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Table 1 Plant used by healers for medicinal purposes

From: The symbolic efficacy of medicinal plants: practices, knowledge, and religious beliefs amongst the Nalu healers of Guinea-Bissau

Family Genus and species Nalu name Vouchera Healerb Ailment Part of plant used Preparation Application
Acanthaceae Asystasia gangetica (L.) T.Anderson   Moreira 85 UC open wounds bark scrape poultice
  Anacardium occidentale L. ialikê Moreira 213 TC/DC lower back pain leaves none topical
  Mangifera indica L. n’mango Moreira 32 TC/DC scabies leaves macerate topical
  Sorindeia juglandifolia (A.Rich.) Planch. ex Oliv. n’txaluas Moreira 154 FB children’s disease leaves macerate drink
  Spondias mombin L. n’fal Moreira 24 TC/DC eye pains leaves macerate wash
Anisophylleaceae Anisophyllea laurina R.Br. ex Sabine n’sunt Moreira 57 TC/DC eye pain leaves moisten topical
Annonaceae Annona glabra L. n’bonhé Moreira 38 FB stomach ache root infusion or macerate drink
  Annona muricata L. n’sóp sóp Moreira 73 DC stomach ache leaves boil drink
  Uvaria chamae P.Beauv. n’pinden Moreira 155 UC haemorrhoids root boil drink
     AS open wound leaves triturate topical
  Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich. n’sél Moreira 168 FB stomach ache fruit boil drink
Apocynaceae Alstonia congensis Engl. ianke Moreira 27 TC/DC fatigue bark macerate drink
      swelling latex none topical
  Cf. Strophanthus hispidus DC. n’fam Moreira 78 UC haemorrhoids root peel swallow
      intestinal parasites root peel swallow
  Holarrhena floribunda (G.Don) T.Durand & Schinz metxel Moreira 86 UC stomach ache
venereal disease
bark
latex
boil
scrape
drink
swallow
  Landolphia dulcis (Sabine ex G.Don) Pichon urém Moreira 176 FB pregnancy leaves macerate drink
  Landolphia heudelotii A.DC. m’bolé Moreira 158 AS diarrhoea leaves boil drink
      swelling leaves boil drink
     FB swollen limbs leaves boil drink
     UC itching leaves boil wash
  Rauvolfia vomitoria Afzel. n’ti kambirás Moreira 14 TC/DC impotence stem boil drink
      stomach ache root boil drink
  Saba senegalensis (A.DC.) Pichon n’badak Moreira 64 TC/DC fever leaves infusion wash
  Tabernaemontana africana Hook. n’lat laté Moreira 15 TC/DC venereal disease stem macerate drink
Araceae Anchomanes difformis (Blume) Engl. n’denkamdudu Moreira 286 AS infertility rhizome boil drink
  Cercestis afzelii Schott mandonha Moreira 92 UC impotence leaves boil drink
Cannabaceae Trema orientalis (L.) Blume n’robta kabafar Moreira 114 AS cough bark none swallow
Capparaceae Capparis erythrocarpos Isert néeu Moreira 89, 120 AS headache root triturate topical
     UC headache root scrape topical
  Maerua duchesnei (De Wild.) F.White maéf Moreira 90, 314 AS
UC
lower back pain
sprains
leaves
leaves
triturate
triturate
poultice
poultice
Caricaceae Carica papaya L. n’pápa Moreira 22 TC/DC risk of miscarriage root boil drink
Celastraceae Salacia senegalensis (Lam.) DC. mankidés Moreira 6 TC/DC tooth decay root triturate topical
Chrysobalanaceae Parinari excelsa Sabine n’lut Moreira 145, 196 FB stomach ache bark boil drink
     TC/DC cough bark macerate swallow
      open wound bark triturate topical
Combretaceae Combretum micranthum G.Don n’babass Moreira 81, 200 TC/DC scabies root triturate topical
      diabetes leaves boil drink
     UC scabies root scrape topical
      fever leaves boil drink
  Guiera senegalensis J.F.Gmel. manáf náfen Moreira 173 AS open wound leaves triturate poultice
  Terminalia macroptera Guill. & Perr. n’kone Moreira 126 AS chest pain leaves boil drink and wash
Compositae Aedesia glabra (Klatt) O.Hoffm. n’tonpin-na Moreira 262 AS stomach and body aches root boil drink
  Gymnanthemum coloratum (Willd.) H.Rob. & B.Kahn n’konkone Moreira 95 UC scabies leaves macerate wash
Connaraceae Agelaea pentagyna (Lam.) Baill.   Moreira 190 HBC scabies leaves none ointment
  Cnestis ferruginea Vahl ex DC. n’xéte nembel Moreira 16 TC/DC headache leaves macerate wash
Costaceae Costus afer Ker Gawl. mabôbé Moreira 93, 122 UC eye pain stem warm and squeeze topical
     AS eye pain stem warm and squeeze topical
Crassulaceae Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haw. n’txatxatxé Moreira 242 HBC newborn baby’s navel leaves moisten and squeeze topical
Cyperaceae Cyperus articulatus L. n’téd Moreira 121 AS newborn with a cough and stomach ache root triturate and macerate drink
  Scleria racemosa Poir. n’txapen ka basop Moreira 94 UC pregnancy leaves boil drink
Ebenaceae Diospyros heudelotii Hiern n’txambortá Moreira 76 DC swollen limbs leaves macerate drink and wash
Euphorbiaceae Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Müll.Arg. n’sum-na Moreira 4, 129 AS chest ache stem peel wash
      intestinal
parasites
root boil drink
      risk of miscarriage root boil drink
     TC/DC stomach ache leaves macerate drink
  Manihot esculenta Crantz n’mandiok Moreira 23 TC/DC eye complaints leaves macerate wash
Hypericaceae Psorospermum glaberrimum Hochr.   Moreira 124 AS body aches leaves boil drink
Icacinaceae Icacina oliviformis (Poiret) J.Raynal n’putmé Moreira 162 FB children’s disease leaves boil drink
Lamiaceae Clerodendrum splendens G.Don manar balé Moreira 48 TC/DC snake bite root macerate swallow
      contraception bark and stem none drink
  Premna hispida Benth. n’lum bafai Moreira 68, HBC pregnancy leaves boil drink
    110, 170 DC haemorrhoids leaves macerate drink
     FB haemorrhoids leaves boil or macerate drink
  Vitex madiensis Oliv. n’sokór Moreira 177 FB pregnancy leaves macerate drink
Leguminosae Albizia zygia (DC.) J.F.Macbr. masanp n’buk Moreira 172 FB palpitations leaves triturate swallow
  Bauhinia thonningii Schum. n’bukui Moreira 30, 105 TC/DC diarrhoea leaves triturate and macerate drink
      haemorrhoids bark boil drink
     UC haemorrhoids bark boil drink
  Caesalpinia benthamiana (Baill.) Herend. & Zarucchi n’pinkid sé Moreira 51, 119 AS eye complaints leaves macerate topical
     TC/DC open wound root and leaves triturate topical
  Cassia sieberiana DC. n’sansan Moreira 33 AS body aches root macerate drink
     TC/DC body aches root macerate drink
      impotence root macerate drink
  Cf. Abrus precatorius L.   Moreira 83 UC impotence leaves none swallow
  Desmodium velutinum (Willd.) DC. rap rap Moreira 21 TC/DC cholera leaves and root macerate drink
  Detarium microcarpum Guill. & Perr. m’béta Moreira 63 TC/DC uncertain bark macerate wash
  Dialium guineense Willd. n’bim Moreira 52 TC/DC measles leaves boil drink
  Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn. n’pinkid úne Moreira 46, 96 TC/DC headache
rheumatism
bark
bark
peel
peel
topical
topical
     UC bone pains bark peel topical
  Erythrina senegalensis DC. n’txákarfatch Moreira 47, FB sore throat bark boil drink
    175   palpitations root peel and macerate drink
     TC/DC pregnancy bark peel and boil drink
  Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G.Don n’iú Moreira 164 FB treponematoses
rheumatism
leaves
leaves
triturate
triturate
poultice
poultice
     TC/DC stomach ache bark boil drink
  Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. n’sia Moreira 9 TC/DC cough, chest ache bark boil drink
  Samanea dinklagei (Harms) Keay masamp Moreira 152 DC lower back pain root boil drink and wash
Loganiaceae Usteria guineensis Willd. n’átá uóké Moreira 293 AS lower back pain leaves triturate poultice
Malvaceae Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. n’kauuê Moreira 59 TC/DC open wound bark triturate topical
  Cola nitida (Vent.) Schott. & Endl. n’kola Moreira 72 DC venereal disease leaves burn and boil topical and wash
  Hibiscus sterculiifolius (Guill. & Perr.) Steud. n’fakaf Moreira 75 DC influenza
lice
leaves
leaves
macerate
macerate
drink
wash
  Sida acuta Burm.f. n’téksen Moreira 10 TC/DC lice leaves macerate wash
Menispermaceae Cissampelos mucronata A.Rich. n’néo fáfak Moreira 40 TC/DC stomach ache root macerate drink
  Triclisia patens Oliv. manar kambantxô Moreira 132 HBC expectant mother’s lack of milk leaves macerate drink
Moraceae Ficus exasperata Vahl n’txéf Moreira 197 TC/DC impotence leaves macerate drink
  Ficus aff. umbellata Vahl n’fór Moreira 84 TC/DC toothache stem scrape topical
     UC lower back pain leaves triturate topical
  Ficus sur Forssk. n’tonkindjá Moreira 128, 131 AS lower back ache root triturate and boil poultice
     FB failure to menstruate root macerate drink
     TC/DC stomach ache bark macerate drink
Myrtaceae Psidium guajava L. goiaba Moreira 66 TC/DC dysentery leaves boil drink
Passifloraceae Smeathmannia pubescens Sol. ex R.Br. n’baptame Moreira 337 AS stomach ache
venereal disease
root
root
boil
boil
drink
drink
Phyllanthaceae Bridelia micrantha (Hochst.) Baill. n’tak Moreira 171, 261 AS stomach ache root boil drink
     FB haemorrhoids leaves triturate and macerate drink
  Hymenocardia acida Tul. matik sé Moreira 166 FB treponematoses leaves paste poultice
      rheumatism leaves paste poultice
     TC/DC temporary blindness leaves macerate wash
  Phyllanthus muellerianus (Kuntze) Exell mafér Moreira 148 FB pregnancy leaves boil drink
Plantaginaceae Scoparia dulcis L. n’txinké Moreira 109 UC eye pain leaves macerate topical
      children’s stomach ache leaves boil drink
Poaceae Oxytenanthera abyssinica (A.Rich.) Munro n’fon Moreira 87 UC abortion
post-natal problems
leaves leaves boil boil drink drink
Rubiaceae Aidia genipiflora (DC.) Dandy n’armass Moreira 335 AS impurity root foam wash
      pregnancy leaves macerate drink
  Canthium sp.   Moreira 165 FB treponematoses leaves paste poultice
      rheumatism leaves paste poultice
  Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel. ex G.Don) Benth.   Moreira 174 FB pregnancy leaves macerate drink
  Gardenia ternifolia subsp. jovis-tonantis (Welw.) Verdc. var. jovis tonantis n’dué Moreira 125 AS impurities root foam wash
  Morinda chrysorhiza (Thonn.) DC. n’tunké Moreira 118 AS
TC/DC
post-natal
post-natal
leaves
leaves
boil
boil
drink
wash
  Morinda morindoides (Baker) Milne-Redh. n’txéf kam nhalankôk Moreira 113 AS body aches leaves boil fumigate
  Pavetta corymbosa (DC.) F.N.Williams   Moreira 269 HBC open wound bark peel and triturate topical
  Psychotria peduncularis (Salisb.) Steyerm. n’tokoi Moreira 161 AS open wound leaves heat topical
     FB children’s disease leaves boil drink
  Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E.A.Bruce n’fol Moreira 82 AS intestinal parasites root scrape and macerate drink
     HBC constipation leaves boil drink
     TC/DC stomach ache root peel and macerate drink
     UC pregnancy leaves macerate drink
Rutaceae Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck n’sinim nelbéne Moreira 67 TC/DC scabies leaves boil wash
      venereal disease leaves and root boil drink
      chronic open wound fruit moisten topical
      haemorrhoids fruit boil drink
  Zanthoxylum leprieurii Guill. & Perr. mabár Moreira 104 UC risk of miscarriage root peel and macerate drink
Sapindaceae Allophylus africanus P.Beauv.   Moreira 160 HBC pregnancy leaves boil drink
     FB swollen limbs leaves macerate drink and wash
  Lecaniodiscus cupanioides (Planch.) ex Benth. n’sonran Moreira 80 UC cough root peel, triturate and macerate drink
      hoarseness root peel, triturate and macerate drink
  Paullinia pinnata L. n’fankok Moreira 76 HBC diarrhoea in children leaves macerate drink
     FB weakness in children leaves macerate drink and wash
     UC scabies leaves boil wash
Smilacaceae Smilax anceps Willd. n’pôrkam nunpun Moreira 298 AS body aches root boil drink
Thymelaeaceae Dicranolepis disticha Planch. n’saldendek Moreira 97 UC intestinal parasites root peel, triturate and macerate drink
Vitaceae Cissus rufescens Guill. & Perr.   Moreira 232 FB swollen limbs leaves and root peel and triturate topical
Zingiberaceae Aframomum alboviolaceum (Ridl.) K.Schum. mabôbé Moreira 115 AS stomach ache root boil drink
Unidentified   mabobese tchill Moreira 74 DC children’s disease root and leaves boil and paste drink and poultice
   méné Moreira 41 TC/DC swollen limbs leaves boil wash and fumigate
   n’pitió Moreira 28 TC/DC dental caries bark triturate topical
   n’timé Moreira 153 FB children’s disease leaves macerate drink
   olo Moreira 35 TC/DC pulmonary complaints leaves macerate drink
  1. a Voucher: plant specimens are deposited in LISC Herbarium (IICT -Tropical Research Institute, Lisbon)
  2. b Healer: AS Arafan Sane, DC Dgibi Camará, FB Fatu Bangorá, HBC Hajia Bintu Camará, TC Tcherno Camará, TC/DC Tcherno Camará and Dgibi Camará, UC Usumane Cassamá