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Table 5 Medicinal plants sold in 33 traditional markets at Loja province, Southern Ecuador

From: Medicinal plants sold at traditional markets in southern Ecuador

Family and scientific name Vernacular name Medica categorya Morphological structure used Therapeutic administration Geographic status Voucher number
Acanthaceae       
Dicliptera sp. Chinche maní, chinche manilla US Whole plant Oral Native FT1020
Justicia pectoralis Jacq. Saucillo, tigresillo CBS, DERS, GD, NS Branch Oral Native FT007
Amaranthaceae       
Aerva sanguinolenta (L.) Blume Escancel CBS, DS, DERS, GD, GS, NS, US Plant without root Oral, douching, topical application, poultice Introduced FTMAL008
Alternanthera porrigens (Jacq.) Kuntze Moradilla GS, GD Branch, flower Oral, bath Native FT0010
Amaranthus caudatus L. Ataco, sangorache CS, GS, RS Inflorescence Oral, bath Native FT0278
Amaranthus hybridus L. Ataco, sangorache CS, GD, GS, RS, US Inflorescence Oral Native FTMAL006
Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants Paico CBS, DS Branch Rubbing Introduced FT0282
Iresine diffusa Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. Escancel DERS, DS, GS, US, NS, RS Branch Topical application, oral, poultice, wash Native FT0280
Iresine herbstii Hook. Escancel CBS, DERS, DS, GD, GS NS, US, RS Branch Topical application, oral, poultice, wash Native FT0486
Anacardiaceae       
Schinus molle L. Molle MS Branch Cleaning wounds Introduced FT194SAR
Apiaceae       
Cyclospermum leptophyllum (Pers.) Sprague ex Britton & P. Wilson Culantrillo, cominillo DS Branch Oral Introduced FT1012
Eryngium sp. Pomas DERS, GD Flower Cleaning wounds, oral Native FT0283
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Hinojo DS Leaf Oral Introduced FT0025t
Niphogeton dissecta (Benth.) J.F. Macbr. Culantrillo DS Plant without root Oral Native FT0024t
Apocynaceae       
Marsdenia cundurango Rchb. f Condurango GD, DS Bark Oral Native FT0196
Aquifoliaceae       
Ilex guayusa Loes. Wayusa MS Leaf Oral Native FT0285
Asclepiadaceae       
Orthosia ellemanniae (Morillo) Liede & Meve Cola de caballo US, GD Branch Oral Endemic FT037t
Asphodelaceae       
Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. Sábila DS, DERS, US Leaf mesophyll Oral, topical application, bath as gel Introduced FT0380
Asteraceae       
Achyrocline hallii Hieron. Lechugilla DS Whole plant Oral Endemic FT0320
Ambrosia arborescens Mill. Marco, altamiso CBS, DERS Branch Topical application, rubbing Native FT045MCAT
Aequatorium jamesonii (S.F. Blake) C. Jeffrey Guangalo CBS Branch Rubbing Endemic FT003ML
Ageratum conyzoides L. Pedorrera DS Branch Oral Introduced FT0286
Ambrosia peruviana Willd. Marco, altamiso CBS Branch Rubbing Native ML005
Aristeguietia persicifolia (Kunth) R.M. King & H. Rob. Ishpingo, monte de la culebra CBS Branch Rubbing Endemic FTG164
Artemisia sodiroi Hieron. Ajenjo, alcanfor CBS, RS Branch Gargles, rubbing Native FT002MZ
Baccharis genistelloides (Lam.) Pers. Tres filos CS, HS Branch Oral Native FT1013
Baccharis latifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers. Chilca larga CBS Branch Rubbing Native FT0288
Baccharis obtusifolia Kunth Chilca redonda CBS Branch Rubbing Native FT0208
Bidens triplinervia Kunth Ñachig GS Plant without root Oral Native FT1008
Chuquiraga jussieui J.F. Gmel. Chuquiragua CS, MS Inflorescence Oral Native FT0318
Cynara cardunculus L. Alcachofa HS Fruit Oral Introduced FT0289
Matricaria recutita L. Manzanilla DERS, DS, GD, MS, RS Plant without root Cleaning wounds, gargles Introduced FT0014t
Tagetes erecta L. Arrayosa CBS Branch, flower Rubbing Introduced FT043MCAT
Tagetes filifolia Lag. Anís DS Whole plant Oral Native FT0987
Tagetes sp. Chil chil CBS Branch Rubbing Native FT0092Q
Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch. Bip. Santa María CBS Branch Rubbing, warm bath Introduced FT1195
Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. Diente de león DS, US Whole plant Oral Introduced FT0029t
Boraginaceae       
Borago officinalis L. Borraja RS Flower, leaf Oral Introduced FT011MAL
Symphytum officinale L. Consuelda, suelda suelda MS Leaf Hot bath, oral, poultice Introduced FT1248
Brassicaceae       
Cardamine bonariensis Pers. Berro CS Plant without root Oral Native FT0003N
Lepidium thurberi Wooton Chichira GS Plant without root Oral Native FT1249
Matthiola incana (L.) W.T. Aiton Alelí NS Flower Oral Introduced and cultivated FT1250
Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek Berro CS Plant without root Oral Introduced FT22t9
Bromeliaceae       
Guzmania sp. Clavelito de aire NS Leaf Oral Native FT001MALA
Tillandsia straminea Kunth. Flor de Cristo NS Flower Oral Native FT1066
Burseraceae       
Bursera graveolens (Kunth) Triana & Planch. Palo santo DERS, MS, GS Wood Bath, incense Native FT961
Cactaceae       
Trichocereus macrogonus (Salm-Dyck) Riccob. San Pedrillo CBS Vascular tissue Topical application, Oral Native FT984
Campanulaceae       
Lobelia cf. decurrens Cav. Cholo valiente CBS Branch Topical application Introduced and cultivated FT1186
Cannaceae       
Canna indica L. Achira DG, NS, RS Leaf Topical application Native FT1251
Caprifoliaceae       
Sambucus nigra L. Tilo NS, RS Flower Oral Introduced FT1252
Caryophyllaceae       
Dianthus caryophyllus L. Clavel GS, NS Flower Oral Introduced FT1253
Chenopodiaceae       
Chenopodium album L. Palitaria MS Leaf Rubbing Introduced FT1254
Commelinaceae       
Callisia gracilis (Kunth) D.R. Hunt Cachorillo GD Leaf Oral Native FT1255
Callisia repens (Jacq.) L. Calcha CS, RS Leaf Oral Native FT51MPAT
Tradescantia zebrina Heynh. ex Bosse Calcha CS, NS, RS Leaf Topical application, oral Introduced FT30t
Crassulaceae       
Kalanchoe gastonis-bonnieri Raym.-Hamet & H. Perrier. Dulcamara, mala madre DS, GD Leaf Oral Introduced FT1024
Cucurbitaceae       
Cucurbita pepo L. Sambo DERS Latex Topical application Introduced FT1256
Cyperaceae       
Cyperus sp. Díctamo real CS, MS Root Oral Native FT1062
Equisetaceae       
Equisetum bogotense Kunth Cola de caballo, caballo chupa DS, GD, US Plant without root Oral Native FT031t
Equisetum giganteum L. Cola de caballo, caballo chupa US Plant without root Oral Native FT1009
Ericaceae       
Bejaria aestuans Mutis ex L. Payama GD Flower Oral Native FT1257
Bejaria resinosa Mutis ex L. f. Payama GD Flower Oral Native FTE012
Euphorbiaceae       
Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (Mill.) I.M. Johnst. Chaya CS, DS, GD Leaf Oral Native FT221
 Fabaceae       
Amicia glandulosa Kunth Nona, urusus RS Flower Oral Native HUTPL1975
Desmodium molliculum (Kunth) DC. San Antonio GS Plant without root Oral Native FT38MPAT
Myroxylon balsamum (L.) Harms Chaquino DS, GD Bark Oral Native FT998
Otholobium mexicanum (L. f.) J.W. Grimes Guallua DS Branch Oral Native FT1022
Gentianaceae       
Centaurium erythraea Rafn Canchalagua CS Whole plant Oral Introduced FT1016
Geraniaceae       
Erodium cf. cicutarium (L.) L'Hér. ex Aiton Agujilla, aujilla CBS, GD Branch Oral Introduced FTE001MC
Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér. ex. Aiton Esencia de rosa DS, GD, US Leaf Oral Introduced FT1258
Pelargonium odoratissimum (L.) L´Hér. Malva olorosa DS, GD Branch Oral Introduced FT016t
Juglandaceae       
Juglans neotropica Diels Nogal CS, MS Leaf Hot bath, oral Native FT015MPA
 Lamiaceae       
Clinopodium nubigenum (Kunth) Kuntze Tipo de llano DS, RS Plant without root Oral Native FT1014
Clinopodium taxifolium (Kunth) Govaerts Tipo de cerro DS, RS Branch Oral Native FT1259
Hyptis purdiei Benth. Poleo cerro, poleo negro CBS Branch Rubbing Native FT048 MCAT
Melissa officinalis L. Toronjil CBS, NS, RS Leaf Oral Introduced FT45MPAT
Mentha spicata L. Hierba buena, menta, menta negra DS, RS Leaf Oral Introduced FT1260
Mentha x piperita L. Hierba buena, menta, menta negra DS, RS Leaf Oral Introduced FT1261
Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb. Poleo blanco, poleo chiquito CBS, RS Branch Inhalation, oral, rubbing Native HUTPL1076
Ocimum basilicum L. Albahaca, albahaca blanca GS, US Leaf Oral Introduced FT46TMPA
Ocimum campechianum Mill. Albahaca, albahaca negra GS, US Leaf Oral Native FT46aMPA
Origanum × majoricum Camb. Orégano, orégano de castilla DS Plant without root Oral Introduced HUTPL5302
Plectranthus unguentarius Codd Oreganón, orégano grande DS Leaf Oral Introduced FT0185
Rosmarinus officinalis L. Romero DERS, MS, SS Branch Bath after childbirth, cleaning wounds, oral Introduced HUTPL3892
Salvia scutellarioides Kunth Matico CBS Branch Rubbing Native HUTPL931
Salvia tiliifolia Vahl Santa María CBS Plant without root Rubbing Introduced FT044MCAT
Scutellaria sp. Morado NS Leaf Oral Native FT003
Thymus vulgaris L. Tomillo DS Plant without root Oral Introduced FT1067
 Linaceae       
Linum usitatissimum L. Linaza DS, GD, US Seed Oral Introduced FT47TMPA
Loranthaceae       
Gaiadendron punctatum (Ruiz & Pav.) G. Don Violeta de cerro, violeta de campo RS Flower Oral Native FT0032
 Malvaceae       
Alcea rosea L. Malva GD Flower Oral Introduced HUTPL891
Malva arborea (L.) Webb & Berthel. Malva rosada, malva altea GD, US Branch Oral Introduced and cultivated FT042MC
Malva parviflora L. Malva arbórea, malva blanca GD, GS, US Branch, flower Oral, bath after childbirth, cleaning wounds Introduced FT015MCE
Moraceae       
Ficus carica L. Higo GS Leaf Oral Introduced HUTPL 1192
Myricaceae       
Morella parvifolia (Benth.) Parra-Os. Laurel, laurel de cera CBS, GS Branch Oral Native FT1207
Morella pubescens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Wilbur Laurel, laurel de cera GS Branch Oral Native FT1023
Myrtaceae       
Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson Eucalipto oloroso, eucalipto aromático CBS, RS Branch Inhalation, oral, rubbing Introduced HUTPL 1761
Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Eucalipto blanco, eucalipto grande CBS, RS Branch Inhalation, oral, rubbing Introduced FT1185
Myrcianthes hallii (O. Berg) McVaugh Arrayán RS Leaf Oral Native FT215G
Psidium guajava L. Guayaba DS Fruit Oral Native FT171C
Onagraceae       
Fuchsia harlingii Munz Pena pena NS Flower Oral Endemic HUTPL5784
Fuchsia hybrida hort. T. ex Siebert & Voss Pena pena DERS, GD, NS Flower Cleaning wounds, oral Introduced FT1262
Fuchsia loxensis Kunth Pena pena NS Flower Oral Endemic FT1158
Fuchsia magellanica Lam. Pena pena NS Flower Oral Introduced FT0147
Ludwigia nervosa (Poir.) H. Hara Flor de reina, mejorana de huerta DERS, GD, NS Flower Oral, bath after childbirth Native FT194
Oenothera rosea L'Her. ex Aiton Shullo DS, US Plant without root Oral Native FT53MPAT
Orchidaceae       
Epidendrum jamiesonis Rchb. f. Flor de Cristo NS Flower Oral Native FT1063
Epidendrum sp. Flor de Cristo NS Flower Oral Native FT031t
Piperaceae       
Peperomia blanda (Jacq.) Kunth Sacha congona NS Plant without root Oral Native FT008
Peperomia galioides Kunth Congona de cerro NS Plant without root Oral Native FT124SAR
Peperomia ilaloensis Sodiro Congona de castilla, congona negra NS, SS Plant without root Topical application, oral Native FT01t
Peperomia inaequalifolia Ruiz & Pav. Congona, congona grande NS, SS Plant without root Topical application, oral Native FT1197
Peperomia sp. Congona de cerro CBS Plant without root Rubbing Native FT49MPAT
Piper aduncum L. Matico DERS, DS, GS, GD Branch Oral Native FT1019
Piper carpunya Ruiz & Pav. Guaviduca de sal HS, RS, GD Leaf Oral Native FT500
Piper crassinervium Kunth Guaviduca de dulce HS, RS Leaf Oral Native FT237
Plantaginaceae       
Plantago major L. Llantén US, GD Whole plant Oral Introduced FT13t
Poaceae       
Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf Hierba luisa, paja luisa CS, NS, US Plant without root Oral Introduced FT011t
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Grama dulce CBS, US, GD Plant without root Oral Introduced FT008MCE
Zea mays L. Pelo de choclo US Style Oral Introduced FT1065
Polygalaceae       
Polygala paniculata L. Mentol MS Whole plant Poultice Native FT20t
Polypodiaceae       
Niphidium crassifolium (L.) Lellinger Calaguala DS, US Root Oral Native FT40T
Proteaceae       
Oreocallis grandiflora (Lam.) R. Br. Cucharillo CBS, HS, US, GD Flower Oral Native FT04t
Pteridaceae       
Adiantum poiretii Wikstr. Culantrillo pata negra GS Leaf Oral Native FT1018
Adiantum raddianum C. Presl Culantrillo GS, US, GD Leaf Oral Native MCELI35-T
Cheilanthes bonariensis (Willd.) Proctor. Helecho congona GS Leaf Oral, bath after childbirth Native MPA52T
Jamesonia sp. Nido de abeja GS Leaf Oral Native FT010
Notholaena sulphurea (Cav.) J. Sm. Grano de oro GS Leaf Bath after childbirth, oral Native FT009
Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link Doradilla del sol GS Leaf Bath after childbirth, oral Native FT013
Pityrogramma ebenea (L.) Proctor Doradilla plateada, luna plateada GS Leaf Bath after childbirth, oral Native FT014
Trachypteris induta (Maxon) R.M. Tryon & A.F. Tryon Pata de gallina GS Leaf Oral, bath after childbirth Native FT012
Rosaceae       
Alchemilla aphanoides Mutis ex L. f. Saucillo NS Branch Topical application, oral Native FT007
Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. Níspero, míspero US Leaf Oral Introduced FT1063
Margyricarpus pinnatus (Lam.) Kuntze Perlilla RS, DERS Plant without root Oral Native FT463
Rosa cymosa Tratt. Rosa DERS, GD, SS, US Flower Cleaning wounds, oral Introduced FT274
Sanguisorba minor subsp. muricata (Bonnier & Layens) Briq. Pimpinela NS Leaf Oral Introduced FT014MZ
Rubiaceae       
Cinchona pubescens Vahl Cascarilla RS Bark Oral Native FT118
Rutaceae       
Citrus x junos Siebold ex Tanaka Naranja agria DERS Fruit Oral Introduced FT007t
Ruta graveolens L. Ruda CBS, DS, GS Branch Bath after childbirth, oral, rubbing Introduced FT002
Smilacaceae       
Smilax sp. Zarzaparrilla GD, US Root Oral Native FT1263
Solanaceae       
Brugmansia sanguinea (Ruiz & Pav.) D. Don Guando CBS Flower, leaf Rubbing Native FT028ML
Brugmansia x candida Pers. Guando blanco CBS Flower, leaf Rubbing Native FT210
Cestrum mariquitense Kunth Sauco negro CS, GD Branch Oral, topical application Native FT210
Cestrum racemosum Ruiz & Pav. Sauco blanco CBS, GD Branch Rubbing Native FTS177
Solanum americanum Mill. Mortiño DS, GD, NS, RS Branch, bud Oral, warm bath Native FT36t
Solanum nigrescens M. Martens & Galeotti Mortiño DS, NS, RS Bud Oral Native FT1264
Solanum pimpinellifolium L. Monte del gallinazo CBS Branch Rubbing Native FT207
Tiliaceae       
Triumfetta semitriloba Jacq. Abrojo, cadillo, mostrante GD, US Leaf Oral Native FT39T
Urticaceae       
Urtica dioica L. Chine CS, MS, US, Plant without root Oral, rubbing Introduced FT1064
Urtica urens L. Chine CS, MS, US Plant without root Oral, rubbing Introduced FT275
Valerianaceae       
Valeriana microphylla Kunth Valeriana, valeriana de cerro NS Plant without root Oral Native FT1015
Valeriana pyramidalis Kunth Valeriana NS Root Oral Native FT991
Verbenaceae       
Aloysia triphylla Royle Cedrón NS Branch Oral Native FT1265
Phyla scaberrima (A. Juss. ex Pers.) Moldenke Buscapina, novalgina DS Plant without root Oral Introduced FT1240
Verbena litoralis Kunth. Verbena CBS, GD Branch Oral, rubbing Native FT1268
Violaceae       
Viola odorata L. Violeta, violeta de jardín RS Flower, leaf Oral Introduced FT1266
Viola tricolor L. Pensamiento DERS, GD, RS Flower Cleaning wounds, oral Introduced FT1267
Zingiberaceae       
Hedychium coronarium J. Koening Caña agria US Stem Oral Introduced FT002t
  1. aMedical category: CBS Culture-bound syndromes, CS Circulatory system, DERS Dermatological system, DS Digestive system, GD General disorders, GS Gynecological system, HS: Hormonal system, MS Musculoskeletal system, NS Nervous system, RS Respiratory system, SS Sensorial system, US: Urinary system