: [94]).
473 Argemone mexicana L. Herb Papaveraceae Thakal (Np); Dhamoi (S) 150-1400 Leaves: Juice applied on cut, wounds, blisters, and burns (Jhapa: [66]). Latex: Used in opthalmic infections (Jhapa: [66]). Roots and leaves: Paste or juice used in skin disease, constipation, cough and fever (Ilam: [76]).
474 Corydalis chaerophylla DC. Herb Papaveraceae    Fruits: Taken in stomachache (Sikkim: [75]).
475 Corydalis crispa Prain Herb Papaveraceae    Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
476 Corydalis dubia Prain Herb Papaveraceae    Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
477 Dicentra scandens (D. Don) Walp. Climber Papaveraceae   2200-3000 Roots: Crushed and used to stop excessive bleeding in females (Sikkim: [11]).
478 Hypecoum erectum L. Herb Papaveraceae    Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
479 Hypecoum leptocarpum Hook. f. & Thomson Herb Papaveraceae    Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
480 Meconopsis grandis Prain Herb Papaveraceae Upal Ngongpo (Sh, Tb); Upa Gnono (Wl) 3000-5200 Plant: Used as fodder for goat (Taplejung: [81, 87]). Seeds: Edible (Taplejung: [81, 87]).
481 Meconopsis horridula Hook. f. & Thomson Herb Papaveraceae    Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
482 Meconopsis paniculata Prain Herb Papaveraceae Kheldar, Langur (Np-Dl); Upa Sepu (Wl) 3000-4400 Young twigs: Used as fodder for goat; young stems eaten raw (Taplejung: [81, 87]).
483 Meconopsis simplicifolia (D. Don) Walp. Herb Papaveraceae Upal Mentook (Bhu) 3300-4500 Rhizomes: Powder or decoction used as tonic in renal complaints (Darjeeling: [49]). Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).
484 Passiflora foetida L. Climber Passifloraceae Sano Jhar (Np) 100-1200 Leaves: Infusion consumed to cure insomnia, hysteria, epilepsy and as painkiller (Darjeeling: [74]).
485 Passiflora nepalensis Wall. Climber Passifloraceae Garendal (Np)   Roots: Decoction taken in fever (Darjeeling: [78]).
486 Sesamum orientale L. Shrub Pedaliaceae Siwing (Me) 600-2400 Seeds: Chewed and applied on skin for sunburns and ringworm (Jhapa: [68]).
487 Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels Tree Phyllanthaceae Atummeral (S); Amala (Np)   Bark: Infusion taken to cure stomatitis and aphthous (Jhapa: [66]).
488 *Phyllanthus emblica L. Tree Phyllanthaceae Amala (Np); Meral (S); Chhorgengsoi (Sh) 150-1400 Fruit and leaves: Juice taken to cure jaundice, dyspepsia, cough, and asthma (Panchthar: [67]; Ilam: [73, 76]). Fruit: Edible and also used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]). Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Good for burning sensation of heat and urinary discharge, liver complaint, and eye trouble (Sikkim: Database). Edible (Jhapa: [92]; Sikkim: [11]) and eaten raw to treat cough, dysentery and diarrhea (Sikkim: [11]). Used as tonic (Jhapa: [66]). Used to make pickle (Ilam: [94]). Flowers and fruit: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).
489 Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir. Shrub Phyllanthaceae Smeldam (S) 400-770 Leaves: Paste applied on burns and boils (Jhapa: [66]).
490 Phyllanthus urinaria L. Herb Phyllanthaceae Kanthad (S) 770-1700 Leaves: Paste applied in wounds and sores (Jhapa: [66]).
491 Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. Herb Phytolaccaceae Jaringe Sag, Jarko Sag (Np); Zalmathangru (Sh) 2200-3200 Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Decoction used in jaundice (Taplejung: [88]). Juice dropped in the nose to cure sinusitis (Sikkim: [79]). Leaves: Effective in high blood pressure (Darjeeling: [74]; Sikkim: [75]). Fresh juice applied on cuts and wounds to stop bleeding and infection (Sikkim: Database). Decoction taken to cure body ache and diarrhea (Sikkim: [11]). Seeds and leaves: Used in indigestion and eye problems (Ilam: [73, 76]).
492 *Piper longum L. Climber Piperaceae Chhimpri-gupai (Me) 200-800 Roots: Used as anthelminthic, improves appetite, and abdominal pain (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [89]). Paste given to treat pneumonia in adults (Jhapa: [68]). Powder given to treat cold (Sikkim: [11]). Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Taken to cure diarrhea, dysentery, piles, and leprosy (Darjeeling: [80]). Dried unripe